1. Mixtures - physical blends of 2 or more kinds of matter each of which retains its own properties, 95% of all things in the universe are mixtures
a. homogeneous mixture - uniform in composition
1) ex: salt water, inks
2). SOLUTIONS are a uniform mix of two or more substances which are NOT chemically bonded and each component retains it original identity and properties - ----usually in liquid form!
b. heterogeneous not uniform throughout,
1) ex: chocolate chip cookie, trail mix
B. Parts of a solution
1. A solution is a mixture of different substances that are evenly distributed throughout. It can be between any two phases of matter.
2. Contains two parts: Solute and Solvent
a. Solute- is the thing being dissolved: solid into liquid, or the
substance depending on the mixture.
b. Solvent – the dissolving medium : The liquid, or larger amount of liquid or solid depending on the mixture.
solute solvent smaller amount
Which is the solute in a mixture of 10 mL HCl and 90 mLWater?
The solute is the lesser amount so it’s the HCl!
C. Solutions are mixtures and depend on particle size.
1. Solutions- homogeneous mixtures where the particles are so small that they are not visible.
They can be separated by boiling but not by filters.
a.Ex. Salt water, Gatorade, Vinegar.
2. Colloids - homogeneous mixtures with intermediate sized particles – barely visible but definitely there- These particles are suspended , spread & reflect light ( Tyndall effect ), and can be separated by good filters.
a. Ex: Hair gel, Jello, and Foggy nights
These are NOT solutions!!!
3. Suspensions- heterogeneous mixtures with larger particles easily separated and will settle out of solution if the suspension sits long enough.
a. Ex: Muddy water, sand, blood.
These are NOT solutions!!
. Water and Electrolytes
1. Water is called the universal solvent because of the large number of materials that dissolve in it.
The basis for this behavior is water’s polarity--- one end is slightly more negative & the other end is slightly more positive
2. Ionic solutes dissolve easiest in water- break apart into ions.
a. Electrolytes are ionic compounds that break apart into ions and conduct electricity.
1) Ex: salt, HCl
b. Non-electrolytes dissolve as molecules and do not conduct electricity.
1)Ex: Sugar, honey
Like dissolves Like
3. Nonpolar or Covalent compounds typically do not dissolve in water.
Oils, paints, or grease don’t easily dissolve in water because they are so different from water