Notes Solubility1
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    Notes Solubility1 Notes Solubility1 Presentation Transcript

    • Matter, Solutions, & Solubility
    • I. Phases of Matter
      • The main differences in solids, liquids and gases is:
        • how close their particles are,
      • the speed of the particles &
      • type of motion
      • B. kinetic molecular theory – particles of matter are in constant motion & the speed of the particles increases w/ increased temp
      • 1. In solids, the particles are very close together, touching each other and packed tightly enough that the particles cannot move at all except to rotate on their axes & vibrate.
      • a. SOLIDS - have definite shape and definite volume
      • *usually HIGH density
      • *expands only slightly when heated
      • * almost incompressible because particles are packed very close together.
      • Crystalline - repeating geometric pattern
        • covalent network
        • metallic
        • ionic
        • covalent molecular
      • Amorphous - no geometric pattern
      decreasing m.p.
    • Types of Solids Ionic (NaCl) Metallic
      • 2. In liquids , the particles touch each other constantly but can slide past each other as the liquid FLOWS.
      • a. LIQUIDS –
      • *have definite volume but not definite shape
      • *usually SLIGHTLY less dense than solids
      • *expand more than solids when heated
      • *almost incompressible;
      • *takes the shape of its container
      • *flows – viscosity refers to how quickly or slowly a fluid flows or changes
      • shape
    • B. Liquid Properties
      • Surface Tension
        • attractive force between particles in a liquid that minimizes surface area
    • Liquid Properties
      • Capillary Action
        • attractive force between the surface of a liquid and the surface of a solid – paper towels!
      water mercury
      • 3. In gases , the particles are completely independent and do not touch each other continually.
      • b. GASES - have no definite shape & no definite volume
      • *very LOW density
      • *expand greatly when heated
      • *highly compressible
      • *take the shape of the container
      • *flow
      • *particles are completely independent and do not touch each other except
      • when they bump into each other.
      • 4. phase changes
      • a. melting/freezing – solid to liquid & liquid to solid
      • b. boiling/condensating—liquid to gas gas to liquid
      • c. sublimation/deposition—solid to gas & gas to solid
    • Liquids vs. Solids
      • LIQUIDS
      • Stronger than in gases
      • Y
      • high
      • N
      • slower than in gases
      • SOLIDS
      • Very strong
      • N
      • high
      • N
      • extremely slow
      IMF Strength Fluid Density Compressible Diffusion
    • Hydrogen Bonding
      • Intermolecular forces
      • of attraction between
      • molecules
      • Bonds exist within
      • molecules
      Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 442
    • Water is an exception to the rule! Water becomes more dense as it gets colder UNTIL it reaches 4  C – it is MOST dense at 4  C. As it gets colder (3  C & lower) it expands & so gets less dense. That is why ice floats in water!