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### Physics

1. 1. Waves, Optics, Oscillation, and Gravitation By: Charnae’ Kearney and Andy Hurst 
2. 2. Traveling Wave <ul><li>Any kind of wave which propagates in a single direction with negligible change in shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling waves are observed when a wave is not confined to a given space along the medium. The most commonly observed traveling wave is an ocean wave </li></ul>
3. 3. Traveling and Standing Waves <ul><li>An important class of traveling waves is plane waves in air which create standing waves in rectangular enclosures such as ``shoebox'' shaped concert halls. </li></ul><ul><li>Standing waves don't go anywhere, but they do have regions where the disturbance of the wave is quite small, almost zero. These locations are called nodes. There are also regions where the disturbance is quite intense, greater than anywhere else in the medium, called antinodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Standing waves don't go anywhere, but they do have regions where the disturbance of the wave is quite small, almost zero. These locations are called nodes. There are also regions where the disturbance is quite intense, greater than anywhere else in the medium, called antinodes. </li></ul>
4. 4. Wave Propagation <ul><li>Any of the waves that waves travel </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to the direction of the oscillation relative to the propagation direction, we can distinguish between longitudinal wave and transverse waves. </li></ul><ul><li>For electromagnetic waves, propagation may occur in a vacuum as well as in a material medium. Most other wave types cannot propagate through vacuum and need a transmission medium to exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Another useful parameter for describing the propagation is the wave velocity that mostly depends on some kind of density of the medium. </li></ul>
5. 5. Principle of Superposition <ul><li>The regions where they overlap, the resultant displacement is the algebraic sum of their separate displacements. </li></ul>
6. 6. Simple Harmonic Motion <ul><li>Regular, repeated, friction-free motion in which the restoring force has the mathematical form F= -kx </li></ul><ul><li>Common examples: mass on a spring and a pendulum </li></ul><ul><li>The word “harmonic” refers to the motion being sinusoidal, it is “simple” when there is pure sinusoidal motion of a single frequency </li></ul><ul><li>As an object vibrates in harmonic motion, energy is transferred between potential and kinetic energy. </li></ul>
7. 7. Mass on a Spring <ul><li>When it vibrates it has both a period and a frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Restoring force – the force trying to restore it (mass on a spring) back towards the center of the oscillation </li></ul>
8. 8. Pendulum <ul><li>A mass on the end of a string which oscillates in harmonic motion </li></ul><ul><li>T= 2 π√ L/G </li></ul><ul><li>L is the length of the pendulum </li></ul><ul><li>G is the acceleration due to gravity </li></ul>
9. 9. Newton’s Law of Gravity <ul><li>Every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. </li></ul><ul><li>F= G m 1 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>r ² </li></ul>                  , F is the force between the masses, G is the gravitational constant, m 1 is the first mass, m 2 is the second mass, and r is the distance between the masses.
10. 10. Newton’s Law of Gravity Contin. <ul><li>Gravitation is a UNIVERSAL force between all objects in the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>The force on the Earth of moon was identical to the force of the Earth on the apple. </li></ul>
11. 11. Circular Orbits of Planets & Satellites <ul><li>As a satellite orbits the earth, it is pulled toward the earth with a gravitational force which is acting as a centripetal force. The inertia of the satellite causes it to tend to follow a straight-line path, but the centripetal gravitational force pulls it toward the center of the orbit. </li></ul><ul><li>If a satellite of mass m moves in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M , we can set the centripetal force equal to the gravitational force and solve for the speed of the satellite orbiting at a particular distance r : </li></ul>
12. 12. General Orbits of Planets & Satellites <ul><li>Elliptical Motion: </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler’s Law of Planetary Motion </li></ul><ul><li>The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci. </li></ul><ul><li>A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit </li></ul>