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Pscc slides p1
Pscc slides p1
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Pscc slides p1

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  • This project introduces many of the basic concepts that will be useful in many (if not all) other Photoshop projects — both in this book and in the professional environment.
    Opening files, managing layers, making selections, and saving files are all vital skills for any Photoshop artist, regardless of specialty. In this project, students will use these foundational skills to create a complete ad layout for print applications.
    Although many people would argue against creating a project such as this ad entirely in Photoshop, some people do create entire layouts in the application.
    While we primarily agree that overall layout is generally better suited to a layout application, the concept of page geometry requirements is also important if a designer is simply trying to create, for example, a full-page background image that will be placed into a page-layout file.
    Many novice designers don’t realize that a letter-size ad (for example) must actually be 8.75˝ x 11.25˝ to accommodate bleed requirements. We include this discussion in this project so that students will be able to create files at the appropriate size to meet print output requirements, whether created entirely in Photoshop or for placement into another application.
  • Any designer who works with Photoshop — especially for print applications — needs to understand two foundational principles: the difference between raster images and vector graphics, and the concept of resolution.
    Most work in Photoshop will involve raster images; however, the application can also manage vectors on special layers.
    The issues discussed at the very beginning of Stage 1 are foundational to every file that a student will open or create in Photoshop. We tried to keep the explanation on Pages 23–24 brief, but it is vitally important to understand these issues before diving into any Photoshop project (especially for commercial print applications).
  • Although you don’t need to be an expert on commercial print output, designers should understand the different terms related to resolution.
    One important point is the confusion between DPI and PPI. Although the two are often used interchangeably, this is incorrect. DPI relates to physical output, while PPI is a factor of the file’s data contents.
    Also, keep in mind that LPI is a fixed number determined by the output provider. Designers typically have no input in the LPI for a given job; you need to find out that value and design around it. If unsure, 150 line screen is a safe guess for all but very-high-quality art books and similar projects.
  • Images for print applications need high enough resolution (as a general rule, 300 ppi) for quality output. When images are captured, especially with consumer-level digital cameras, they are often captured at 72 ppi — but with large enough physical sizes so the principle of effective resolution creates “printable” files.
    For example, say a file is captured at 72 ppi and has a physical size of 40˝ x 25˝. The file has a total of 2880 x 1800 pixels, with a file size of 14.8 MB.
    If the image is resized (not resampled) to 25% or 10˝ x 6.25˝, the resolution becomes 288 ppi:
    40 / 4 = 10
    Or, the image is reduced to one-fourth its original size, so:
    72 / 0.25 = 288
    Or, the same number of pixels is squashed into one-fourth of the original space. The file size remains 14.8 MB.
    If the same image is resampled, Photoshop maintains the same 72-ppi resolution over the new size. The total number of pixels in the file is reduced to 720 x 450, and the file size is reduced to 949.2 K.
  • Keep in mind that there is almost always more than one way to accomplish a specific goal. In this case:
    •File>Open presents a system-standard dialog box for opening files.
    •Adobe Bridge makes it easy to review and manage different types of files, including Adobe Photoshop files.
    You should think carefully about your ultimate needs or goals before deciding which method to use in a specific situation. For example, Adobe Bridge provides the user with a great deal of information about the file before it is opened. If you already know a file’s metadata (or don’t care), you can simply open a file in Photoshop without leaving the application UI.
  • The Undo command (Edit>Undo or Command/Control-Z) only steps back to the last single action you completed; after you use the Undo command, it toggles to Redo.
    You can also use the Step Backward command (Edit>Step Backward or Command-Option-Z/Control-Alt-Z) to move back in the history one step at a time, or use the History panel to navigate back to earlier stages of your work.
    Every action you take is recorded as a state in the History panel. You can click any state to return to that particular point in the document progression. You can also delete specific states or create a new document from a particular state using the buttons at the bottom of the panel.
    By default, the History panel stores the last 20 states; older states are automatically deleted. You can change that setting in the Performance pane of the Preferences dialog box. Keep in mind, however, that storing a larger number of states will increase the memory required to work with a specific file.
    More detailed information about the History panel is explained on Page 54.
  • Ruler guides can be useful for marking a specific location, as in this project.
    As mentioned at the beginning of this project, designs must adhere to the rules of page geometry. Any element that needs to be printed up to the edge of the page actually needs to extend beyond the edge dimensions by the required bleed allowance.
    In the case of this project, the actual page trim size is 8.5˝ x 11˝ but the printer requires a 1/8˝ bleed allowance. This means the designer must create the file large enough to include the bleed allowance (adding 1/8˝ to each side). The ruler guides mark the actual page edge to make it easier to place design elements within the actual page area.
    Equally important is the live area, which is the area where it is safe to place important design elements. If objects are too close to the trim edge, they might be cut off in the production process. Ruler guides are also useful for marking the live area, making it easier to design within the standards of the production process.
    Ruler guides also make it easier to align layers because they can act as magnetic alignment guides. If content does not easily align to guides when dragging content, choose View>Snap To>Guides to make sure that option is checked (toggled on).
  • When the Crop tool is selected, the Options bar can be used to define the resulting size and resolution of the cropped image.
    For example, if you define the width and height of the crop area as 5˝ x 5˝ at 300 ppi, when you click and drag to draw, the crop area will be restricted to the same proportions defined in the Width and Height fields (in this example, 1:1, or equal height and width).
    Say you draw a crop area that is only 2˝ x 2˝. When you finalize the crop, the resulting area will be resized to be 5˝ x 5˝. This presents a problem if you remember the principles of resolution.
    Enlarging a 2˝ x 2˝ area to 5˝ x 5˝ means the application needs to create enough pixels to fill in the three extra inches — at 300 ppi, Photoshop needs to create (“interpolate”) more than 900 pixels per linear inch. Although Photoshop can slightly enlarge images with reasonable success, such a significant amount of new data will not result in good quality. As a general rule, you should avoid enlarging raster images, and certainly no more than about 10%.
    Complete details about all Crop tool options are explained on Pages 34-35.
  • After drawing the crop area:
    •Click inside the area and drag to reposition. Using the default options, dragging inside the crop area actually moves the image; the crop area remains centered in the document window. You can turn off this behavior by unchecking the Auto Center Preview option in the Set Additional Crop Options menu.
    •Drag any area handle to resize the crop area.
    In the Options bar:
    •Activate the Delete Cropped Pixels checkbox in the Options bar to permanently remove pixels outside the crop area.
    •Uncheck this option to maintain pixels outside the crop area. In this case the cropped pixels remain on their respective layers, simply outside the canvas edge.
    This is an important distinction — turning off the Delete Cropped Pixels allows you to reposition layers to reveal different parts of the layer within the newly cropped canvas size.
    You can use the View menu overlays to preview the crop area according to the Rule of Thirds, with a basic grid, or a variety of other basic design principles.
  • When you copy and paste, the active selection on the active layer is copied. If there is no active selection marquee, the entire active layer is copied. (Dragging one file into another is effectively the same thing as choosing Edit>Paste.)
    In all cases, pasting or placing results in a new layer to contain the new data. The difference is whether the composited content creates a regular layer or a Smart Object layer.
    Again, consider what you want before you decide which method to use. For example:
    If you open (File>Open) a vector file directly in Photoshop, the vector information in the file is automatically rasterized. You can then copy and paste the rasterized data into a different file to composite.
    If you place (File>Place) a vector file into a Photoshop file rather than opening/rasterizing the vector file in Illustrator, you can open and edit the vector information in Illustrator by choosing Edit Contents in the layer name’s contextual menu.
  • If there is no active selection area, clicking and dragging with the Move tool moves the contents of the entire active layer.
    If there is an active selection area, clicking and dragging moves only the contents of the marquee. This presents a potential problem. When you release the mouse button, the dragged contents remain on their original layer. As long as the selection marquee remains active, you can continue to reposition the selected pixels. However, if you deselect the marquee, anything under the area where you moved the original pixels is permanently overwritten.
    If you want to be able to reposition the moved contents at a later time without overwriting pixels of the same layer, it is a better idea to cut the selected area (Edit>Cut), paste it onto a new layer, and then move the new layer. You can also copy the selected contents (Edit>Copy) before pasting; this leaves the selected pixels on the original layer, but also pastes them onto a new layer.
    Whenever you switch tools, always check the Options bar. Many options are “sticky” which means they retain the last-used settings. The Auto-Select option is one of those sticky options. If it is checked when it shouldn’t be, you could inadvertently move the wrong layer.
  • Stage 2 of this project focuses on Photoshop layers, one of the most important issues in the entire application.
    When you composite multiple images into a single file, the pasted or placed images are each added on new layers. If you paste (or drag) contents onto a new layer, the new layers are simply named “Layer 1”, “Layer 2”, and so on. However, once you have more than a few layers, these names can become confusing. Whenever you create something in a digital design file — a layer, a color swatch, or even the actual file — it is always a good idea to use a meaningful name. This makes it much easier to find exactly what so you can work more efficiently.
    Layer groups take the management concept one step farther, because you can combine multiple layers into a single functional unit while still maintaining the individual layers’ autonomy within the group. In other words, you can treat the group as a whole, or you can expand the group to access and affect single layers within the group.
  • Generally speaking, Photoshop offers six types of layers. This project introduces three of those; shape layers, type layers, and adjustment layers will be used in later projects.
    A regular layer is simply a layer that contains pixels; areas that do not include defined pixels are transparent, which allows the content of underlying layers to be visible.
    A Smart Object layer is actually a link to another file. This enables non-destructive editing in the primary file (where the Smart Object layer exists). Changes in the linked file are automatically reflected in the primary file, but changes to the Smart Object layer in the primary file do not affect the actual data in the linked file.
    The background layer exists in any file where you define a background color in the New dialog box, or in a photograph or scan that is captured and then opened in Photoshop. If you remove pixels from the background layer, the defined background color (in the Tools panel) fills in the area of the removed pixels. (Compare this to a regular layer, where removing pixels leaves transparent areas.)
    It is important to understand the function of the background layer compared to a regular layer. Carefully review the notes at the top of Page 52.
  • Smart Object layers allow non-destructive editing of component layers. Remember: Smart Object layers are created whenever you use the File>Place command. If you copy and paste layer content (or drag layer content from one document window to another), the resulting layer is a regular layer.
    Remember: Smart Object layers are actually links to external file data. To open the linked file, double-click the Smart Object layer thumbnail.
    Changes made in the linked file automatically reflect in the master composite file when you save the changes. In this case, you have to use File>Save; if you Save As, you effectively break the link and the changes would not be reflected in the composite file.
    You should also understand that you can convert a regular layer to a Smart Object layer if you want to enable non-destructive effects for a particular layer. Any effects or masks applied to the layer are moved into the Smart Object file; they are no longer listed in the composite file’s Layers panel.
    If necessary, you can also convert a Smart Object layer to a regular layer. In this case, applied effects and masks from the Smart Object file are permanently applied to the resulting regular layer; they can no longer be edited or disabled.
  • Before entering Transformation mode, make sure the correct layer is selected. If there is an active selection marquee, only the selected area will be transformed.
    If you transform a Smart Object layer, the Options bar remembers the original status of the layer. Say you scale a regular layer to 50%; if you finalize the transformation and then re-enter Transformation mode for the same layer, the Options bar shows the layer back at 100% even though you just scaled it down.
    If you apply the same transformation to a Smart Object layer, finalize it, and then re-enter Transformation mode, the Options bar shows the layer still at 50%. Remember, Smart Object layers allow non-destructive editing — which means you can rescale (including scaling back up to, say, 75%) it without losing quality.
    Keep the concept of non-destructive editing in the front of your mind. Maintain original data as long as possible to keep your options open. (Other non-destructive options will be explored in later projects.)
    Also keep in mind that transformations cannot be applied to the background layer. To transform the background layer, you must first convert it to a regular layer by double-clicking the Background layer name, naming the layer, and clicking OK in the New Layer dialog box. Alternately, you can use the Image>Image rotation submenu to affect the Background layer — and all other layers in the file.
  • Some argue that making selections — the focus of Stage 3 of this project — is one of the most important skills you can master in Photoshop. We created this project to demonstrate a number of different methods for creating selections: marquee tools, lasso tools, color-range selection, and quick selection.
    As you work through this and other projects in this book, you might notice that you frequently do the same (or similar) tasks several times in a series of exercises. Remember this important point:
    There is almost always more than one way to accomplish the same task; we often present several related methods in sequential exercises.
    Think carefully about what you need to accomplish before you begin clicking to try to make a selection. For simple rectangle or oval areas, the marquee tools will be sufficient. For more complex selections, other options will be more useful.
    You should make every attempt to master all of the selection options so you can select whatever you need in any given image.
    Keep in mind that you can combine multiple selection tools to make a more complex selection. For example, you might use the Magic Wand tool to select the sky area of an image, then use the Rectangle Marquee tool in Subtract mode to deselect a specific square of the sky.
  • When using a selection tool, always check the Options bar. The New/Add To/Subtract From/Intersect With Selection options are sticky — they remember the last-used option.
    When using the basic New Selection option, you can also use keyboard shortcuts to temporarily change the selection mode:
    • Press Shift to add to the active selection area
    • Press Option/Alt to subtract from the active selection
    • Press Shift-Option/Alt to intersect with the current selection
    When a Marquee tool is selected, you can use the Style menu in the Options bar to force the selection area to a fixed ratio or fixed size.
    Choosing Fixed Size, you can define specific height and width values in the attached fields. Clicking once automatically creates a selection marquee at the defined size.
    Choosing Fixed Ratio, you can define the selection proportions in the attached Height and Width fields. For example, you can force the selection to be 1:2, or exactly half as high as it is wide. Clicking and dragging automatically creates the selection marquee at the defined ratio.
  • The basic Lasso tool works like a pencil, following the path where you drag the mouse.
    The Polygonal Lasso tool creates selections with straight lines, anchoring a line each time you click the mouse. To close a selection area, you must click the first point in the selection.
    The Magnetic Lasso tool snaps to edges of high contrast; you can use the Options bar to control the way Photoshop detects the edges of an image.
    •Width is the distance away from the edge the cursor can be and still detect the edge; if you set this value higher, you can move the cursor farther from the edge.
    •Contrast is how different the foreground can be from the background and still be detected; if there is a very sharp distinction between the foreground and background, you can set this value higher.
    •Frequency is the number of points that will be created to make the selection; setting this number higher creates finer selections, while setting it lower creates smoother edges.
    It isn’t uncommon for a mouse to unexpectedly jump when you don’t want it to — which can be particularly troublesome if you’re drawing a selection with the Polygonal or Magnetic Lasso tools. If you aren’t happy with your Polygonal or Magnetic Lasso selection, press Escape to clear the selection and then try again.
  • Many selection options result in some pixels that are partially selected. For example, pixels at the edge of a feathered selection are partially selected based on the amount of feathering.
    A selection marquee can only show “on or off”; partially selected pixels are not indicated by the marching ants. To preview those areas, you can use Quick Mask mode.
    When Quick Mask mode is active, you can paint directly in the image to modify the selection. Editing in Quick Mask follows the same principles as editing a regular mask.
  • Although color models are not described in depth until Project 3, the information about channels (Page 59) is an important foundation for better understanding how Photoshop manages semi-transparent selections and Alpha channels.
    For now, the important thing to understand is that an Alpha channel stores selections. If you create an Alpha channel, it appears by default as a semi-transparent overlay. You can use the Channels panel Options menu to change the color and opacity of the Alpha channel, as well as whether the channel previews the masked or selected areas.
    When you create a pixel mask on a layer, the mask appears in the Channels panel as a temporary Alpha channel as long as the masked layer is selected; the name appears in italics with the layer’s name (e.g., Layer 1 Mask).
    Quick Mask mode, accessed at the bottom of the Tools panel, is simply a way to view the temporary Alpha channel that is the result of the current selection.
    When working in Quick Mask mode, the quick mask appears in the Channels panel as a temporary Alpha channel, named Quick Mask (in italics). You can choose Duplicate Channel in the Channels panel Options menu to save a quick mask as a permanent Alpha channel.
    In Project 5, students will manually create Alpha and spot color channels.
  • The Quick Selection tool essentially allows you to “paint” a selection. As you drag, the selection expands and automatically finds the edges in the image. If you stop dragging and then click in a nearby area, the selection grows to include the new area.
    After painting the selection, you can use the Refine Edge option to clean up complex edges of the selected area.
  • The Magic Wand tool is an easy way to select large areas of solid color. The first four options in the Options bar are the same as those for the Marquee tools (New Selection, Add to Selection, Subtract from Selection, and Intersect with Selection).
    Tolerance is the degree of variation between the color you click and the colors Photoshop will select; higher tolerance values select a larger range based on the color you click. If you’re trying to select a very mottled background (for example), you should increase the tolerance; be careful, however, because increasing the tolerance might select too large a range of colors if parts of the foreground object fall within the tolerance range.
    The Anti-alias check box, selected by default, allows edges to blend more smoothly into the background, preventing a jagged, stair-stepped appearance.
    When Contiguous is selected, the Magic Wand tool only selects adjacent areas of the color; unchecking this option allows you to select all pixels within the color tolerance, even if some pixels are non-contiguous (for example, inside the shape of the letter Q).
    By default, selections relate to the active layer only. You can check Sample All Layers to make a selection of all layers in the file.
    The Refine Edge button opens a dialog box where you can use a number of tools to fine-tune the selection edge.
  • Deselect turns off the active marquee.
    Reselect reactivates the last-used marquee.
    Inverse selects the opposite of the active area.
    Transform Selection enables the same transformation handles and Options bar options that you use to transform a layer. Only the selection marquee is transformed, not the layer content within the selection.
    Modify>Border converts the active selection marquee to a compound-path selection — as if the marquee was an actual shape and you wanted to select only the edge of that shape. You can define the number of pixels that represent that border.
    Modify>Smooth simplifies the selection path by removing points along the path where segments are less than a defined length.
    Modify>Expand enlarges the selection area by a defined number of pixels in all directions.
    Modify>Contract reduces the selection area by a defined number of pixels in all directions.
    Modify>Feather softens the selection edge to create a semi-transparent graded selection that is a defined number of pixels in from the edge of the original selection area.
  • It’s always a good idea to experiment with the settings in dialog boxes such as Color Range. The Selection Preview makes it easy to see the result before closing the dialog box.
    •None shows the normal image in the document window.
    •Grayscale shows the entire image in shades of gray; selected areas are white and unselected areas are black.
    •Black Matte shows unselected areas in solid black; selected areas appear in color.
    •White Matte shows unselected areas in solid white; selected areas appear in color.
    •Quick Mask adds a partially transparent overlay to unselected areas.
    You can use the Localized Color Clusters option to restrict the selection to areas of color within the defined range (for example, selecting only one jellyfish from an aquarium full of them).
    Fuzziness is similar to the Tolerance setting for the Magic Wand tool. Higher Fuzziness values allow you to select more variation from the color you click. Be careful, though, since higher fuzziness can eliminate fine lines and detail.
    When you use a higher Fuzziness setting, you might end up with too large a selection area. Rather than resampling a different color entirely, you can use the Add to Sample or Subtract from Sample eyedroppers to change the selected color range.
  • The View options change how an image appears in the document window while the dialog box is open.
    •Marching Ants shows the basic standard selection.
    •Overlay shows unselected areas with a Quick Mask overlay.
    •On Black shows the selection in color against a black background.
    •On White shows the selection in color against a white background.
    •Black & White shows the selection area in white and the unselected area in black.
    •On Layers shows only the selected area; unselected areas are hidden.
    •Reveal Layer shows the entire layer, with no visual indication of the selection.
    The dialog box offers a number of edge adjustments, basically combining selection options that are available in a number of other places. (These options are described in detail on Page 72.)
    The Output To menu can be used to create a new layer or file, with or without a mask, from the selection.
  • Masks hide certain areas of a layer, but do not permanently remove pixels from a layer. Masks can be turned on or off, and edited to change the visible layer area without affecting the actual layer content.
    Pixel masks determine the visibility of individual pixels on the layer. Vector masks determine visibility based on a defined vector shape.
    When a mask is applied to a layer, you can use the Properties panel to edit the mask.
    Other options related to masks are explored in other projects. The basic concept is simply introduced here as a way to nondestructively remove elements from a layer.
  • A mask is a non-destructive method for hiding certain parts of a layer.
    • Black areas in the mask hide underlying pixels.
    • White areas in the mask reveal underlying areas.
    • Shades of gray in the mask represent pixels that will be partially visible.
    By default, the mask is linked to the layer where it exists. This means that the layer and the mask move together if you drag either with the Move tool. If you click the linked chain between the layer thumbnail and the mask thumbnail, you can move one independently of the other. (You can always click the empty space between the thumbnails to re-link the layer and its mask.)
    To edit an existing mask, you have to select the actual mask thumbnail rather than the entire layer. Small brackets around the thumbnail corners indicate whether the layer or the mask is selected.
    It is important to realize that the Properties panel allows non-destructive editing of the mask edge. If you use the panel’s feather option rather than painting with a soft-edge brush, for example, you can change the amount of feathering — or even remove the feathering entirely — at any point.
    As you move through the projects in this book, students should notice the recurring theme of “non-destructive”. You should point this out as an important element of maintaining creative flexibility throughout the entire workflow.
  • The most important consideration when painting on a mask is the color you paint with. The Foreground Color swatch in the Tools panel is the color that will be painted:
    • Painting with black hides underlying areas
    • Painting with white reveals underlying areas
    • Painting with gray creates semi-transparent areas
    When a layer mask is selected, the default Foreground and Background colors are automatically white and black (respectively). If you reset the colors, you can easily press X to switch between white and black as you paint on the mask.
    You can use any of the painting tools to affect a pixel mask. When you select the Brush tool, you can change the brush settings in the Brush Preset panel (in the Options bar). Although brushes are explained in depth in Project 7, the key concepts at this point are brush size and hardness.
    • Larger brush sizes cover more area at once; smaller brushes can paint in finer detail.
    • Reduced hardness creates a soft-edge brush stroke; when painting on a mask, this creates shades of gray in the mask — which creates partially transparent areas on the masked layer.
  • Stage 4 examines the most common options for saving a file that will be used in a print application.
    In general, you should always maintain the original native PSD file in case you later need to make changes. If you need to save other formats for specific applications (such as the printer who requires a TIFF file), keep the original PSD file in a safe place as the master file.
    Although the native Photoshop format is gaining popularity as an output format, the TIFF format will continue to be widely used for at least the near term.
    The JPEG format is very popular because the format compresses data into smaller files. However, the compression scheme is lossy — it throws away data — so it can result in loss of quality as well as file size. Most print production personnel discourage the use of JPEG files in print design.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Project 1: Composite Movie Ad Compositing images and artwork Managing layers Creating complex selections Saving Photoshop files for print Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 2. Types of Images Vector graphics: – Mathematically based – Scaled without loss of quality Raster images: – Pixel based – Resolution determined when created/captured Line art: – Special type of raster image with only black and white pixels Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 3. Resolution Pixels per inch (PPI) – Number of pixels in a linear inch – Fixed when file is created/captured Dots per inch (DPI) – Number of spots created by an output device Lines per inch (LPI) – Number of lines of dots created in a halftone screen Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 4. Effective Resolution Factor physical size with resolution – Resizing – Resampling Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 5. Opening Files File>Open (Command/Control-O) Double-click in Adobe Bridge Using any method: – Shift to select multiple contiguous files – Command/Control to select multiple noncontiguous files Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 6. History panel Stores actions since the file was opened Undo multiple steps Performance preferences: change the number of stored actions Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 7. Document Rulers & Guides View>Rulers Change default units of measurement: – Units & Rulers preferences dialog box – Either ruler’s contextual menu Drag guides from either ruler Create specific guides using View>New Guide Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 8. Crop tool Options bar – Define size and resolution of cropped image before drawing the crop area Front Image: – Use original file size as the height/width and resolution Clear: – Draw a crop area without changing the size or resolution of the resulting cropped image Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 9. Crop tool (cont’d) Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 10. Compositing Layers Copy & Paste = new layer Drag from another window = new layer File>Place = new Smart Object layer Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 11. Move tool Move the selected layer Move selected contents on the active layer Auto-Select option: – No need to first select target layer before dragging – The layer containing the pixel you click is moved Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 12. Layer Basics Descriptive names – “Storm” is better than “Layer 1” – Only used internally; can be anything you want – Grouping for easier management Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 13. Types of Layers Adjustment layer Type layer Shape layer Smart Object layer Regular layer Background layer Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 14. Smart Object Layers Link to data external from the primary Photoshop file Allow non-destructive editing, effects, and transformation Editing: – Double-click icon to open linked file – Use File>Save Layer contextual menu: – Convert to Smart Object – Rasterize Layer Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 15. Transforming Layers Edit>Transform or Edit>Free Transform (Command/Control-T) Drag transformation handles Options bar = specific numeric transformation Can’t be applied to the Background layer Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 16. Making Selections Marquee tools Lasso tools Magic Wand tool Quick Selection tool Select menu options Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 17. Marquee tools Click and drag to select a basic-shape area Rectangle, Oval, Single Row, or Single Column Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 18. Lasso tools Click and drag to create a freeform selection Polygonal Lasso tool – Click to create points – Points automatically connect to create a straight-edged selection Magnetic Lasso tool – Click and drag near edges to snap selection marquee to areas of high contrast in the image Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 19. Quick Mask Mode Activated at the bottom of the Tools panel Semi-transparent overlay of the active selection Lighter shades in the quick mask indicate partially selected pixels Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 20. Channels panel One channel for each primary color – Red, Green, and Blue in RGB – Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black in CMYK Turn individual channels on and off Manage Alpha and Spot channels Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 21. Quick Selection tool Click and drag to “paint” a selection Area expands to apparent edges in the image Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 22. Magic Wand tool Click to select areas within defined color tolerance Contiguous limits the selection to areas that touch the spot where you click Sample All Layers bases selection on all layers in the file Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 23. Select Menu Options Deselect Reselect Inverse Transform Selection Modify> – – – – – Border Smooth Expand Contract Feather Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 24. Select>Color Range Make complex selections based on layer content Click to define the color of the initial selection Fuzziness increases the tolerance of the selection area (away from the original color selection) Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 25. Refine Edge Dialog box interface for fine-tuning edges of a selection area Basically Combines several other techniques into a single interface Define the type of output (selection, mask, layer, file) Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 26. Layer Masks Non-destructive – Enable or Disable without affecting actual layer pixels – No longer nondestructive once permanently Applied Black areas hide underlying pixels White areas reveal underlying pixels Shades of gray partially reveal pixels to blend edges Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 27. Editing Masks Mask icon is linked to the layer icon Select mask thumbnail to paint on the mask Paint directly on a mask with a brush Edit mask settings with the Properties panel Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 28. Editing Masks (cont’d) Paint with black to hide areas Paint with white to reveal areas Paint with soft-edge brush to create feathered edges or Paint with hard-edge brush and then use the Properties panel to feather Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio
    • 29. File Formats PSD – Native, work-in-progress format – Placement in later versions of other apps TIFF – Common for high-res file submission – Supports layers – No compression/data loss JPEG – Common for low-res file transfer – Doesn’t support layers – Uses lossy data compression Adobe Photoshop CC: The Professional Portfolio

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