Vocab for digital portfolio


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Vocab for digital portfolio

  1. 1. Chapters 1-11 Vocabulary 1.) Civics: is the study of the rights and duties of citizens. Sentence: The majority of high school students take civics and economics in high school to learn more about their rights and duties before they go out into the real world. 2) Citizenship: The right of being someone of common wealth or state in a society Sentence: Immigrants must earn their citizenship before being allowed to stay in America for a permanent amount of time. 3.) Citizens: a legally recognized subject or national of a state or common wealth. Sentence: Citizens are the life blood of a country, without them their is no country. Difference: Immigrant 4.) Service Economy: A service economy is one where providing services is more prevalent than manufacturing goods. Sentence: In America more and more people are leaving the factors for service jobs, fueling a Service economy. 5.) Values: the general principles, or beliefs, you use to make judgments. Sentence: Every person has their own set of values that help to govern the life they live. Similarity Morals 6.) Popular Sovereignty: government by consent of the governed. Difference: Dictatorship 7.) Institutions: sets of ideas that people have about relationships, obligations, roles, and functions. Sentence: When a person gets a degree from college they are receiving a certificate from a recognized professional institution. 8.) Naturalization: the process by which foreign born people become citizens of another country. Sentence: Ian the immigrant came to america and applied for citizenship and went under the process of naturalization to do so. Difference: Deportation 9.) Alien: A non-american living in America under certain pretenses such as school or work. Not permanent Sentence: Illegal aliens if found will be deported back to their country of origin. 10.) Immigrants: people who move permanently to a new country. Difference: Aliens 11.) Deport: forcibly sending someone back to their own country. Sentence: Every day illegal aliens worry they will be deported back to their own country.Gatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  2. 2. 12.) Government: the ruling authority got a community or society. Sentence: The United States and many other European nations have Democratic Governments, meaning they live where the people are in charge of who runs the government. Difference: Anarchy 13.) Public Policy: course of action for a government to reach the goals of the community or society. Sentence: Dictatorships have very low regard for public policy as they have total control over life. 14.) Budget: a plan for collecting and spending money Sentence: The president at his yearly state of the union address addresses the following years budget. 15.) Democracy: a government where the whole civilization takes active part in how the country is ran. sentence: The united states has been classified as a Democratic Government since after the secession from Great Britain. 16.) Enlightenment- a cultural movement 17.) Monarch- Ruled by king or queen 18.) Legislature- a lawmaking body 19.) Precedent- a ruling in an earlier case that was similar 20.) Common Law- rests on court decisions rather than regulations written by lawmakers 21.) Natural Rights- rights the government cannot take away 22.) Social Contract- an agreement among the people in a society 23.) Colony- a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere 24.) Joint-Stock Company- provided investors partial ownership and a share in future profits 25.) Charter- a written document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments 26.) Compact- an agreement, or contract, among a group of peopleGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  3. 3. 27.) Proprietary Colony- the owner, or proprietor, owned the land and controlled the government 28.) Royal Colony- owned and ruled directly by the king 29.) Religious Dissenters- those who followed a faith other than the official religion of England, the Anglican religion 30.) Puritans- founders of Massachusetts, wanted to reform, or purify, the Anglican Church 31.) Pilgrims- or people on a religious journey 32.) Toleration- Acceptance of other religions 33.) Indentured Servant- Made it possible for poor people to come to the colonies 34.) Plantation- Large estate 35.) Triangular Trade- the pattern of trade that developed among the Americas, Africa, and Europe 36.) Tidewater- areas of flat, low plains, near the seacoast of Virginia and North Carolina 37.) Egalitarianism- equality 38.) Mercantilism- the theory that a countryʼs power depends on its wealth 39.) Boycott- refuse to buy 40.) Repeal- cancelled 41.) Delegate- Representatives 42.) Independence- self reliance and freedom from outside control 43.) Constitution- Written plan for government 44.) Bicameral- Divided into two parts, or houses 45.) Confederation- A group of individual state governments that band together for a common purpose 46.) Ratify- ApproveGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  4. 4. 47.) Constitutional Convention- the delegates set out to strengthen the national government by creating a new plan of government in Philadelphia 48.) Great Compromise- Shermanʼs plan the Connecticut Compromise, a way of resolving disagreements in which each side gives up something but gains something else 49.) Three-Fifths Compromise- delegates agreed that every five enslaved persons would count as three free persons 50.) Electoral College- a group of people who would be named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president 51.) Federalists- Supporters of the Constitution called themselves 52.) Federalism- a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states 53.) Anti-Federalists- Those who opposed the Constitution 54.) Preamble- an introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government 55.) Legislative Branch- Congress (made up of senate and house of representatives) have all law making authority 56.) Executive Branch- law-enforcing branch of government headed by a president and vice president, decides how they are elected and removed 57.) Judicial Branch- Supreme Court, part of government that interprets the laws and sees that they are fairly applied 58.) Amendment- any change in the Constitution 59.) Popular Sovereignty- idea that the power of government lies with the people 60.) Rule of Law- the law applies to everyone, even those who govern 61.) Separation of Powers- division of authority between legislative, executive, and judicial 62.) Checks and Balances- each branch of government is able to check, or limit, the power of the others 63.) Expressed Powers- powers specifically granted to the national governmentGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  5. 5. 64.) Reserved Powers- Powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government are kept by the states 65.) Concurrent Powers- Powers that both levels of government can exercise 66.) Civil Liberties- the freedoms we have to think and to act without government interference or fear of unfair treatment 67.) Censorship- ban printed materials or films merely because they contain alarming or offensive ideas 68.) Petition- a formal request 69.) Slander- Spreading spoken lies 70.) Libel- lies are printed 71.) Search Warrants- a court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspectʼs home or business and take specific items as evidence 72.) Indictment- a formal charge by a Grand Jury who review the evidence against the accused 73.) Grand Jury- group of citizens 74.) Double Jeopardy- people who are accused of a crime and judged not guilty may not be put on trial again for the same crime 75.) Due Process- following established legal procedures 76.) Eminent Domain- the right of the government to take private property for public use 77.) Bail- a sum of money used as a security deposit 78.) Suffrage- the right to vote 79.) Poll Tax- required voters to pay a sum of money before casting a ballot 80.) Discrimination- unfair treatment based on prejudice against a certain group 81.) Segregation- social separation of the races 82.) Civil Rights- the rights of full citizenship and equality under the law 83.) Affirmative Action- programs encouraged the hiring and promoting of minorities and women in fields that were traditionally closed to themGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  6. 6. 84.) Racial Profiling- being singled out as suspects because of the way they look. Some Americans even become the victims of hate crimes 85.) Responsibility- are things we should do; they are obligations that we fulfill voluntarily 86.) Duty- things that we are required to do 87.) Draft- calling men into military service 88.) Tolerance- respecting and accepting others, regardless of their beliefs, practices, or differences 89.) Bureaucracy- complex systems with many departments, many rules, and many people in the chain of command 90.) Welfare- the health, prosperity, and happiness 91.) Volunteerism- the practice of offering your time and services to others without payment 92.) Bicameral- Congress being a two-part body 93.) Census- or population count taken by the Census Bureau 94.) Constituent- people represented 95.) Gerrymander- an oddly shaped district designed to increase the voting strength of a particular group 96.) Majority Party- the political party to which more than half the members belong 97.) Minority Party- The other party 98.) Standing Committee- permanent committees 99.) Seniority- years of service 100.) Expressed Powers- 18 separate clauses enumerating different powers specifically given to Congress 101.) Implied Powers- powers that Congress has because of Clause 18 102.) Elastic Clause- Clause 18Gatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  7. 7. 103.) Impeach- Accuse officials of misconduct in office 104.) Writ of Habeas Corpus- A court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person 105.) Bill of Attainder- laws that punish a person without a jury trial 106.) Ex Post Facto Law- laws that make an act a crime after the act has been committed 107.) Franking Privilege- Senators and representatives can send job-related mail without paying postage 108.) Lobbyist- people hired by private groups to influence government decision makers 109.) Casework- members of Congress often act as trouble shooters for people from their home districts and states who request help in dealing with the federal government 110.) Pork-Barrel Project- Government projects and grants that primarily benefit the home district or state 111.) Joint Resolution- are passed by both houses of Congress then become law if signed by president 112.) Special-Interest Group- organizations made up of people with common interests 113.) Filibuster- Talk a bill to death 114.) Cloture- no one may speak for more than one hour 115.) Voice Vote- those in favor say “Yea” and those against say “No” 116.) Standing Vote- those in favor of a bill stand to be counted 117.) Roll-Call Vote- senators respond “Aye” or “No” as their names are called 118.) Veto- a presidents refusal to sign a bill 119.) Pocket Veto- Congress has adjourned and the bill dies 120.) Electoral College- an indirect method of election 121.) Elector- vote for one of the major candidates 122.) Executive Order- a rule or command that has the force of lawGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  8. 8. 123.) Pardon- a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment 124.) Reprieve- an order to delay a personʼs punishment until a higher court can hear the case 125.) Amnesty- a pardon toward a group of people 126.) Foreign Policy- a nationʼs plan for dealing with other nations 127.) National Security- the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm 128.) Treaty- formal agreements between the governments of two or more countries 129.) Executive Agreement- an agreement between the president and the leader of another country 130.) Sentence: Executive agreements are very similar to a treaty where the leaders have some sort of agreement. 131.) Ambassador- official representative of a countryʼs government 132.) Trade Sanction- efforts to punish another nation by imposing trade barriers 133.) Embargo- which is an agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them from trading with a target nation 134.) Cabinet- a group of presidential advisers that includes the heads of the 14 top- level executive departments 135.) Federal Bureaucracy- agencies and employees of the executive branch 136.) Independent Agency- they are not part of the cabinet 137.) Government Corporation- private businesses, except that the government rather than individuals owns and operates them 138.) Political Appointee- people whom the president has chosen because they have proven executive ability or were important supporters of the presidentʼs election campaign 139.) Civil Service Worker- about 90 percent of all national government employees 140.)Civil Service System- the practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and meritGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  9. 9. 141.) Spoils System- government jobs went to people as a reward for their political support 142.) Merit System- Government officials hire new workers from lists of people who have passed the tests or otherwise met civil service standards. 143.) Circuit- districts Congress serves 144.) Jurisdiction- the authority to hear and decide a case 145.) Exclusive Jurisdiction- only the federal courts may hear and decide cases 146.) Concurrent Jurisdiction- both federal and state courts have jurisdiction 147.) District Court- federal courts in which trials are held and lawsuits are begun 148.) Original Jurisdiction- authority to hear cases for the first time 149.) Appeals Court- review decisions made in lower district courts 150.) Appellate Jurisdiction- the authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court 151.) Remand- upholding the original decision by reversing that decision 152.) Opinion- offers a detailed explanation of the legal thinking behind the courtʼs decision 153.) Precedent- gives guidance to other judges by offering a model upon which to base their own decisions on similar cases 154.) Judicial Review-the Court can review any federal, state, or local law or action to see if it is constitutional 155.) Constitutional- allowed by the Constitution 156.) Docket- court calendar 157.) Brief- a written document that explains one sideʼs position on the case 158.) Majority Opinion- presents the views of the majority of the justices on a case 159.) Unanimous Opinion- all the justices vote the same way 160.) Concurring Opinion- justice who agrees with the majority decision but has different reasonsGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  10. 10. 161.) Dissenting Opinion- Justices who oppose the majority decision issue 162.) Stare Decisis- let the decision stand 163.) Political Party- an organization of individuals with broad, common interests who organize to win elections, to operate the government, and to thereby influence government policy 164.) Two Party System- having two major political parties 165.) Third Party- smaller minor parties compete for power in the nationʼs two-party system 166.) Platform- a series of statements expressing the partyʼs principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues 167.) Plank- each individual part of the platform 168.) National Committee- representatives from every state 169.) Caucus-meetings of state and local party organizations 170.)Precinct- a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters 171.) Ward- several geographically connected precincts make up a larger election unit 172.) Political Machine- a local party organization so powerful that, year after year, their candidates sweep almost every election 173.) Direct Primary- an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election 174.) Closed Primary- only the declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that partyʼs nominees 175.) Open Primary- voters do not need to declare their party preference in order to vote for the partyʼs nominees 176.) Plurality- the largest number that wins the election 177.) Majority- more than 50 percent of the total votes 178.) Petition- qualified voters sign papers declaring support for a candidate, he or she goes on the ballot for the general electionGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  11. 11. 179.) Polling Place- location where voting is carried out 180.) Precinct- voting district 181.) Ballot- the list of candidates on which you cast your vote 182.) Absentee Ballot- Citizens who cannot get to the polls on Election Day 183.) Returns- ballot results 184.)Exit Poll- to ask a sample of voters leaving selected polling places how they voted 185.) Electorate- people who are eligible to vote 186.) Apathy- lack of interest 187.)Electoral College- part of the process that Americans use to select their president 188.) Initiative- way that citizens can propose new laws or state constitutional amendments 189.) Proposition- proposed law 190.) Referendum- a way for citizens to approve or reject a state or local law 191.) Recall- citizens in some states can vote to remove a public official from office 192.) Elector- people who hold electoral votes and are part of the Electoral College system 193.) Winner Take All System- candidate who wins the popular vote in a state usually receives all of the stateʼs electoral votes 194.) Propaganda-an attempt to promote a particular person or idea 195.) Political Action Committee- PACs are organizations set up by interest groups especially to collect money to support favored candidates 196.) Soft Money- unlimited amounts of money for general purposes, not designated to particular candidates 197.) Incumbent- politicians who have already been elected to office 198.) Public Opinion- the ideas and attitudes that most people hold about a particular issue or personGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6
  12. 12. 199.) Mass Media- Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, recordings, movies, internet web sites, and books 200.) Interest Group- Individuals who share a point of view about an issue sometimes unite to promote their beliefs 201.) Public Opinion Poll- to request individuals answer questions in a survey 202.) Pollster- measures the presidentʼs popularity or public attitudes toward possible White House proposals 203.) Print Media- Newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and books 204.) Electronic Media- radio, television, and internet 205.) Public Agenda- ones that receive the most time, money, and effort from government leaders 206.) Leak- secretly pass information to friendly reporters about proposed actions 207.) Prior Restraint- government censorship of material before it is published 208.) Libel- publishing false information that will harm someoneʼs reputation 209.) Malice- evil intent 210.) Public Interest Group-groups working to benefit all, or at least most, of society 211.) Nonpartisan- impartial 212.) Political Action Committee- collect money from the members of their groups and use it to support some candidates and oppose others 213.) Lobbyist-representatives of interest groups who contact lawmakers or other government officials directlyGatlin Thomas Tuesday, March 19, 2013 9:03:25 AM ET 04:0c:ce:d2:5c:e6