Nervous System-Review
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  • 1. Neurological Disturbances
    Ma. Tosca Cybil A. Torres, RN, MAN
  • 2. Review of Anatomy and Physiology
  • 3. Functions of the Nervous System
    1. Sensory input – gathering information
    • To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body (changes = stimuli)
    2. Integration –
    • to process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed.
    3. Motor output
    • A response to integrated stimuli
    • 4. The response activates muscles or glands
  • Structural Classification of the Nervous System
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • 5. Brain
    • 6. Spinal cord
    • 7. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • 8. Nerve outside the brain and spinal cord
  • Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
    • Sensory (afferent) division
    • 9. Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system
  • Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
    • Motor (efferent) division
    • 10. Two subdivisions
    • 11. Somatic nervous system = voluntary
    • 12. Autonomic nervous system = involuntary
  • Organization of the Nervous System
  • 13. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells (Neuroglia or Glia)
    • Astrocytes
    • 14. Abundant, star-shaped cells
    • 15. Brace neurons
    • 16. Form barrier between capillaries and neurons
    • 17. Control the chemical environment of the brain (CNS)
  • Nervous Tissue: Support Cells
    • Microglia (CNS)
    • 18. Spider-like phagocytes
    • 19. Dispose of debris
    • 20. Ependymal cells (CNS)
    • 21. Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord
    • 22. Circulate cerebrospinal fluid
  • Nervous Tissue: Support Cells
    • Oligodendrocytes(CNS)
    • 23. Produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system
  • Neuroglia vs. Neurons
    Neuroglia divide.
    Neurons do not.
    Most brain tumors are “gliomas.”
    Most brain tumors involve the neuroglia cells, not the neurons.
    Consider the role of cell division in cancer!
  • 24. Support Cells of the PNS
    • Satellite cells
    • 25. Protect neuron cell bodies
    • 26. Schwann cells
    • 27. Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system
    Figure 7.3e
  • 28. Nervous Tissue: Neurons
    • Neurons = nerve cells
    • 29. Cells specialized to transmit messages
    • 30. Major regions of neurons
    • 31. Cell body – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell
    • 32. Processes – fibers that extend from the cell body (dendrites and axons)
  • Neuron Anatomy
    Figure 7.4a
    Slide 7.9b
  • 35. Neuron Anatomy
    • Extensions outside the cell body
    • 36. Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body
    • 37. Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body
    Figure 7.4a
    Slide 7.10
  • 38. Axons and Nerve Impulses
    • Axons end in axonal terminals
    • 39. Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters
    • 40. Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap
    • 41. Synaptic cleft – gap between adjacent neurons
    • 42. Synapse – junction between nerves
  • 43. Nerve Fiber Coverings
    • Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion
    • 44. Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon
    Figure 7.5
    Slide 7.12
  • 45. Functional Classification of Neurons
    • Sensory (afferent) neurons
    • 46. Carry impulses from the sensory receptors
    • 47. Cutaneous sense organs
    • 48. Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension
    • 49. Motor (efferent) neurons
    • 50. Carry impulses from the central nervous system
  • Functional Classification of Neurons
    • Interneurons (association neurons)
    • 51. Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system
    • 52. Connect sensory and motor neurons
  • Neuron Classification
  • 53. How Neurons Communicate at Synapses
    Figure 7.10
  • 54. The Reflex Arc
    • Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli
    • 55. Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector
  • Simple Reflex Arc
    Slide 7.24
  • 56. Types of Reflexes and Regulation
    • Autonomic reflexes
    • 57. Somatic reflexes
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube
    • 58. The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord
    • 59. The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles
    • 60. Four chambers within the brain
    • 61. Filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  • Regions of the Brain
  • Lobes of the Brain
    Parietal lobe
    Frontal lobe
    Occipital lobe
    Temporal lobe
  • 65. Functional areas of the brain
    Motor
    function
    area
    Motor
    function
    area
    Sensory
    area
    Broca’s area
    Somatosensory
    Association
    area
    Auditory area
    Higher
    mental
    functions
    Visual area
    Association area
    Wernicke’s area
  • 66. Layers of the Cerebrum
    • Gray matter
    • 67. Outer layer
    • 68. Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies
    Figure 7.13a
  • 69. Layers of the Cerebrum
    • White matter
    • 70. Fiber tracts inside the gray matter
    • 71. Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres
    Figure 7.13a
  • 72. Diencephalon
    • Sits on top of the brain stem
    • 73. Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres
    • 74. Made of three parts
    • 75. Thalamus
    • 76. Hypothalamus
    • 77. Epithalamus
  • Diencephalon
    Figure 7.15
  • 78. Thalamus
    • Surrounds the third ventricle
    • 79. The relay station for sensory impulses
    • 80. Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation
  • Hypothalamus
    • Under the thalamus
    • 81. Important autonomic nervous system center
    • 82. Helps regulate body temperature
    • 83. Controls water balance
    • 84. Regulates metabolism
  • Hypothalamus
    • An important part of the limbic system (emotions)
    • 85. The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus
  • Epithalamus
    • Forms the roof of the third ventricle
    • 86. Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland)
    • 87. Includes the choroid plexus
  • Brain Stem
  • Brain Stem
    Cortex
    Corpus callosum
    3rd ventricle
    Septum pellucidum
    Thalamus
    Fornix
    Hypothalamus
    Optic chiasma
    Hypophysis
    Cerebellum
    4th ventricle
    Brain stem
    Spinal cord
  • 92. Brainstem
  • 93. Midbrain
    • Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers
    • 94. Reflex centers for vision and hearing
    • 95. Cerebral aquaduct – 3rd-4th ventricles
  • Pons
    • The bulging center part of the brain stem
    • 96. Mostly composed of fiber tracts
    • 97. Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing
  • Medulla Oblongata
    • The lowest part of the brain stem
    • 98. Merges into the spinal cord
    • 99. Includes important fiber tracts
    • 100. Contains important control centers
    • 101. Heart rate control
    • 102. Blood pressure regulation
    • 103. Breathing
    • 104. Swallowing
    • 105. Vomiting
  • Cerebellum
    • Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces
    • 106. Provides involuntary coordination of body movements
  • Protection of the Central Nervous System
    • Scalp and skin
    • 107. Skull and vertebral column
    • 108. Meninges
  • Protection of the Central Nervous System
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • 109. Blood brain barrier
  • Meninges
    Skin
    Bone
    Dura mater
    Arachnoid
    Pia mater
    Cerebral cortex
  • 110. Meninges
    • Dura mater
    • 111. Double-layered external covering
    • 112. Periosteum – attached to surface of the skull
    • 113. Meningeal layer – outer covering of the brain
    • 114. Folds inward in several areas
  • Meninges
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Similar to blood plasma composition
    • 120. Formed by the choroid plexus
    • 121. Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain
    • 122. Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord
  • The CSF is composed of water, glucose, protein, and several ions, especially sodium ion (Na) and chloride ion.
    Buoyancy- 1,500 g when removed, when suspended 50 g., it neither sinks nor floats
    Protection from striking the cranium when jolted.
    Transport of nutrients, chemical messages and removal of waste products.
    Stability of chemical environment.- homeostatically regulates the env. Of the CNS neurons., slight change can cause malfunction
    Clear, colorless liquid that fills and surrounds the CNS.
    500 to 800 ml/day produced but 100 to 160 ml is present at one time.
  • 123. Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Figure 7.17a
  • 124. Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Figure 7.17b
  • 125.
  • 126. Blood Brain Barrier
    • Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body
    • 127. Excludes many potentially harmful substances
    • 128. Useless against some substances
    • 129. Fats and fat soluble molecules
    • 130. Respiratory gases
    • 131. Alcohol
    • 132. Nicotine
    • 133. Anesthesia
  • Spinal Cord
    • Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12
    • 134. Below T12 is the caudaequina (a collection of spinal nerves)
    • 135. Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions
  • Spinal Cord Anatomy
    • Exterior white mater – conduction tracts
    Figure 7.19
  • 136. Spinal Cord Anatomy
    • Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies
    • 137. Dorsal (posterior) horns
    • 138. Anterior (ventral) horns
    Figure 7.19
  • 139. Spinal Cord Anatomy
    • Central canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid
    Figure 7.19
  • 140. Spinal Cord Anatomy
    • Meninges cover the spinal cord
    • 141. Nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae
    • 142. Dorsal root
    • 143. Associated with the dorsal root ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system
    • 144. Ventral root
  • Peripheral Nervous System
    • Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system
    • 145. Nerve = bundle of neuron fibers
    • 146. Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue
  • CRANIAL NERVES
  • 147.
  • 148.
  • 149. Spinal Nerves
    • There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae.
  • Spinal Nerves
    Figure 7.22a
  • 150.
  • 151. C1
    C2
    C2
    C3
    C3
    C4
    C2
    C5
    C5
    C3
    C6
    C6
    C7
    C4
    C4
    T1
    T1
    T2
    T2
    T3
    T3
    T2
    T4
    T4
    T5
    T3
    T5
    T6
    C5
    C5
    T7
    T4
    C6
    C6
    T6
    T8
    T2
    T2
    T7
    T9
    T5
    T10
    T8
    T11
    T9
    T12
    T6
    L1
    T10
    C6
    C6
    L2
    T7
    T1
    T1
    T11
    L3
    S1
    T8
    L1
    T12
    S2
    S3
    S4
    T9
    S2
    L2
    L2
    S5
    C8
    C8
    S1
    C7
    C7
    C7
    C7
    T10
    C8
    C8
    T11
    L3
    L3
    T12
    L1
    L2
    L3
    S1
    S1
    L4
    S2
    S2
    L4
    L4
    L5
    L5
    L5
    S1
    S2
    S3
    S4
    S1
    S1
    S5
    DERMATOMES
  • 152. Autonomic Nervous System
    • The involuntary branch of the nervous system
    • 153. Consists of only motor nerves
    • 154. Divided into two divisions
    • 155. Sympathetic division
    • 156. Parasympathetic division
  • Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
  • 157. Autonomic Functioning
    • Sympathetic – “fight-or-flight”
    • 158. Response to unusual stimulus
    • 159. Takes over to increase activities
    • 160. Remember as the “E” division = exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment
  • The neurotransmitter of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons is acetylcholine (ACh). It stimulates action potentials in the postganglionic neurons.
    The neurotransmitter released by the postganglionic neurons is noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine).
  • 161. Sympatheticnervous system
    T1
    T2
    T3
    T4
    T5
    T6
    T7
    T8
    T9
    T10
    T
    1
    1
    T12
    L1
    L2
    L3
    Pupils
    Salivary glands
    Heart
    Bronchi of lungs
    Liver
    Stomach
    Small intestines
    Adrenal gland
    Large intestine
    Kidney
    Rectum
    Bladder
    Genitals
  • 162. Autonomic Functioning
    • Parasympathetic – housekeeping activites
    • 163. Conserves energy
    • 164. Maintains daily necessary body functions
    • 165. Remember as the “D” division - digestion, defecation, and diuresis
  • Parasympatheticnervoussystem
    Pupils
    Salivary glands
    Heart
    Bronchi of lungs
    Liver
    Stomach
    Small intestines
    Large intestine
    Rectum
    Bladder
    Genitals
  • 166. Brainarteries
  • 167. Brainarteries
    Circle of Willis
  • 168. Development Aspects of the Nervous System
    • The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development
    • 169. Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects
    • 170. The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop
  • Development Aspects of the Nervous System
    • No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years (new evidence!)
    • 171. The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult
    • 172. However, we can always grow dendrites!