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Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
Nervous System-Review
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Nervous System-Review

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  • 1. Neurological Disturbances<br />Ma. Tosca Cybil A. Torres, RN, MAN <br />
  • 2. Review of Anatomy and Physiology <br />
  • 3. Functions of the Nervous System<br />1. Sensory input – gathering information<br /><ul><li>To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body (changes = stimuli)</li></ul>2. Integration –<br /><ul><li>to process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed.</li></ul>3. Motor output<br /><ul><li>A response to integrated stimuli
  • 4. The response activates muscles or glands</li></li></ul><li>Structural Classification of the Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS)
  • 5. Brain
  • 6. Spinal cord
  • 7. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • 8. Nerve outside the brain and spinal cord</li></li></ul><li>Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Sensory (afferent) division
  • 9. Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system</li></li></ul><li>Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Motor (efferent) division
  • 10. Two subdivisions
  • 11. Somatic nervous system = voluntary
  • 12. Autonomic nervous system = involuntary</li></li></ul><li>Organization of the Nervous System<br />
  • 13. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells (Neuroglia or Glia)<br /><ul><li>Astrocytes
  • 14. Abundant, star-shaped cells
  • 15. Brace neurons
  • 16. Form barrier between capillaries and neurons
  • 17. Control the chemical environment of the brain (CNS)</li></li></ul><li>Nervous Tissue: Support Cells<br /><ul><li>Microglia (CNS)
  • 18. Spider-like phagocytes
  • 19. Dispose of debris
  • 20. Ependymal cells (CNS)
  • 21. Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord
  • 22. Circulate cerebrospinal fluid</li></li></ul><li>Nervous Tissue: Support Cells<br /><ul><li>Oligodendrocytes(CNS)
  • 23. Produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system</li></li></ul><li>Neuroglia vs. Neurons<br />Neuroglia divide.<br />Neurons do not.<br />Most brain tumors are “gliomas.”<br />Most brain tumors involve the neuroglia cells, not the neurons.<br />Consider the role of cell division in cancer!<br />
  • 24. Support Cells of the PNS<br /><ul><li>Satellite cells
  • 25. Protect neuron cell bodies
  • 26. Schwann cells
  • 27. Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system</li></ul>Figure 7.3e<br />
  • 28. Nervous Tissue: Neurons<br /><ul><li>Neurons = nerve cells
  • 29. Cells specialized to transmit messages
  • 30. Major regions of neurons
  • 31. Cell body – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell
  • 32. Processes – fibers that extend from the cell body (dendrites and axons)</li></li></ul><li>Neuron Anatomy<br /><ul><li>Cell body
  • 33. Nucleus
  • 34. Large nucleolus</li></ul>Figure 7.4a<br />Slide 7.9b<br />
  • 35. Neuron Anatomy<br /><ul><li>Extensions outside the cell body
  • 36. Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body
  • 37. Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body</li></ul>Figure 7.4a<br />Slide 7.10<br />
  • 38. Axons and Nerve Impulses<br /><ul><li>Axons end in axonal terminals
  • 39. Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters
  • 40. Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap
  • 41. Synaptic cleft – gap between adjacent neurons
  • 42. Synapse – junction between nerves</li></li></ul><li>
  • 43. Nerve Fiber Coverings<br /><ul><li>Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion
  • 44. Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon</li></ul>Figure 7.5<br />Slide 7.12<br />
  • 45. Functional Classification of Neurons<br /><ul><li>Sensory (afferent) neurons
  • 46. Carry impulses from the sensory receptors
  • 47. Cutaneous sense organs
  • 48. Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension
  • 49. Motor (efferent) neurons
  • 50. Carry impulses from the central nervous system</li></li></ul><li>Functional Classification of Neurons<br /><ul><li>Interneurons (association neurons)
  • 51. Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system
  • 52. Connect sensory and motor neurons</li></li></ul><li>Neuron Classification<br />
  • 53. How Neurons Communicate at Synapses<br />Figure 7.10<br />
  • 54. The Reflex Arc<br /><ul><li>Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli
  • 55. Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector</li></li></ul><li>Simple Reflex Arc<br />Slide 7.24<br />
  • 56. Types of Reflexes and Regulation<br /><ul><li>Autonomic reflexes
  • 57. Somatic reflexes</li></li></ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS)<br /><ul><li>CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube
  • 58. The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord
  • 59. The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles
  • 60. Four chambers within the brain
  • 61. Filled with cerebrospinal fluid</li></li></ul><li>Regions of the Brain<br /><ul><li>Cerebral hemispheres
  • 62. Diencephalon
  • 63. Brain stem
  • 64. Cerebellum</li></li></ul><li>Lobes of the Brain<br />Parietal lobe<br />Frontal lobe<br />Occipital lobe<br />Temporal lobe<br />
  • 65. Functional areas of the brain<br />Motor<br />function<br />area<br />Motor<br />function<br />area<br />Sensory<br />area<br />Broca’s area<br />Somatosensory<br />Association<br />area<br />Auditory area<br />Higher<br />mental<br />functions<br />Visual area<br />Association area<br />Wernicke’s area<br />
  • 66. Layers of the Cerebrum<br /><ul><li>Gray matter
  • 67. Outer layer
  • 68. Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies</li></ul>Figure 7.13a<br />
  • 69. Layers of the Cerebrum<br /><ul><li>White matter
  • 70. Fiber tracts inside the gray matter
  • 71. Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres</li></ul>Figure 7.13a<br />
  • 72. Diencephalon<br /><ul><li>Sits on top of the brain stem
  • 73. Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres
  • 74. Made of three parts
  • 75. Thalamus
  • 76. Hypothalamus
  • 77. Epithalamus</li></li></ul><li>Diencephalon<br />Figure 7.15<br />
  • 78. Thalamus<br /><ul><li>Surrounds the third ventricle
  • 79. The relay station for sensory impulses
  • 80. Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation</li></li></ul><li>Hypothalamus<br /><ul><li>Under the thalamus
  • 81. Important autonomic nervous system center
  • 82. Helps regulate body temperature
  • 83. Controls water balance
  • 84. Regulates metabolism</li></li></ul><li>Hypothalamus<br /><ul><li>An important part of the limbic system (emotions)
  • 85. The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus</li></li></ul><li>Epithalamus<br /><ul><li>Forms the roof of the third ventricle
  • 86. Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland)
  • 87. Includes the choroid plexus</li></li></ul><li>Brain Stem<br /><ul><li>Attaches to the spinal cord
  • 88. Parts of the brain stem
  • 89. Midbrain
  • 90. Pons
  • 91. Medulla oblongata</li></li></ul><li>Brain Stem<br />Cortex<br />Corpus callosum<br />3rd ventricle<br />Septum pellucidum<br />Thalamus<br />Fornix<br />Hypothalamus<br />Optic chiasma<br />Hypophysis<br />Cerebellum<br />4th ventricle<br />Brain stem<br />Spinal cord<br />
  • 92. Brainstem<br />
  • 93. Midbrain<br /><ul><li>Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers
  • 94. Reflex centers for vision and hearing
  • 95. Cerebral aquaduct – 3rd-4th ventricles</li></li></ul><li>Pons<br /><ul><li>The bulging center part of the brain stem
  • 96. Mostly composed of fiber tracts
  • 97. Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing</li></li></ul><li>Medulla Oblongata<br /><ul><li>The lowest part of the brain stem
  • 98. Merges into the spinal cord
  • 99. Includes important fiber tracts
  • 100. Contains important control centers
  • 101. Heart rate control
  • 102. Blood pressure regulation
  • 103. Breathing
  • 104. Swallowing
  • 105. Vomiting</li></li></ul><li>Cerebellum<br /><ul><li>Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces
  • 106. Provides involuntary coordination of body movements</li></li></ul><li>Protection of the Central Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Scalp and skin
  • 107. Skull and vertebral column
  • 108. Meninges</li></li></ul><li>Protection of the Central Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid
  • 109. Blood brain barrier</li></li></ul><li>Meninges<br />Skin<br />Bone<br />Dura mater<br />Arachnoid<br />Pia mater<br />Cerebral cortex<br />
  • 110. Meninges<br /><ul><li>Dura mater
  • 111. Double-layered external covering
  • 112. Periosteum – attached to surface of the skull
  • 113. Meningeal layer – outer covering of the brain
  • 114. Folds inward in several areas</li></li></ul><li>Meninges<br /><ul><li>Arachnoid layer
  • 115. Middle layer
  • 116. Web-like
  • 117. Pia mater
  • 118. Internal layer
  • 119. Clings to the surface of the brain</li></li></ul><li>Cerebrospinal Fluid<br /><ul><li>Similar to blood plasma composition
  • 120. Formed by the choroid plexus
  • 121. Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain
  • 122. Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord</li></li></ul><li>The CSF is composed of water, glucose, protein, and several ions, especially sodium ion (Na) and chloride ion. <br />Buoyancy- 1,500 g when removed, when suspended 50 g., it neither sinks nor floats<br />Protection from striking the cranium when jolted.<br />Transport of nutrients, chemical messages and removal of waste products.<br />Stability of chemical environment.- homeostatically regulates the env. Of the CNS neurons., slight change can cause malfunction<br />Clear, colorless liquid that fills and surrounds the CNS.<br />500 to 800 ml/day produced but 100 to 160 ml is present at one time.<br />
  • 123. Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid<br />Figure 7.17a<br />
  • 124. Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid<br />Figure 7.17b<br />
  • 125.
  • 126. Blood Brain Barrier<br /><ul><li>Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body
  • 127. Excludes many potentially harmful substances
  • 128. Useless against some substances
  • 129. Fats and fat soluble molecules
  • 130. Respiratory gases
  • 131. Alcohol
  • 132. Nicotine
  • 133. Anesthesia</li></li></ul><li>Spinal Cord<br /><ul><li>Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12
  • 134. Below T12 is the caudaequina (a collection of spinal nerves)
  • 135. Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions</li></li></ul><li>Spinal Cord Anatomy<br /><ul><li>Exterior white mater – conduction tracts</li></ul>Figure 7.19<br />
  • 136. Spinal Cord Anatomy<br /><ul><li>Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies
  • 137. Dorsal (posterior) horns
  • 138. Anterior (ventral) horns</li></ul>Figure 7.19<br />
  • 139. Spinal Cord Anatomy<br /><ul><li>Central canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid</li></ul>Figure 7.19<br />
  • 140. Spinal Cord Anatomy<br /><ul><li>Meninges cover the spinal cord
  • 141. Nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae
  • 142. Dorsal root
  • 143. Associated with the dorsal root ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system
  • 144. Ventral root</li></li></ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System<br /><ul><li>Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system
  • 145. Nerve = bundle of neuron fibers
  • 146. Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue</li></li></ul><li>CRANIAL NERVES<br />
  • 147.
  • 148.
  • 149. Spinal Nerves<br /><ul><li>There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae.</li></li></ul><li>Spinal Nerves<br />Figure 7.22a<br />
  • 150.
  • 151. C1<br />C2<br />C2<br />C3<br />C3<br />C4<br />C2<br />C5<br />C5<br />C3<br />C6<br />C6<br />C7<br />C4<br />C4<br />T1<br />T1<br />T2<br />T2<br />T3<br />T3<br />T2<br />T4<br />T4<br />T5<br />T3<br />T5<br />T6<br />C5<br />C5<br />T7<br />T4<br />C6<br />C6<br />T6<br />T8<br />T2<br />T2<br />T7<br />T9<br />T5<br />T10<br />T8<br />T11<br />T9<br />T12<br />T6<br />L1<br />T10<br />C6<br />C6<br />L2<br />T7<br />T1<br />T1<br />T11<br />L3<br />S1<br />T8<br />L1<br />T12<br />S2<br />S3<br />S4<br />T9<br />S2<br />L2<br />L2<br />S5<br />C8<br />C8<br />S1<br />C7<br />C7<br />C7<br />C7<br />T10<br />C8<br />C8<br />T11<br />L3<br />L3<br />T12<br />L1<br />L2<br />L3<br />S1<br />S1<br />L4<br />S2<br />S2<br />L4<br />L4<br />L5<br />L5<br />L5<br />S1<br />S2<br />S3<br />S4<br />S1<br />S1<br />S5<br />DERMATOMES<br />
  • 152. Autonomic Nervous System<br /><ul><li>The involuntary branch of the nervous system
  • 153. Consists of only motor nerves
  • 154. Divided into two divisions
  • 155. Sympathetic division
  • 156. Parasympathetic division</li></li></ul><li>Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems<br />
  • 157. Autonomic Functioning<br /><ul><li>Sympathetic – “fight-or-flight”
  • 158. Response to unusual stimulus
  • 159. Takes over to increase activities
  • 160. Remember as the “E” division = exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment</li></li></ul><li>The neurotransmitter of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons is acetylcholine (ACh). It stimulates action potentials in the postganglionic neurons. <br />The neurotransmitter released by the postganglionic neurons is noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine). <br />
  • 161. Sympatheticnervous system<br />T1<br />T2<br />T3<br />T4<br />T5<br />T6<br />T7<br />T8<br />T9<br />T10<br />T<br />1<br />1<br />T12<br />L1<br />L2<br />L3<br />Pupils<br />Salivary glands<br />Heart<br />Bronchi of lungs<br />Liver<br />Stomach<br />Small intestines<br />Adrenal gland<br />Large intestine<br />Kidney<br />Rectum<br />Bladder<br />Genitals<br />
  • 162. Autonomic Functioning<br /><ul><li>Parasympathetic – housekeeping activites
  • 163. Conserves energy
  • 164. Maintains daily necessary body functions
  • 165. Remember as the “D” division - digestion, defecation, and diuresis</li></li></ul><li>Parasympatheticnervoussystem<br />Pupils<br />Salivary glands<br />Heart<br />Bronchi of lungs<br />Liver<br />Stomach<br />Small intestines<br />Large intestine<br />Rectum<br />Bladder<br />Genitals<br />
  • 166. Brainarteries<br />
  • 167. Brainarteries<br />Circle of Willis<br />
  • 168. Development Aspects of the Nervous System<br /><ul><li>The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development
  • 169. Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects
  • 170. The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop</li></li></ul><li>Development Aspects of the Nervous System<br /><ul><li>No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years (new evidence!)
  • 171. The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult
  • 172. However, we can always grow dendrites!</li>

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