inhibit the sodium-chloride transporter in the distal tubule . Because this transporter normally only reabsorbs about 5% of filtered sodium, these diuretics are less efficacious than loop diuretics in producing diuresis and natriuresis.
antagonize the actions of aldosterone ( aldosterone receptor antagonists ) at the distal segment of the distal tubule. This causes more sodium (and water) to pass into the collecting duct and be excreted in the urine.
occur spontaneously with no relationship to activity. Occurs at rest due to spasm. Pt discomfort that occurs rest usually of longer duration. Appears to by cyclic & often occurs at about the same time each day (usually at night). Thought to be caused by coronary artery spasm
Hemorrhage: Signs of severe bleeding resulting in the loss of large amounts of blood depend upon the location and extent of bleeding. Symptoms include: chest, abdomen, joint, muscle, or other pain; difficult breathing or swallowing; dizziness; headache; low blood pressure; numbness and tingling; paralysis; shortness of breath; unexplained shock; unexplained swelling; weakness
Patients should be instructed about prevention measures to minimize risk of bleeding and to report immediately to health care provider signs and symptoms of bleeding
Statin drugs work by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. Liver enzymes must be regularly monitored. (ex. Simvastatin)
Niacin , a water-soluble B vitamin, is highly effective in lowering LDL and triglyceride levels by interfering with their synthesis. Niacin also increases HDL levels better than many other lipid-lowering drugs.(Ex. Niacin SR)
Fibric acid derivatives work by accelerating the elimination of VLDLs and increasing the production of apoproteins A-I and A-II. (ex. Lipofen, Tricor)
Bile-acid sequestrants increase conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and decrease hepatic cholesterol content. The primary effect is a decrease in total cholesterol and LDLs. (ex. Questran)