History

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History

  1. 1. WHAT IS HISTORY? "History is more or less bunk." Henry Ford"What experience and history teach is this-that people andgovernments never have learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it." G. W. F. Hegel
  2. 2. WHAT IS HISTORY? "History . . . is indeed little more than the register of thecrimes, follies, and misfortunes of mankind." Edward Gibbon "The study of history is the best medicine for a sick mind; for in history you have a record of the infinite variety of humanexperience plainly set out for all to see; and in that record you can find yourself and your country both examples and warnings; fine things to take as models, base things rotten through and through, to avoid." Livy
  3. 3. WHAT IS HISTORY?1. A usually chronological record of events, as of the life or development of a people or institution, often including an explanation of or commentary on thoseevents ( a history of the Vikings)2. The branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events3.a. The past events relating to a particular thing (The history of their rivalry is full of intrigue)b. The aggregate of past events or human affairs: basic tools usedthroughout history. The Free Online Dictionary http://www.thefreedictionary.com/history
  4. 4. A Historical Event✴ Particular aspect in relation to social and cultural events of the past✴ Cause – Effect Relationship✴ Being relevant✴ Being placed in a certain context✴ Being unique✴ Impact on the whole community✴ Happened considerably long ago
  5. 5. Source Analysis
  6. 6. History Sources• Sunday, 14th of October• ...these people are very simple as regards the use of arms, as your Highnesses will see from the seven that I caused to be taken, to bring home and learn our language and return; unless your Highnesses should order them all to be brought to Castile, or to be kept as captives on the same island; for with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them.... • Christopher Columbus. Utilizing the Native Labor Force. 1492.
  7. 7. Primary Sources• ―A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event‖. • http://www.princeton.edu/~refdesk/primary2.html Diaries Letters Photographs Art Maps
  8. 8. History Sources• Columbus initially had friendly relations with the Native Americans he encountered in the West Indies on the first voyage. Beginning with the second voyage, these relations began to sour, with some tribes more than others. The Spanish had come to America as conquerors. In 1492, they had just successfully finished a centuries-long war to evict the Moors from Spain, and the idea of spreading Christianity (in general) and Spanish control (in particular) was central to Spanish culture. The idea that one could arrive at a new country with no strong central government, and not claim such lands for the sovereigns one had sworn to support and defend, was simply unthinkable...• Keith A. Pickering. Columbus and the destruction of Native peoples. 2004
  9. 9. Secondary Sources• ―A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them‖. • http://www.princeton.edu/~refdesk/primary2.html History textbooks Biographies Published stories Movies of historical events
  10. 10. • The journey of a modern hero, to the island of Elba / 1814, Great Britain
  11. 11. OPVLO- originP- purposeV- valueL- limitation
  12. 12. OPVL• Origin is where the source comes from When was the document created? Who created it? Where did it first appear? Is it a primary or secondary source?
  13. 13. OPVL• Purpose: What do you think the author was trying to communicate? What ideas/feelings was he/she trying to express/evoke? Why did the author create the document? Who is the intended audience?
  14. 14. OPVL• Value is how valuable this source is. Basically its linked to the amount of bias in the source: the more bias = the less valuable (usually) What can we tell about the author from the piece? What can we tell about the time period from the piece? Under what circumstances was the piece created and how does the piece reflect those circumstances? What can we tell about any controversies from the piece? Does the author represent a particular ‗side‘ of a controversy or event?
  15. 15. OPVL• Limitations is also linked to bias, each source will be at least a little biased and thus they are limited by that. If the source has been translated from the original then the language difference will be another source of inaccuracy and a limitation. Does the author have reasons to emphasize certain facts over others to a particular audience? Might the author present the story differently to different audience? What specific information might the author have chosen to leave out? Does the author concede a certain point that it is inconvenient for him/her to admit to?
  16. 16. MIDDLE AGESCHURCH, CRUSADES AND SOCIETY
  17. 17. Holy RomanEmpire in 1050:the mostcentralized andbest governedterritory in Europe
  18. 18. Problems inside the Church Illiteracy of the priests Immorality of the priests Indifference towards spirituality Simony (selling Church positions)
  19. 19. Reorganization of Church Papal Curia (advisers) was created Canon law (marriage divorce, inheritance issues) Pope‘s diplomats helped to restore Pope‘s authotity ―Tithes‖ were introduced (―10th part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization‖) New Religious Orders were created (Dominicans, Benedictines, Franciscans)
  20. 20. CRUSADES
  21. 21. CRUSADES. WHY? Help Byzantine Empire from possible Muslim attack on Constantinople Christian pilgrims visiting the holy sites in Jerusalem began experiencing increased harassment and danger Hope to unite the entire eastern Mediterranean and the divided Christian faith under the banner of the Latin Church Possibility to get rid of the Knight fighting each other and disturbing the peace of the kingdoms For merchants – possibility to control trade routes to India, China
  22. 22. CRUSADES1097 - Pope Urban promises ―a place in Heaven‖Motivations of the Participants: Men tired of hopeless poverty Adventurers seeking action Merchants looking for new markets Lords whose enlisting serfs had left them laborless Young sons looking for land and social position Sincerely religious individuals wanting to rescue the land of Christ
  23. 23. CRUSADES The First Crusade (1096-1099) / Capture of Jerusalem Second Crusade (1147-1149) / Christians defeated by Saladin, Fall of Jerusalem Third Crusade (1189-1192) / Truce between Richard the Lion-Hearted and Saladin: Jerusalem under Muslim control
  24. 24. EFFECTS OF CRUSADES Feudalism declines because Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military, more power to the Kings Trade and Explorations were enhanced / Spices, cotton, linen, pearls, porcelain, silk, etc.; Improvements – Ships, Maps, Explorers The influence of the Catholic Church and the position of the pope declined The Muslim powers, once tolerant of religious diversity, had been made intolerant by attack
  25. 25. MEDIEVAL SOCIETYAGRICULTUREUse of horses instead of oxen Three-field systemMore and Better farm productionBetter resistance to diseases / longer life expectancyIncrease in Population
  26. 26. MEDIEVAL SOCIETYCREATION OF GUILDSEstablishment of working conditions, salaries, quality ofproductsBetter products / More money for the Guilds morepower over the Government
  27. 27. MEDIEVAL SOCIETYCOMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Growth of Trade No more self-sufficient societies Growth of the cities More money available Merchants get more power - Burghers
  28. 28. 1350 -1600
  29. 29. RENAISSANCE A time of renewed interest in things of this world(REBIRTH). Human beings and their conditions Education, art, literature, and science
  30. 30. RENAISSANCE Why Italy? Existence of city-states (while the majority of Europe is rural) Heritage of Rome and Greece / Migration of Greek scholars (fall of Constantinople) Trading center Merchants and Medici (patronage of arts)
  31. 31. RENAISSANCE Humanism, a system of thought and action concernedwith human interests and values Human beings have dignity and intelligence. They (we) can change the world and make it a better place for all.
  32. 32. RENAISSANCE Renaissance man - successful in business, well-mannered, educated, athletic, and brave. The goal of education became making people well-rounded. Religion remained important, but the authority and some practices of the church began to be questioned.
  33. 33. RENAISSANCE  PERSPECTIVECreates the appearance of three dimensions REALISMThat painting is the most to be praised which agreesmost exactly with the thing imitated.
  34. 34. RENAISSANCE LEONARDO DA VINCI1452-1519Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer
  35. 35. Mona Lisa 
  36. 36. The Last Supper 
  37. 37. Notebooks 
  38. 38. Michelangelo
  39. 39. Sistine Chapel About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
  40. 40. Creation of Eve Creation of AdamSeparation of Light and Darkness The Last Judgment
  41. 41. La Pieta 1499Marble Sculpture 
  42. 42. Raphael1483-1520 
  43. 43. The School of Athens 
  44. 44. RENAISSANCE LITERATURE Use of Vernacular Language Writing for self - expression
  45. 45. RENAISSANCE NICCOLÒ MACHIAVELLITHE PRINCE“One can make this generalization about men: they areungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shundanger and are greedy for profit”
  46. 46. RENAISSANCE THE PRINCE Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making Ruler keeps power by any means necessary The end justifies the means Be good when possible, and evil when necessary
  47. 47. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE  Rooted in Medieval traditions rather than Greco- Roman. Very realistic /used ordinary objects to symbolize religious subjects and truths. Different than Italian Renaissance in that use of oil produced vibrant, rich color allowed painter to create a realistic painting with overwhelming to create surface realism rather than an emphasis on structure, perspective, and proportions
  48. 48. Pieter Bruegel the Elder 
  49. 49. Pieter Bruegel the Elder 
  50. 50. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE CHRISTIAN HUMANISM Erasmus (Holland)“The Praise of Folly”: Christianity of the Heart, not ofthe ceremonies or rules Thomas More (England)“Utopia”: an imaginary land without greed, anger,corruption and war.
  51. 51. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE GUTTENBERG BIBLE (1455) Made information available to a much larger number of the population Libraries could store greater quantities of information at much lower cost Facilitation of the dissemination and preservation of knowledge Spread of new ideas quickly and with greater impact Stimulation of literacy
  52. 52. RENAISSANCE LEGACY  New Conceptions of Life and the World (earthly life is worth living for its own sake) Reformed Education (both the Greek and Latin languages and literatures were now established) Development of the Vernacular Literatures Impulse to Religious Reforms Questioning political and religious authorities Individual achievements are praised
  53. 53. PROtestant reformation Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church that led to a religiousmovement and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe.
  54. 54. Financial corruption Abuse of power Immorality (12-year old bishops) Illiterate priests (no teachers)catholic church, 16 century
  55. 55. Renaissance: Interest in humanism and rediscovery of ancient culture. European rulers challenged the Church as the Supreme PowerEuropean decentralization, rise of nation-states. Breakdown of medieval centralization under Pope Causes of reformation
  56. 56. Belief that selling indulgences is sinful Indulgences had no power to remit sinCriticism of power of pope, wealth of church 95 Theses
  57. 57. Pope and Church traditions are false authorities Pope did not speak for God Church and priesthood are not necessary for salvation God’s grace is given to all who seek itIndividual Christians should be own interpreters of scripture, Christian practices should come only from Bible Luther’s main ideas
  58. 58. 1520, Pope Leo X expelled Luther from the Church 1521, Luther summoned to appear before Holy Roman emperor RESponse to Luther Charles VEdict of Worms (1521) declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic
  59. 59. German Princes, supporting Luther, - Protesting Princes PROTESTANTS REsponse to Luther
  60. 60. ANGLICAN CHURCH 1509, Henry VIII became king, age 17 Devout Catholic Wrote angry protests against Luther’s ideasActions won him title “Defender of the Faith” By 1525, Henry had only one child, Mary
  61. 61. Act of Supremacy Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married; marriage to Catherine annulledAct of Supremacy passed(1534); Henry VIII “Supreme Head of Church of England” REFORMATION PARLIAMENT
  62. 62. AFter Henry VIII Elizabeth I / 1559, new Supremacy Act, splitting England from RomeProtestant priests could marry and deliver sermons in EnglishElizabeth persecuted Catholics,Mary returned England to authority of popeHundreds burned at state secured Church of Englandfor Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary” The Act of Uniformity (1558) forced people to attend Sunday service in an Anglican church / a new version of the Book of Common Prayers
  63. 63. JOHN CALVIN Doctrine of predestination Best form of Government - Theocracy1540’s Geneva’s rule: obligated religious classes, no brightclothes, no support for other doctrinesPresbyterians (John Knox) in Scotland
  64. 64. reformation in europe
  65. 65. counter reformationJESUITS /1534/ founded by Ignatius of Loyola, Basque nobleman, former soldier Jesuits - military organization, emphasizing obedience to church above all Main activities:Focus on Education Convert non Christians to Catholics Fight Protestant(found superb schools over Europe ) (Missionaries around the world)
  66. 66. Popes Paul III and Paul IV (1530’ - 1560’s) COUNCIL OF TRENT ( 1546-1563) The Church’s interpretation of the Bible is final Faith is not enough for salvation. Need of good worksBible and Church traditions are both important and powerful authoorities for any Christian Indulgences are valid expressions of faith counter reformation
  67. 67. political effects of reformation Rising sense of national identity Formation of independent states, nationsRulers, merchants both wanted church less involved in state, business affairs Political power became separated from churches
  68. 68. SOCIAL effects of reformation End of Christian Unity in EuropeIncrease in Education (both Protestants and Catholics founded new schools and Universities) Base for Enlightenment (by challenging the authority and beliefs)
  69. 69. Luther with seven heads; identifying Lutheras a doctor, a monk, a Turk, a preacher, afanatic, a church visitor and a wild man with aclub.Septiceps Lutherus, Leipzig: ValentinSchumann, 1529. (t served as a title-page to apamphlet written by Johann Cochleus (1479-1552)1. Analyze the following cartoon accordingto its Origin, Purpose, value and Limitation. 2.Explain what is the message of the cartoon
  70. 70. AGE OF DIsCOVERY
  71. 71. CAUSESCompetition among countries for wealth in Asia• To Find a direct sea route to IndiaDesire to explore the unknown (Renaissance)Spread ChristianityDesire for wealth, new territories
  72. 72. TREATY OF TORDESILLAS• The Portuguese wanted to protect their monopoly on the trade route to Africa and felt threatened by Columbus discovery• In 1494 TREATY OF TORDESILLAS was signed, that established an imaginary line running through the mid-Atlantic
  73. 73. EFFECTS• Finding New World gave new opportunities to Europeans
  74. 74. EFFECTSAge of Imperialism • Before 1750
  75. 75. EFFECTSSlave trade
  76. 76. EFFECTSColumbian Exchange
  77. 77. EFFECTSInflux of money and goodsChange of the economic systems in EuropeThe Commercial Revolution (establishment of many types of newbusinesses)
  78. 78. “Enlightened Despots” Enlightened Monarchs • Frederick II, Prussia • Catherine the Great, Russia • Maria Theresa, Austria • Joseph II, Austria • Gustav III, Sweden • Napoleon I, France
  79. 79. ABSOLUTISM―L‘etat, c‘est moi (I am the state)‖ –Louis XIV
  80. 80. Absolutism in Europe Oscar Alzaga.
  81. 81. Absolutism Appeal to the ―Divine Right‖ Sovereignty rests within the Monarch Economy has to serve the State (Mercantilism) Large standing army (professional and financed by the state)
  82. 82. Absolutism Nobility with privileges but almost no political power (Control of the land / Tax exempt) State bureaucracies
  83. 83. Causes of Absolutism Decline of Catholic Church and its influence kings consolidate power Decline of Feudal system. Lords lost its power king gained it Enormous expansion in trade and industry the merchants and industrial-ists wanted peace and order
  84. 84. Causes of Absolutism Territorial and religious disputes created fear and uncertainty among population The decline of the empire and the Papacy led to the growth of a number of nations where rulers successfully asserted their authority and established absolute rule
  85. 85. Strengths of Absolute Monarchies  Efficiency Decisions are made by one person  Nationalism Promoted a common culture and identity  Stability The ruler stays in power until death  Wealth / No resistance means a large and powerful empire
  86. 86. Weaknesses of Absolute Monarchies Undemocratic No collaboration of ideas Individual rights Often violated Stability If the ruler was poor, it could affect the country for decades
  87. 87. Ways to Increase the Power Taxes Increase overall power of the monarch and his power Strong armies
  88. 88. ABSOLUTISM: PEOPLE
  89. 89. BUILDING ABSOLUTISM Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643) and Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Reduced power of nobility / ordered to take done their fortified castles Huguenots / forbade protestant cities to have walls
  90. 90. BUILDING ABSOLUTISM Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643) and Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Placed Middle class in position of Authority Intendants - Governmental Agents, extremely loyal to the king
  91. 91. LOUIS XIV / NOBILITY THE FRONDE (1648-1653) • The desire of Nobility to limit the power of the king and have more voice in the governmentLOUIS XIV Excluded Nobility from Advisory Councils Forces the Court to meet in Versailles, under the kings control Intendants in power of local affairs (taxes and justice) instead of Lords
  92. 92. LOUIS XIV / HUGENOTS Many Protestant places of worship were closed (1659-1664) 1680 prohibition of conversions from Catholicism to Protestantism From 1681: billeting troops in Protestant homes /Protestant women not being allowed to be midwives / Protestants being forbidden to employ Catholic servants
  93. 93. LOUIS XIV / HUGENOTS1685 - Edict of Fontainebleau revoking the Edict of Nantes The Edit of Nantes shall be abolished in its entirety The Protestant temples shall be destroyed without exception The Reformed clergy who do not immediately renounce, must leave the kingdom within two weeks All Reformed schools shall be dissolved The children born to Reformed parents are to be baptized Catholic and sent to the Catholic churches
  94. 94. RUSSIARussia - 1/6 of the land for 19001460 - 430 000 km21530 - 2,8 mln km2end of XVI cemtury - 5,5 mln km2
  95. 95. RUSSIA
  96. 96. RUSSIA Low density of population (6 per km2 / Europe - 40)Low development of the State and society Long lasting Serfdorm (untill 1861)Two totally different words (educated rich nobility / poor,uncivilized peasants)
  97. 97. RUSSIA Mongol Invasion (1237 - 1480)―major cause of "the East-West gap" - approximately 200 years delay in introducing major social, political and economical reforms and scientific innovations in Russia‖Russia was not involved in Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, neither succeed to develop a middle class
  98. 98. RUSSIA Extensive Families / Young marriage Low level of urbanization Low level of education / first printed book - 100 years later than in Europe
  99. 99. RUSSIAN GOVERNORSIVAN III (1440-1505): Liberated Russia from the Mongols Conquered new territories Started centralization of government
  100. 100. RUSSIAN GOVERNORSTime of Troubles (1598-1613)Famine (1601-1603) - 1/3 (2 mln) t ofpopulation diedRussia‘s occupation by the Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthCivil uprisingsImpostors1613 – Mikhail Romanov – begining of the Romanov dynasty
  101. 101. PETER THE GREATREFORMS OF PETER THE GREAT: Westernization of RussiaBeards were shaved off /western clothes were encouraged (fornobility and high urban classes)Division of society in a group with europeanized culture and theone that saved the traditional lifestyle
  102. 102. PETER THE GREAT
  103. 103. PETER THE GREATWESTERNIZATION Women in the society (populatization of balls andother social events ) / western fashion dresses(before - women - in relative seclusion) Importanceof education (technical colleges and academies,school of navigation) First newspaper
  104. 104. PETER THE GREATGovernment Changed his title from ―tsar‖ to ―emperor.‖ Eliminated the duma body, made up of boyars, andreplaced it with a Western-style senate (9 closest allies ofPeter)the Table of Ranks, which allowed officials to be rewarded formerit and loyaltyMilitary Creation of standing army (130 thousand)Creation of Baltic Fleet Up to 1725 - 2/3 of the Russian budget spent on military
  105. 105. PETER THE GREATEconomy Implemented mercantelism (protection and subsidies fornational production) / Special customs tariff - high tax on theimported products if the same were produced n Russia About 200 manufactures appearedReligion Abolishment of PatriarchChurch under the control of Holy Governing Synod , composedof bishops and bureaucrats appointed by the Emperor
  106. 106. RUSSIA‘S PROBLEMSRussian people did not believe that change wasnecessary.The Russian Orthodox Church was too strong.The great landowners had too much power.The Russian army was untrained and its tactics and weapons wereoutdated.Russian society had to change to compete with the modern states ofEurope.To promote education andgrowth, Russia needed aseaport for travel tothe West.The port needed to be built.The new city needed to be settled
  107. 107. English monarchy and parliament
  108. 108. JAMES I Authority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by Parliament Money—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style Religion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Churchwho wanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were active members of Parliament ( problem - when James I arranged marriage of his son (Charles) to a Catholic princes
  109. 109. Always needed money for war When parliament denied money requests, he dissolved parliament1628, parliament gets back together and asks Charles to sign the Petition of Right charles I
  110. 110. Petition of Right No imprisonment without due causeNo taxation without parliament‘s consent No putting soldiers in private homes No martial law during peacetime
  111. 111. Causes of Civil war Charles forces Scotland to follow anglican religion scots united the army and threatened to invade England Charles calls the parliament to raise money Parliament raises the laws to limit royal powerCharles raises his army in the loyal to him north of england
  112. 112. War between Cavaliers (Royalists) vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament)Civil war (1642-1649)
  113. 113. Civil WarWithout Parliament‘s funding, king relied on contributions to pay army Wealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to Charles Parliament could back its army by voting for funding Supporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl- shaped haircuts Roundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes
  114. 114. Puritan‘s General Oliver Cromwell 1647 - Charles I hold prisoner 1649 - Execution of Charles I Civil War
  115. 115. COMMONWEALTH Commonwealth was created—type ofgovernment with no king & ruled by Parliament First Constitution destroyed Oliver Cromwell - a military dictator the Irish revolted against Cromwell and failed – 616,000 Irish were killed by war, plague and famine
  116. 116. Puritan MoralityCromwell and the Puritans wanted to improve England‘s moralityAbolished all ―sinful‖ things: it was illegal to go to the theaters & sporting events; ―merrymaking‖ & ―amusement‖ were illegal Cromwell was tolerant of other religions despite his deep Puritan beliefs (EXCEPT CATHOLICS)
  117. 117. 1. Charles I‘s supporters were known as the _____ (a.k.a. Cavaliers). a. Parliamentarians 3. the period during which the Stuarts b. Puritans were out of power in England (1649- c. Roundheads 1660) and Cromwell was the one to d. Royalists rules is known as:a. Act of Unionb. Commonwealthc. Puritan Monarchyd. Stuart Succession 2. The Petition of Right (1628) included all of the following except what? 4. Cromwell‘s New Model Army landed a. no taxes without parliament in ____ in 1649, where it forcibly approval evicted civilians and destroyed food supplies, sparking a large famine.a. b. No martial law during peacetime Franceb. Irelandc. Scotlandd. walesc. Soldiers could not be quartered in private homes d. Universal manhood suffrage5. After Charles I tried to arrest the leaders of Parliament and failed, he fled to thenorth of England and raised an army.True / False
  118. 118. Restoration 1658 - Cromwell dies 1660 - Charles II (on the petition of Parliament) becomes English KIng (1660-1685) The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 - a writ orderinga person to be brought before a court or a judge
  119. 119. RestorationJames II (Charles II brother / catholic) - Possible successor of British throne Separation of the Parliament Whigs - opposition Tories - support
  120. 120. Glorious Revolution James II (1685-1688) Appoints Catholics to high positions (against the law) Dissolves the ParliamentParliament asks Mary (James daughter) and william of orange (prince of netherlands) to overthrow james
  121. 121. Glorious Revolution1689 - 1702 GB becomes the first Constitutional Monarchy Bill of Rights (1689)Act of Toleration (1689) / religious toleration, still restricting Catholics cabinet System
  122. 122. Bill of Rights 1689 The monarch no longer had powers to change, enact or suspend laws / could only do so with the approval of Parliament/the king could no longer raise an army without the consent of Parliament, neither could he levy taxes Freedom of speech and debate in Parliament. Rights of English subjects to keep arms for their defense. Rights to trial by jury
  123. 123. Glorious RevolutionThomas Hobbes: People are selfish / Social Contract John Locke: natural right to defend ―Life, health, Liberty, or Possessions"
  124. 124. Scientificrevolution
  125. 125. CAUSESSpirit of Renaissance influenced the spirit ofcreativity and curiosityReformation made it normal to question old beliefsDiscoveries made people believe there are newtruths to be foundNavigational problems of long sea voyages
  126. 126. ASTRONOMY PTOLEMY: GeocentricismNICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543): HeliocentrisimJOHANNES KEPLER, (1571-1630): Elliptical planetarymovement
  127. 127. Galileo GalileiEarly practitioner of the scientific methodMathematical formula for acceleration of falling objectsLaw of inertiaDark spots on the Moon and the SunSupported the theory of Copernicus
  128. 128. Scientific Method
  129. 129. Isaac Newton―Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy‖ (1687)Universal Gravitation: every object on Earth attracts other object / thedegree of attraction depends on the mass and the distance
  130. 130. Bacon / Descartes• Francis Bacon (1561-1626) The Inductive Method Emphasis on practical, useful knowledge • Rene Descartes (1596- 1650) Significance of Doubt The Deductive Method
  131. 131. Scientific Revolution1590 - First microscope / red blood cells examined1714 / 1742 - Gabriel Fahrenheit / Anders Celsius - mercury thermometersA vaccine to prevent smallpox
  132. 132. enlightenment
  133. 133. main ideas A belief in the existence of natural laws -"law like order of the natural world" A belief in the natural rights of individuals--including the right to be self- governed A belief in power of human reason--reason exalted over emotion and divine revelation Possibility of progressive improvement of human society--through education and development of reason Political, religious, and economic institutions should be reformed in a social utilitarianism for happiness
  134. 134. John Locke ―Concerning Human Understanding‖, 1690• Man is rational and born equal• Virtue can be learned and practiced• Environment & experience are the most important shapers of the human condition /the character of people & societies can be changed through education• This challenges role of divine providence--God has not "fixed" the character of individuals and societies
  135. 135. John Locke ―Treatises on Government‖ 1690 ( justified constitutional monarchy) Argued that the universe contained natural laws governing social relations: life, liberty, & property / they are our inalienable natural rights we are born with them, they are not granted by society Political authority was not divinely ordained, but rather grew out of a "social compact" between the government & the governed Thus, the consent of governed is necessary to protect natural rights and governments. can be changed thru majority decisions
  136. 136. Montesquieu ―On the Spirit of Laws‖ 1758 Separation of powers within the government / Checks and Balances Saw 3 forms of government: monarchies [honor], republics [virtue], and despotisms [fear] Concluded climate, geography, religion, education, etc. account for world‘s different types of laws and governments
  137. 137. Rousseau Man is essentially good when in the "state of nature" (before the creation of civilization and society) / good people are made unhappy and corrupted by their experiences in society. Society is seen as "artificial" and "corrupt" and the furthering of society results in the continuing unhappiness of man. ―Social Contract‖ (1762): "The Social Contract" is the "compact" agreed to among men that sets the conditions for membership in society Questioned the assumption that the will of the majority is always correct. / The goal of government should be to secure freedom, equality, and justice for all within the state, regardless of the will of the majority Serious attacks on the institution of private property
  138. 138. Voltaire Religious toleration / Freedom of expression People are born free and equal Support of monarchy (without it the nations would fall apart) - government would never succeed (with everyone equal) because everyone would have never-ending power and there would be no structure Critics of Church (all the power it exercises over the people)
  139. 139. Diderot Chief editor of the Encyclopédie, intended as a compendium of all knowledge in the arts, sciences, and crafts Attacked conventional morality Was summoned to Russia to meet with Catherine the Great, who had become his patron
  140. 140. “Enlightened Despots” Enlightened Monarchs • Frederick II, Prussia • Catherine the Great, Russia • Maria Theresa, Austria • Joseph II, Austria • Gustav III, Sweden • Napoleon I, France
  141. 141. Impact of the Philosophes Believed the best form of government was a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people’s rights Tried to convince monarchs to rule justly Some thinkers ended up corresponding with or advising European monarchs
  142. 142. Enlightened Despots Some monarch’s embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected the enlightenment ideals No intention of giving up any power The changes they were motivated by the desire:  to make their countries stronger  to make their own rule more effective
  143. 143. Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740–1786)• Enlightened Reforms • Granted religious freedoms • Reduced censorship • Improved education • Reformed the justice system • Abolished the use of torture
  144. 144. Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740–1786) “The first servant of the state” Considered serfdom wrong but did nothing to end it since he needed the support of the wealthy landowners Never tried to changed the existing social order
  145. 145. Catherine the GreatRussia (1762–1796)  Determined to keep “westernizing” Russia  Introduced Enlightened ideals to the Russian elite  Backed efforts to modernize industry and agriculture (the Free Economic Society to encourage the modernization of agriculture and industry)
  146. 146. Catherine the Great Russia (1762–1796) 1767 - a commission to review Russia’s laws Proposed reforms to the legal code based on the ideas of Montesquieu Recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment None of the goals were accomplished
  147. 147. Catherine the Great Russia (1762–1796) First Institute for Girls Russian Academy of Science (to promote knowledge and study of the Russian language, first comprehensive dictionary of the Russian language) First Russian Theater group Decreased censorship
  148. 148. Joseph II Austria (1765–1790) Most radical royal reformer Reforms • Legal reforms • Freedom of the press • Freedom of worship
  149. 149. Joseph II Austria (1765–1790) Abolishment of serfdom All peasants had to be paid for their work in cash After his death, many of his reforms were undone
  150. 150. Changing Relationship Between Ruler and StateOld Idea New Idea As Louis XIV reportedly  As Fredrick the Great said, said “I am the state.” a ruler is only “the first servant of the state.” The state and its citizens  The monarch exists to exist to serve the serve the state and monarch. support citizen’s welfare.
  151. 151. English monarchy and parliament
  152. 152. JAMES IAuthority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism;Parliament felt king should be limited by ParliamentMoney—James I has to ask Parliament for money to financegovernment and life styleReligion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Church whowanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were activemembers of Parliament ( problem - when James I arrangedmarriage of his son (Charles) to a Catholic princes
  153. 153. charles I Always needed money for war When parliament denied money requests, he dissolved parliament 1628, parliament gets back together and asks Charles to sign the Petition of Right
  154. 154. Petition of Right No imprisonment without due cause No taxation without parliament‘s consent No putting soldiers in private homes No martial law during peacetime
  155. 155. Causes of Civil war• Charles forces Scotland to follow anglican religion• scots united the army and threatened to invade England• Charles calls the parliament to raise money• Parliament raises the laws to limit royal power• Charles raises his army in the loyal to him north of england
  156. 156. Civil war (1642-1649) War between Cavaliers (Royalists) vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament)
  157. 157. Civil War Without Parliament‘s funding, king relied on contributions to pay army Wealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to Charles Parliament could back its army by voting for funding Supporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl-shaped haircuts Roundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes
  158. 158. Civil War Puritan‘s General Oliver Cromwell 1647 - Charles I hold prisoner 1649 - Execution of Charles I
  159. 159. COMMONWEALTHCommonwealth was created—type of governmentwith no king & ruled by ParliamentFirst Constitution destroyedOliver Cromwell - a military dictatorthe Irish revolted against Cromwell and failed –616,000 Irish were killed by war, plague and famine
  160. 160. Puritan Morality Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to improve England‘s morality Abolished all ―sinful‖ things: it was illegal to go to the theaters & sporting events; ―merrymaking‖ & ―amusement‖ were illegal Cromwell was tolerant of other religions despite his deep Puritan beliefs (EXCEPT CATHOLICS)
  161. 161. • 1. Charles I‘s supporters were known as the _____ (a.k.a. Cavaliers).• a. Parliamentarians• b. Puritans 3. the period during which the Stuarts• c. Roundheads were out of power in England (1649- 1660) and Cromwell was the one to• d. Royalists rules is known as:a. Act of Unionb. Commonwealthc. Puritan Monarchyd.• 2. The Petition of Right (1628) Stuart Succession included all of the following except what? 4. Cromwell‘s New Model Army landed• a. no taxes without parliament in ____ in 1649, where it forcibly approval evicted civilians and destroyed food• b. No martial law during supplies, sparking a large famine.a. peacetime Franceb. Irelandc. Scotlandd. wales• c. Soldiers could not be quartered in private homes• d. Universal manhood suffrage 5. After Charles I tried to arrest the leaders of Parliament and failed, he fled to the north of England and raised an army.True / False
  162. 162. Restoration 1658 - Cromwell dies 1660 - Charles II (on the petition of Parliament) becomes English KIng (1660-1685) The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 - a writ ordering a person to be brought before a court or a judge
  163. 163. Restoration• James II (Charles II brother / catholic) - Possible successor of British throne• Separation of the Parliament• Whigs - opposition Tories - support
  164. 164. Glorious Revolution• James II (1685-1688) Appoints Catholics to high positions (against the law) Dissolves the Parliament• Parliament asks Mary (James daughter) and william of orange (prince of netherlands) to overthrow james
  165. 165. Glorious Revolution 1689 - 1702 GB becomes the first Constitutional Monarchy Bill of Rights (1689) Act of Toleration (1689) / religious toleration, still restricting Catholics cabinet System
  166. 166. Bill of Rights 1689The monarch no longer had powers to change, enact orsuspend laws / could only do so with the approval ofParliament/the king could no longer raise an army without the consent ofParliament, neither could he levy taxesFreedom of speech and debate in Parliament.Rights of English subjects to keep arms for their defense.Rights to trial by jury
  167. 167. Glorious Revolution Thomas Hobbes: People are selfish / Social Contract John Locke: natural right to defend ―Life, health, Liberty, or Possessions"
  168. 168. AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONMay 1787 – Philadelphia Convention (to reviseArticles of Confederation) 12 states except RhodeIsland
  169. 169. AMERICAN CONSTITUTION Principal DebateRepresentation in the Economic issues andCongress (Small and big Slavery (North and Southstates) States)
  170. 170. AMERICAN CONSTITUTION―Great Compromise‖House of Representatives (according to thepopulation of each state) and Senate (samerepresentation for each state)
  171. 171. AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONSLAVERY5 slaves – same to 3 white persons / for tax payingand representation in the CongressGovernment promises not to intervene into slavetrade (for next 20 years)
  172. 172. AMERICAN CONSTITUTION DIVISION OF POWERLegislative CONGRESS Judicial Executive - PRESIDENT
  173. 173. AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONCONGRESS is allowed to:Levy taxesRegulate trade between the states and other nationsEstablish the national currency and its valueEstablish army and declare warAccept new states
  174. 174. AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONUSA became a Federal RepublicEach state is allowed toRegulate internal tradeConduct electionsProvide public security
  175. 175. AMERICAN CONSTITUTION
  176. 176. AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONBill of Rights 178910 Amendments to the ConstitutionFreedom of speech, press and assemblyRight to keep and bear armsTrial by Jury
  177. 177. CONSTITUCION AMERICANAGeorge Washington (1789 – 1797)Alexander Hamilton / Secretario del Tesoro / Laintervención gubernamental en favor de la industria yel comercio nacionales; fomentar la industria conmedidas proteccionistasRevenue tariff (impuesto sobre importaciones: 5%-8%)Excise tax (impuesto sobre whiskey)El Primer Banco de Estados UnidosAlexander Hamilton
  178. 178. CONSTITUCION AMERICANAPartido Federalista Anti Federalistas /Partido Demócrata-Republicano/
  179. 179. THOMAS JEFFERSON Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809Política de ―Laissez-faire‖Necesidad de limitar al poder parasalvaguardar la libertad/el gobierno federal se encargara de ladefensa y la política exterior, los Estados- una amplia autonomía política interior/
  180. 180. THOMAS JEFFERSON Compra de Luisiana1804 – 2,140 mil km2 (estados de Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa,Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska / partes de Minnesota, Dakota delSur y del Norte, Montana, Texas, Wyoming, Colorado)Problemas: población católica / esclavitud muy fuerte
  181. 181. THOMAS JEFFERSON1807 – Embargo ActMiles de marineros sin trabajoBajan las importaciones e exportaciones (1807-198 mln/1808 – 22 mln)Comercio ilegal entre Canadá y los estados del Norte1809 – Non-Intercouse Act
  182. 182. CONSTITUCION AMERICANA
  183. 183. GUERRA DE 1812Ataques británicos a los barcos americanosApoyo británico a los NativosJunio 1812, Congreso declara la Guerra a GB
  184. 184. GUERRA DE 1812Ejercitopequeño (dependía de milicias de los estados)Inexperiencia de los oficialesPocos barcos (necesidad de rentar barcos privados) Campaña en Canadá (1812-1814)
  185. 185. GUERRA DE 18121814 – ocupación de Washington (los británicos queman eledificio de Casa Blanca y Capitolio)Diciembre 1814 – Batalla de Nuevo Orleans
  186. 186. GUERRA DE 1812Tratado de Gante - 24 de diciembre de 1814
  187. 187. FRENCH REVOLUTION ―Little by little, the old world crumbled, and not once did the king imagine that some of the pieces might fall on him.‖ Jennifer Donnelly, Revolution
  188. 188. First Estate (High-ranking membersof the Church)1% of the total population/ controlover 10% of the landPaid no taxesSupported MonarchySociety under the Old Regime
  189. 189. Second Estate / Nobility2% of the total population/ controlover 20% of the landPaid no taxesSupported MonarchyMonopolized military and stateappointmentsSociety under the Old Regime
  190. 190. Society under the Old RegimeWhat is the third estate? Everything.What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing.What does it demand? To become something therein. Abb Sieyès, What is the Third Estate? (1789)
  191. 191. Third Estate / artisans,bourgeoisie, city workers,merchants, peasants97% of the total populationNo Church, army and governmentpositions open to Third EstatePaid all taxesChurch tax / Tax on goods broughtinto citiesIncome tax / Old Regime /Land taxSociety under the Salt tax
  192. 192. Appointed the intendants Appointed Controlled who the people justice by governed to collect appointing France his taxes judges districts Could Controlled imprison Made all the the laws anyone, at military any reason Levied all Made all the taxes the and decisions decided about how to peace and spend the war moneyWHat did king do
  193. 193. ECONOMIC SITUATIONFrance‘s economy was based primarily on agriculturePeasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxationPoor harvests meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxes / Certainly could not afford to have their taxes raisedBourgeoisie often managed to gather wealth / But were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not
  194. 194. France is bankruptThe king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like VersaillesQueen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spenderGovernment found its funds depleted as a result of warsDeficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenuesPrivileged classes would not submit to being taxed
  195. 195. LONG TERM CAUSES  Absolutism  Unjust socio-political system (Old Regime)  Poor harvests which left peasant farmers with little money for taxes  Influence of Enlightenment philosophes  Influence of other successful revolutions (England’s Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) / American Revolution (1775-1783)
  196. 196. Bankruptcy Great Fear Estates-General• Caused by deficit • Worst famine in • Louis XVI had no spending memory choice but toShort-term Causes• Financial ministers • Hungry, impoverished call for a meeting of the (Turgot, Necker, peasants feared Estates-General Calonne) proposed that nobles at to find a changes Estates-General solution to the • But these were were seeking bankruptcy rejected greater problem• Assembly of privileges • All three Notables voted • Attacks on nobles estates down taxation for occurred • Had not met since the nobility in throughout the 1614 1787 country in 1789 • Set in motion a series of events which resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and a completely new socio-political system for France
  197. 197. 1. Identify thegroupsrepresented inthe cartoon.2. What do thechains representin the cartoon?3. Why did theauthor portraythe three men onthe back of theother?4. Why would thethree men on theback have afacial expressionof indifference?5. What was the
  198. 198.  National Assembly (1789 -1791)  Legislative Assembly (1791- 1792)  National Convention (1792-FRENCH REVOLUTION 1795)  Directory (1795-1799)
  199. 199. Changes under the National Assembly Abolishment of Abolition of special Constitution of guilds and labor privileges 1791 unions Church under Declaration of the Equality before the the Gov. control Rights of Man law (for men) / sale of Church lands Taxes levied based on the ability to pay
  200. 200.  Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen - August, 1789 Freedom of Religion  Freedom of Speech  Freedom of press  Right to a fair trial  Guaranteed property rightsNATIONAL Assembly
  201. 201. Democratic features France became a limited monarchy King became merely the head of state All laws were created by the Legislative Assembly Feudalism was abolishedConstitution of 1791
  202. 202. Undemocratic features Voting was limited to taxpayers Offices were reserved for property ownersConstitution of 1791
  203. 203. Legislative assembly  Royal family sought help from Austria In June, 1791, they were caught trying to escape to Austria  Nobles who fled the revolution lived abroad as émigrés They hoped that, with foreign help, the Old Regime could be restored in France  Church officials wanted Church lands, rights, and privileges restored Some devout Catholic peasants also supported the Church  Political parties, representing different interests, emerged Girondists (moderates who represented the rich middle class of the provinces) Jacobins (led by Marat, Danton, and Robespierre) represented workers)
  204. 204. Opposition to the new government  European monarchs feared that revolution would spread to their own countries France was invaded by Austrian and Prussian troops  In the uproar, the Commune took control of Paris  Commune was led by Danton, a member of the Jacobin political party  Voters began electing representatives for a new convention which would write a republican constitution for France
  205. 205. National convention  On September 22, 1792, the Convention met for the first time  Established the First French Republic  Faced domestic opposition: Girondists were moderates who represented the rich middle class of the provinces  Faced opposition from abroad : Austria, England, Holland, Prussia, Sardinia, and Spain formed a Coalition invading France  The Convention abolished the monarchy  Put the royal couple on trial for treason : Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, 1793 / Marie Antoinette was guillotined on October 16, 1793
  206. 206. Reign of Terror:September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794 Danton and his Jacobin political party came to dominate French politics Committee of Public Safety  Headed by Danton (and later Robespierre)  Those accused of treason were tried by the Committee‘s Revolutionary Tribunal  Approximately 15,000 people died on the guillotine / 40 000 executed in general  Guillotine became known as the ―National Razor‖  Changed the calendar / took away Sundays (as religious and old fashioned)  Closed all the Churches
  207. 207. 4. Which of the following was responsible for the1. Which of the following was a result of the Civil Constitution ofthe Clergy?: convening of the Estates General in 1789?:a. the clergy were given a privileged position in the Estates- a. the storming of the Bastille.General. b. peasant discontent with the king.b. the church was made a department of the French state. c. royal abolition of guild restrictions.QUIZc. the clergy were condemned to execution during the Reign of Terror. d. the French governments near bankruptcy.d. the church was made completely independent from the state.2. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen guaranteed?: The term "Great Fear" refers toa. universal manhood suffrage. a. the horiffic retreat of the French Army from Russia in 1812.b. abolition of the monarchy. b. murder of thousands of enemies of the Revolution inc. free education. the prisons.d. security of property. c. panic in the countryside that fanned the flames of3. he greatest number of victims under "The Terror" (1793-1794) rebellion.were from which social group?: d. the fear of an English invasion of Francea. clergy.b. nobility.c. foreigners.d. peasants.
  208. 208. FRENCH REVOLUTION "Any law which violates the inalienable rights ofman is essentially unjust and tyrannical; it is not a law at all." Robespierre
  209. 209. constitution 1791 Democratic features France became a limited monarchy King became merely the head of stateAll laws were created by the Legislative Assembly Feudalism was abolished Undemocratic features Voting was limited to taxpayers Offices were reserved for property owners
  210. 210. FRENCH REVOLUTION LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLYRadicals Conservatists R Moderates
  211. 211. legislative assemblu Nobles who fled the revolution lived abroad as émigrésPolitical parties, representing different interests, emerged Girondists ( moderates who represented the rich middle class of the provinces) Jacobins (to limit the powers of the king / republican tendencies)
  212. 212. opposition to french governmentEuropean monarchs feared that revolution would spread to their own countries France was invaded by Austrian and Prussian troops Commune, led by Danton (Jacobin) takes control Voters began electing representatives for a National Convention which would write a republican constitution for France
  213. 213. The National Convention (1792) :  Abolished the MonarchyPut the royal couple on trial for treason (Louis XVIwas guillotined on January 21, 1793 / Marie Antoinettewas guillotined on October 16, 1793 /Daughter Marie- Thérèse was allowed to go to Vienna in 1795 )Established Republic (male adults received the right to vote) Set aside the Legislative Assembly Abolishment of monarchy
  214. 214. Danton and his Jacobin political party came to dominate French politics Committee of Public Safety (1793) / executive government in France during the Reign of Terror Headed by Danton (and later Robespierre)Those accused of treason were tried by the Committee‘s Revolutionary TribunalApproximately 15,000 people died on the guillotine (Guillotine became known as the ―National Razor‖) New Calendar (no Sundays) Reign of terror All Churches are closed
  215. 215. By July 1794 NC understood that nobody was safe from Robespierre They made a conspiracy demanding his arrest Robespierre lost his head on July 28, 1794 End of reign of terror 1795 NC drafted new plan of government: New constitution placed power in hands of upper middle class Two house legislature Executive Directory of Five

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