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  • 1. Universe design tool ■ SAP BusinessObjects Business Intelligence platform 4.0 Support Package 02 2011-04-14
  • 2. © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved.SAP, R/3, SAP NetWeaver, Duet, PartnerEdge, ByDesign, SAP Business ByDesign, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective Copyright logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and other countries. Business Objects and the Business Objects logo, BusinessObjects, Crystal Reports, Crystal Decisions, Web Intelligence, Xcelsius, and other Business Objects products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Business Objects S.A. in the United States and in other countries. Business Objects is an SAP company.All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. National product specifications may vary.These materials are subject to change without notice. These materials are provided by SAP AG and its affiliated companies ("SAP Group") for informational purposes only, without representation or warranty of any kind, and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. The only warranties for SAP Group products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services, if any. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. 2011-04-14
  • 3. Contents Introducing the universe design tool.....................................................................................15Chapter 1 Overview................................................................................................................................151.1 Universe design tool and universe fundamentals....................................................................151.2 What is a universe?................................................................................................................151.2.1 What is the role of a universe?...............................................................................................161.2.2 What does a universe contain?...............................................................................................161.2.3 About the universe window....................................................................................................181.2.4 Universe design tool install root path......................................................................................191.2.5 How do you use the universe design tool to create universes?..............................................191.3 How do objects generate SQL?.............................................................................................201.3.1 What types of database schema are supported?....................................................................201.3.2 How are universes used?.......................................................................................................211.3.3 Who is the universe designer?...............................................................................................221.4 Required skills and knowledge...............................................................................................221.4.1 What are the tasks of the universe designer?.........................................................................231.4.2 The basic steps to create a universe......................................................................................231.5 Introducing the universe development process.......................................................................241.6 Universe design methodology................................................................................................241.6.1 Universe development cycle..................................................................................................251.6.2 Optimizing universe planning and implementation time...........................................................271.6.3 Multilingual universes.............................................................................................................281.7 Multilingual universes.............................................................................................................281.7.1 Definitions of languages and locales.......................................................................................291.7.2 The different locales...............................................................................................................301.7.3 Setting the product language for the universe design tool user interface................................301.7.4 Consuming multilingual universes...........................................................................................311.7.5 Determining the fallback locale in linked universes.................................................................311.7.6 The translation management tool............................................................................................311.7.7 Multilingual data.....................................................................................................................321.7.8 Universe design tool example materials..................................................................................321.8 Demonstration databases......................................................................................................321.8.1 Demonstration universes.......................................................................................................331.8.2 2011-04-143
  • 4. Using universes with the information design tool....................................................................331.9 Doing basic operations.........................................................................................................35Chapter 2 Overview................................................................................................................................352.1 Starting the universe design tool............................................................................................352.2 To start the universe design tool............................................................................................362.2.1 Using the Quick Design wizard ..............................................................................................372.2.2 Working with XI R2 connections and universes with Designer XI R3......................................372.3 Creating a basic universe with the Quick Design wizard.........................................................382.4 Why use the Quick Design wizard?........................................................................................382.4.1 Using the Quick Design Wizard..............................................................................................382.4.2 Following up on a universe created with the Quick Design wizard..........................................462.4.3 Importing a universe...............................................................................................................462.5 Importing a universe from the repository................................................................................462.5.1 What is the difference between opening and importing?.........................................................472.5.2 Opening a universe................................................................................................................472.6 Exporting a universe...............................................................................................................482.7 How are universes organized on the repository file system?..................................................492.7.1 Exporting a universe to the repository....................................................................................492.7.2 What is the difference between exporting and saving?...........................................................502.7.3 Saving a universe...................................................................................................................502.8 Universe file names as identifiers...........................................................................................512.8.1 Saving a universe...................................................................................................................512.8.2 Saving a universe definition as PDF........................................................................................512.8.3 Closing a universe..................................................................................................................522.9 Working with multiple designers.............................................................................................532.10 Locking a universe.................................................................................................................532.10.1 Revision number....................................................................................................................532.10.2 Using the universe design tool user interface.........................................................................542.11 The main components of the user interface............................................................................542.11.1 The universe design tool user interface..................................................................................552.11.2 Manipulating windows ...........................................................................................................552.11.3 Using toolbars........................................................................................................................562.11.4 Performing an action or operation in the universe design tool.................................................572.11.5 Using Find and Replace..........................................................................................................592.12 Using Find..............................................................................................................................592.12.1 Using Quick Find....................................................................................................................622.12.2 Organizing the table display....................................................................................................622.13 How are tables represented?.................................................................................................632.13.1 Manipulating tables................................................................................................................632.13.2 Using List mode.....................................................................................................................642.13.3 2011-04-144 Contents
  • 5. Arranging tables automatically................................................................................................652.13.4 Changing table display...........................................................................................................662.13.5 Selecting schema display options...........................................................................................672.14 Setting graphic options for the Structure pane display...........................................................692.14.1 Viewing table and column values............................................................................................702.14.2 Viewing the number of rows in database tables......................................................................722.14.3 Printing a universe..................................................................................................................762.15 Setting print options...............................................................................................................762.15.1 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters.....................................................79Chapter 3 What are universe parameters?..............................................................................................793.1 Creating a new universe.........................................................................................................803.2 Creating a new universe from scratch....................................................................................813.2.1 Viewing and entering summary information............................................................................823.3 Setting universe parameters..................................................................................................833.4 Identifying the universe ..........................................................................................................833.4.1 Defining and editing connections............................................................................................853.4.2 Setting universe summary parameters...................................................................................943.4.3 To view and enter summary information.................................................................................943.4.4 Selecting strategies...............................................................................................................953.4.5 Indicating resource controls.................................................................................................1003.4.6 What system resource options are available?.......................................................................1003.4.7 To enter resource control information...................................................................................1013.4.8 Limiting execution time for queries generating more than one SQL statement......................1013.4.9 Indicating SQL restrictions...................................................................................................1023.4.10 Indicating options for linked universes..................................................................................1043.4.11 Setting SQL generation parameters.....................................................................................1043.4.12 About SQL Generation Parameters......................................................................................1073.4.13 SQL Parameters that you set in the user interface...............................................................1073.4.14 SQL Parameters that you set in the PRM files.....................................................................1283.4.15 Creating a schema with tables and joins............................................................................145Chapter 4 Overview..............................................................................................................................1454.1 What is a schema?...............................................................................................................1454.2 Schema design is the basis for a successful universe..........................................................1464.2.1 Schema design and the universe creation process...............................................................1464.2.2 What are the stages of schema design?...............................................................................1474.2.3 Inserting tables.....................................................................................................................1474.3 Using the Table Browser......................................................................................................1474.3.1 Arranging Tables in the Structure Pane................................................................................1504.3.2 2011-04-145 Contents
  • 6. Using derived tables.............................................................................................................1514.4 Adding, editing, and deleting derived tables..........................................................................1524.4.1 Nested derived tables..........................................................................................................1544.5 Using the Derived Tables editor...........................................................................................1554.5.1 To create a nested derived table..........................................................................................1554.5.2 Renaming nested derived tables...........................................................................................1564.5.3 Using tables that have input columns...................................................................................1564.6 To define a hard-coded list of values....................................................................................1574.6.1 To define a list of values for the user to enter or select........................................................1574.6.2 Defining joins.......................................................................................................................1584.7 What is a join?......................................................................................................................1584.7.1 Why use joins in a schema?.................................................................................................1584.7.2 What SQL does a join Infer?................................................................................................1594.7.3 What tables do not have to be joined?.................................................................................1594.7.4 Joining primary and foreign keys..........................................................................................1604.7.5 Understanding the cardinality of a join..................................................................................1614.7.6 Creating joins.......................................................................................................................1614.7.7 Join properties.....................................................................................................................1664.7.8 Editing a join.........................................................................................................................1694.7.9 ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe................................................................................1734.7.10 Deleting joins.......................................................................................................................1764.7.11 Defining specific types of joins.............................................................................................1774.8 Creating Equi-joins...............................................................................................................1784.8.1 Theta joins...........................................................................................................................1814.8.2 Outer joins...........................................................................................................................1844.8.3 Shortcut joins.......................................................................................................................1884.8.4 Self restricting joins.............................................................................................................1894.8.5 Using cardinalities................................................................................................................1914.9 How are cardinalities used in the universe design tool?........................................................1924.9.1 Setting cardinalities manually................................................................................................1944.9.2 Checking the universe..........................................................................................................2014.10 Checking universe integrity automatically.............................................................................2024.10.1 Resolving join problems in a schema..................................................................................209Chapter 5 Overview..............................................................................................................................2095.1 What is a join path problem?................................................................................................2095.2 What is a Lookup Table........................................................................................................2105.2.1 What is a Fact Table.............................................................................................................2105.2.2 What Types of Join Paths Return Incorrect Results?............................................................2105.2.3 Detecting and Solving Join Problems...................................................................................2115.2.4 Defining aliases....................................................................................................................2125.3 2011-04-146 Contents
  • 7. How are Aliases Used in a Schema?....................................................................................2125.3.1 Creating Aliases...................................................................................................................2135.3.2 Defining contexts.................................................................................................................2165.4 How are Contexts Used in a Schema?.................................................................................2165.4.1 Creating a Context...............................................................................................................2175.4.2 Editing a context...................................................................................................................2205.4.3 Deleting a context................................................................................................................2225.4.4 Updating contexts................................................................................................................2225.4.5 Join Paths that Prevent Context Detection..........................................................................2235.4.6 How do Contexts Affect Queries?........................................................................................2245.4.7 Resolving loops....................................................................................................................2275.5 What is a Loop?...................................................................................................................2275.5.1 How Does a Loop Affect Queries?.......................................................................................2295.5.2 Visually Identifying Loops.....................................................................................................2365.5.3 Automatically Identifying and Resolving Loops.....................................................................2375.5.4 Tool Features to Detect and Resolve loops..........................................................................2375.5.5 Examples of Resolving Loops...............................................................................................2465.5.6 Resolving Chasm Traps.......................................................................................................2555.6 What is a Chasm Trap?........................................................................................................2555.6.1 How does a chasm trap inflate results?................................................................................2565.6.2 Detecting a Chasm Trap......................................................................................................2585.6.3 Resolving a Chasm Trap......................................................................................................2585.6.4 Resolving Fan Traps.............................................................................................................2615.7 What is a Fan Trap?.............................................................................................................2615.7.1 How Do You Detect a Fan Trap?..........................................................................................2635.7.2 How Do You Resolve a Fan Trap?........................................................................................2635.7.3 Detecting join problems graphically......................................................................................2675.8 Potential chasm trap.............................................................................................................2675.8.1 Potential fan trap..................................................................................................................2685.8.2 Checking the universe..........................................................................................................2695.9 Checking Universe Integrity Automatically............................................................................2705.9.1 Checking Universe Integrity Manually...................................................................................2715.9.2 Refreshing the Universe Structure.......................................................................................2745.9.3 Creating universes..............................................................................................................277Chapter 6 Overview..............................................................................................................................2776.1 Introduction to universe building...........................................................................................2776.2 What is an object?...............................................................................................................2786.2.1 What types of objects are used in a universe?.....................................................................2796.2.2 What is a class?...................................................................................................................2796.2.3 Using classes and objects....................................................................................................2806.2.4 2011-04-147 Contents
  • 8. Using the Universe pane......................................................................................................2806.3 Displaying classes and objects or conditions........................................................................2806.3.1 Basic operations on classes, objects, and conditions...........................................................2816.4 Cut, copy, paste..................................................................................................................2816.4.1 Moving classes, objects, or conditions.................................................................................2816.4.2 Showing or hiding classes, objects and conditions...............................................................2816.4.3 Defining classes...................................................................................................................2826.5 Creating a class...................................................................................................................2836.5.1 Class properties...................................................................................................................2856.5.2 Modifying a class.................................................................................................................2856.5.3 Using subclasses.................................................................................................................2866.5.4 Defining objects...................................................................................................................2866.6 Creating an object................................................................................................................2876.6.1 Object properties.................................................................................................................2886.6.2 Modifying an object..............................................................................................................2896.6.3 Object definition...................................................................................................................2906.6.4 Properties............................................................................................................................2936.6.5 Advanced.............................................................................................................................2946.6.6 Defining index awareness.....................................................................................................2966.6.7 Source Information...............................................................................................................3016.6.8 Using the SQL editor to define an object..............................................................................3016.6.9 Defining an object format.....................................................................................................3046.6.10 Viewing the table used in an object definition.......................................................................3066.6.11 Defining a dimension............................................................................................................3066.6.12 Defining a detail...................................................................................................................3076.6.13 Defining a measure..............................................................................................................3076.6.14 Defining restrictions for an object.........................................................................................3136.6.15 Defining condition objects....................................................................................................3186.6.16 Using self restricting joins to apply restrictions.....................................................................3246.6.17 Applying a restriction by inferring multiple tables..................................................................3246.6.18 Concatenating objects.........................................................................................................3266.6.19 Defining hierarchies..............................................................................................................3286.7 What is multidimensional analysis?.......................................................................................3286.7.1 How to identify a hierarchy...................................................................................................3296.7.2 Setting up hierarchies..........................................................................................................3306.7.3 Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies......................................................................3336.8 Creating a cascading list of values.......................................................................................3346.8.1 Using lists of values.............................................................................................................3366.9 How is a list of values used?................................................................................................3376.9.1 Defining how a list of values is used with an object..............................................................3386.9.2 List of values properties and options....................................................................................3396.9.3 2011-04-148 Contents
  • 9. Editing a list of values...........................................................................................................3446.9.4 Exporting a list of values.......................................................................................................3476.9.5 Refreshing values in a list of values......................................................................................3506.9.6 Using data from a personal data file.....................................................................................3506.9.7 Administering lists of values in the universe.........................................................................3526.9.8 Optimizing and customizing LOV files...................................................................................3536.9.9 Linking universes.................................................................................................................3546.10 What are linked universes?..................................................................................................3546.10.1 Different ways to link universes............................................................................................3566.10.2 Advantages of linking universes...........................................................................................3586.10.3 Requirements for linking universes.......................................................................................3586.10.4 Restrictions when linking universes......................................................................................3596.10.5 Creating a link between two universes.................................................................................3596.10.6 Editing a derived universe.....................................................................................................3626.10.7 Removing a link....................................................................................................................3636.10.8 Relocating the core universe................................................................................................3636.10.9 Derived universes and lists of values....................................................................................3646.10.10 Presenting objects in the order of the core universe.............................................................3646.10.11 Including one universe within another...................................................................................3656.11 Copying a core universe into a derived universe...................................................................3656.11.1 Creating stored procedure universes...................................................................................3666.12 Stored procedures in Java bean universes...........................................................................3676.12.1 Creating a universe based on stored procedures.................................................................3676.12.2 Testing the universe.............................................................................................................3716.13 Testing objects in the Query Panel.......................................................................................3716.13.1 Testing the integrity of the universe .....................................................................................3716.13.2 Testing the universe with Web Intelligence...........................................................................3716.13.3 Optimizing universes..........................................................................................................373Chapter 7 Overview..............................................................................................................................3737.1 Using aggregate tables........................................................................................................3737.2 What is aggregate awareness?............................................................................................3747.2.1 Applying aggregate awareness to data warehouses.............................................................3747.2.2 Setting up aggregate awareness..........................................................................................3747.2.3 Building the objects..............................................................................................................3767.2.4 Identifying all combinations of the aggregate objects............................................................3767.2.5 Arranging objects in aggregate level order...........................................................................3767.2.6 Defining aggregate objects with the @Aggregate_Aware function........................................3777.2.7 Specifying the incompatible objects.....................................................................................3797.2.8 Specifying incompatible objects...........................................................................................3827.2.9 Resolving loops involving aggregate tables..........................................................................3857.2.10 2011-04-149 Contents
  • 10. Testing aggregate awareness...............................................................................................3877.2.11 Using @Functions in the SQL of an object............................................................................3877.3 Inserting an @Function in an object......................................................................................3897.3.1 @Aggregate_Aware.............................................................................................................3907.3.2 @Prompt..............................................................................................................................3917.3.3 @Script................................................................................................................................4067.3.4 @Select...............................................................................................................................4077.3.5 @Variable.............................................................................................................................4087.3.6 @Where...............................................................................................................................4157.3.7 Using external strategies to customize universe creation.....................................................4177.4 Migrating external strategies to the universe design tool......................................................4177.4.1 External strategies overview.................................................................................................4187.4.2 What is an external strategy?...............................................................................................4197.4.3 Creating Help text for external strategies.............................................................................4207.4.4 Verifying that the external strategy file is declared................................................................4227.4.5 Using example external strategies........................................................................................4227.4.6 How is the strategy file (STG) structured?............................................................................4237.4.7 The output formats of strategies..........................................................................................4257.4.8 Creating an external strategy...............................................................................................4297.4.9 Creating a text file for data...................................................................................................4317.4.10 Applying external strategies in the universe design tool........................................................4317.4.11 Using analytic functions........................................................................................................4327.5 What are analytic functions?.................................................................................................4337.5.1 What are the advantages of using analytic functions?...........................................................4337.5.2 Which analytic function families are supported?....................................................................4347.5.3 How are analytic functions used in the universe design tool?................................................4347.5.4 IBM DB2 UDB and Oracle...................................................................................................4357.5.5 RedBrick (RISQL functions).................................................................................................4397.5.6 Teradata (OLAP functions)...................................................................................................4427.5.7 Inserting syntax automatically in Select statements..............................................................4457.5.8 Using the SQL prefix function..............................................................................................4467.6 To prefix SQL statements with the BEGIN_SQL universe parameter....................................4467.6.1 Optimizing the array fetch parameter....................................................................................4477.7 Modifying the array fetch parameter.....................................................................................4487.7.1 Allocating table weights........................................................................................................4487.8 Modifying the PRM file to allocate table weights..................................................................4487.8.1 Modifying the number of returned rows for a table...............................................................4497.9 Modifying the number of returned rows................................................................................4497.9.1 Using shortcut joins.............................................................................................................4507.10 2011-04-1410 Contents
  • 11. Working with OLAP universes............................................................................................451Chapter 8 About OLAP universes.........................................................................................................4518.1 What is an OLAP universe?..................................................................................................4518.1.1 Which OLAP data sources can be used to create a universe? .............................................4528.1.2 Defining connections to OLAP data sources........................................................................4578.2 About connections to OLAP data sources............................................................................4588.2.1 To start the New Connection wizard....................................................................................4588.2.2 To select database middleware for an OLAP connection......................................................4598.2.3 Login parameters for SAP BW OLAP connections...............................................................4608.2.4 Login parameters for MSAS OLAP connections .................................................................4628.2.5 Defining login parameters for Essbase connections.............................................................4638.2.6 To select source cube or query for OLAP connections.........................................................4648.2.7 To define configuration parameters for OLAP connections...................................................4658.2.8 Defining custom parameters for Essbase connections.........................................................4668.2.9 Customizing OLAP universes...............................................................................................4678.3 Creating OLAP Universes with additional parameters..........................................................4678.3.1 Defining OLAP options for your OLAP universe...................................................................4688.3.2 Defining objects in OLAP universes.....................................................................................4698.3.3 Universe design tool features supported for OLAP universes..............................................4708.3.4 Database delegated projection function...............................................................................4718.3.5 Setting delegated measures for OLAP universes.................................................................4738.3.6 Setting aggregate projection for a measure..........................................................................4738.3.7 Calculated measures in OLAP universes..............................................................................4748.3.8 About MDX functions for cube queries.................................................................................4768.3.9 XML syntax for filter and WHERE statements.......................................................................4778.3.10 Predefined conditions in OLAP universes.............................................................................4788.3.11 Optional prompts in OLAP universes....................................................................................4828.3.12 To improve performance of certain queries on SAP NetWeaver BW universes....................4838.3.13 OLAP universe lifecycle management..................................................................................4838.4 About OLAP universe lifecycle management........................................................................4838.4.1 Overview: relationship between universe object status and OLAP object status .................4858.4.2 To refresh an OLAP universe...............................................................................................4878.4.3 Regenerating Level 00 for OLAP universes..........................................................................4908.4.4 Renaming level L00 to ALL..................................................................................................4908.4.5 Replacing OLAP universe level prefixes...............................................................................4918.4.6 Synchronizing the universe and the OLAP cube...................................................................4918.4.7 How dimensions are managed in OLAP universe updates....................................................4928.4.8 How hierarchies or characteristics are managed in OLAP universe updates ........................4978.4.9 How levels are managed in OLAP universe updates ............................................................5048.4.10 How SAP variables are managed in OLAP universe updates ...............................................5088.4.11 2011-04-1411 Contents
  • 12. How key figures or measures are managed in OLAP universe updates ...............................5128.4.12 How SAP key dates are managed in OLAP universe updates ..............................................5168.4.13 How the different OLAP cubes are mapped to universes.....................................................5188.5 How SAP NetWeaver BW objects are mapped and used in a universe................................5188.5.1 How Essbase cubes are mapped to universe components...................................................5278.5.2 How MSAS cubes are mapped to universe components .....................................................5288.5.3 Working with universes from metadata sources.................................................................531Chapter 9 Introduction to generating universes from metadata sources................................................5319.1 Overview..............................................................................................................................5319.2 Universe creation overview..................................................................................................5329.3 Selecting a metadata source................................................................................................5329.4 Creating a universe from an XML source.............................................................................5339.5 XML metadata sources........................................................................................................5339.5.1 To generate a universe from an XML metadata source ........................................................5349.5.2 Choosing connection and universe options..........................................................................5359.5.3 To update a universe from an XML metadata source............................................................5369.5.4 Exporting a universe to DB2CV............................................................................................5379.6 Universe pre-requisites for export........................................................................................5379.6.1 Identifying universe metadata...............................................................................................5389.6.2 Exporting a universe to a DB2CV XML file...........................................................................5399.6.3 Universe to DB2CV metadata mapping................................................................................5399.6.4 Mapping specific SQL expressions......................................................................................5449.6.5 Oracle Analytic Workspaces................................................................................................5459.7 How is a universe generated from an OLAP cube?...............................................................5459.7.1 Mapping Oracle OLAP structures to universe components..................................................5469.7.2 Analyzing the relational view.................................................................................................5469.7.3 What are the shortcut joins in the universe used for?...........................................................5479.7.4 How are Oracle OLAP structures mapped to universe components?...................................5499.7.5 Create a view and generate a universe.................................................................................5539.7.6 Options for creating a universe and view from an Oracle Analytic Workspace......................5549.7.7 Creating a view and generating a universe...........................................................................5549.7.8 Create a view only from an Oracle Analytical Workspace.....................................................5569.7.9 Generating a universe from an existing view.........................................................................5569.7.10 To generate a universe from an existing view.......................................................................5569.7.11 Deploying universes............................................................................................................559Chapter 10 Overview..............................................................................................................................55910.1 How are universes deployed?...............................................................................................55910.2 Identifying a universe in the repository.................................................................................55910.2.1 2011-04-1412 Contents
  • 13. Giving all users access to a universe....................................................................................56010.3 Setting access restrictions on a universe.............................................................................56110.4 What is a restriction?...........................................................................................................56110.4.1 What restrictions can be applied in a universe?....................................................................56210.4.2 How are access restrictions managed?................................................................................56210.4.3 Creating a restriction............................................................................................................56410.4.4 Applying universe access restrictions...................................................................................56710.4.5 Adding a user group to the list of available users for a universe...........................................56710.4.6 Setting restriction group priority...........................................................................................56910.4.7 Viewing users and groups security restrictions.....................................................................57010.4.8 Managing users and logins...................................................................................................57110.5 Managing logins...................................................................................................................57110.5.1 Managing passwords...........................................................................................................57210.5.2 Using the sample materials.................................................................................................573Chapter 11 Overview..............................................................................................................................57311.1 The Club database...............................................................................................................57311.2 The structure of the tables...................................................................................................57311.2.1 More Information.................................................................................................................583Appendix A Index 585 2011-04-1413 Contents
  • 14. 2011-04-1414 Contents
  • 15. Introducing the universe design tool 1.1 Overview This chapter gives you a general introduction to the universe design tool, the tool you use to build universes. It describes universes, what they contain, how they are created, and the role that universes have in your business environment. The typical universe development cycle is described, with best design practices recommended. The demonstration databases and universes shipped with this release are also described. This chapter introduces the universe design tool, the devlopment process and the different language possibilities for the universe. The following topics are covered: Related Topics • Universe design tool and universe fundamentals • How do you use the universe design tool to create universes? • Who is the universe designer? • Introducing the universe development process • Multilingual universes 1.2 Universe design tool and universe fundamentals Business Objects universe design tool is a software tool that allows you to create universes for Web Intelligence and Desktop Intelligence users. 1.2.1 What is a universe? A universe is a file that contains the following: 2011-04-1415 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 16. • Connection parameters for one or more database middleware. • SQL structures called objects that map to actual SQL structures in the database such as columns, tables, and database functions. Objects are grouped into classes. Objects and classes are both visible to Web Intelligence users. • A schema of the tables and joins used in the database. Objects are built from the database structures that you include in your schema. The schema is only available to universe design tool users. It is not visible to Web Intelligence and Desktop Intelligence users. Web Intelligence users connect to a universe, and run queries against a database. They can do data analysis and create reports using the objects in a universe, without seeing, or having to know anything about, the underlying data structures in the database. 1.2.2 What is the role of a universe? The role of a universe is to provide an easy to use and understand interface for non technical Web Intelligence users to run queries against a database to create reports and perform data analysis. As the universe designer, you use the universe design tool to create objects that represent database structures, for example columns and database functions, that users need to access and query, to get the information necessary to meet their business requirements. The objects that you create in the universe must be relevant to the end user business environment and vocabulary. Their role is to present a business focussed front end to the SQL structures in the database. 1.2.3 What does a universe contain? A universe contains the following structures: • Classes • Objects 1.2.3.1 Classes A class is a logical grouping of objects within a universe. It represents a category of objects. The name of a class should indicate the category of the objects that it contains. A class can be divided hierarchically into subclasses. 2011-04-1416 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 17. 1.2.3.2 Objects An object is a named component that maps to data or a derivation of data in the database. The name of an object should be drawn from the business vocabulary of the targeted user group. For example, objects used in a universe used by a product manager could be Product, Life Cycle, or Release Date. A universe used by a financial analyst could contain objects such as Profit Margin or Return on Investment. 1.2.3.3 Types of objects In the universe design tool, objects are qualified as one of three types: dimension, detail, or measure. DescriptionObject type Parameters for analysis. Dimensions typically re- late to a hierarchy such as geography, product, or time. For example. Last Name and City_Id Dimension Provide a description of a dimension, but are not the focus for analysis. For example. Phone Number Detail Convey numeric information which is used to quantify a dimension object. For example, Sales Revenue Measure 1.2.3.4 Objects infer SQL structures displayed in a schema The objects that Web Intelligence users see in a universe infer SQL structures that you have inserted into a database schema. You, as the universe designer, create this schema based on the tables and joins that are required to return the data, needed by users for their analysis and report creation. 2011-04-1417 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 18. The schema is a part of the universe file, but is only visible and accessible in the universe design tool. You create the schema in the "Structure pane" of the "Universe window". A schema is shown below for the sample universe Beach.unv. 1.2.3.5 How are objects presented in a universe? Objects are displayed as nodes in a "Tree explorer" view in the "Universe pane". You use the object explorer to create, delete, copy, view, and move classes and objects. 1.2.4 About the universe window The "Universe window" in the universe design tool is shown below. It contains both the "Universe" pane (also visible in Web Intelligence) and the "Structure pane" (visible only in the universe design tool). 2011-04-1418 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 19. 1.2.5 Universe design tool install root path In this guide the variable $INSTALLDIR is the install root path for the data access files used by the universe design tool and Web Intelligence. This is the Business Objects installation path with the operating system sub directory that contains the universe design tool executable and the data access drivers. Under Windows, $INSTALLDIR = ...Business ObjectsBusinessObjects Enterprise 12.0win32_x86. For example C:Program FilesBusiness ObjectsBusinessObjects Enterprise 12.0win32_x86. 1.3 How do you use the universe design tool to create universes? The universe design tool provides a connection wizard that allows you to connect to your database middleware. You can create multiple connections with the tool, but only one connection can be defined for each universe. This database connection is saved with the universe. The universe design tool provides a graphical interface that allows you to select and view tables in a database. The database tables are represented as table symbols in a schema diagram. You can use 2011-04-1419 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 20. this interface to manipulate tables, create joins that link the tables, create alias tables, contexts, and solve loops in your schema. Web Intelligence users do not see this schema. The universe design tool provides an object explorer view, the "Tree explorer". You use the "Tree explorer" to create objects that map to the columns and SQL structures that are represented in the schema view. Web Intelligence users manipulate these objects to run queries against a database. The universe design tool allows you to distribute universes by importing and exporting universes to the Central Management System (CMS) repository. 1.3.1 How do objects generate SQL? Web Intelligence users create queries by dragging objects into the "Query" work area. The definition of each object infers a SELECT statement. When a query is run, a SELECT statement and optional WHERE clause for all the objects is run against the target database. When a user chooses to include dimension and/or detail objects with a measure object in the "Query" work area, a GROUP BY clause containing the content of those dimension and detail objects is automatically added to the SELECT statement. The tables that are included in the FROM clause and the Joins in the WHERE clause, are inferred from the table schema that you build in the "Structure" pane. 1.3.2 What types of database schema are supported? The universe design tool can support most types of database schema, including all those shown below. You do not need to redefine or optimize your database before using the universe design tool. 2011-04-1420 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 21. 1.3.3 How are universes used? Universes are used by Web Intelligence users. The universes are stored in the Central Management System (CMS) repository. An end user connects to a universe from a web browser. The connection to the database is defined in the universe, so by connecting to the universe, the end user automatically has access to the data. The access to data is in turn restricted by the objects that are available in the universe. These objects have been created by you, the universe designer, based on the user needs profile for a defined user group. 1.3.3.1 Representing a targeted data need A universe can represent the data needs of any specific application, system, or group of users. For example, a universe can contain objects that represent the data needs of the Marketing or Accounting departments in a company. A universe can also represent the data needs of a section within a department or any set of organized procedures such as a payroll or inventory system. Examples of classes are Employee Information, Attendance Information, and Department Information. 1.3.3.2 Universes and the database schema The database schema is used to create three universes; PERSONNEL, INVENTORY, and SALES. Each universe contains classes and objects. Each object maps to a part of the database structure. 2011-04-1421 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 22. 1.3.3.3 Who uses universes? Web Intelligence users use universes for reporting and analysis. The universe should provide them with classes and objects relevant to their business domain. 1.4 Who is the universe designer? Universes are created by a universe designer using the universe design tool. There is no standard profile for a universe designer. Within a company, the person designated as the universe designer may be the database administrator, an applications manager or developer, a project manager, or a report creator who has acquired enough technical skills to create universes for other users. There can be more than one universe designer in a company. The number of universe designers depends on the company's data requirements. For example, one universe designer could be appointed for each application, project, department or functional area. When several people create universes, it is important to define a set of rules or guidelines for terminology, so that the objects are represented consistently. 1.4.1 Required skills and knowledge A universe designer should have the following skills and level of technical knowledge: DescriptionSkill/Knowledge Universes are created to meet a user need for data. The universe designer must have the skills to conduct user needs analyses to create classes and objects that are relevant to the user vocabu- lary, and to develop universes that meet the needs of the user community. These needs in- clude report creation and query results that are suitable for analysis Ability to analyze user needs 2011-04-1422 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 23. DescriptionSkill/Knowledge Universe designer needs to have a good working knowledge of the company's database manage- ment system (DBMS), how the databases are deployed, the logical database structure, and the type of data stored in company databases Database knowledge A working knowledge of SQL is necessaryStuctured Query Language (SQL) 1.4.2 What are the tasks of the universe designer? The universe designer is normally responsible for the following tasks: • Conducting user needs analysis • Designing and creating the universe • Distributing the universe • Maintaining the universe 1.5 The basic steps to create a universe The universe is the part of the .unv file that is used by end-users who use reporting tools to create reports. It is the only part if the .unv file that is visible to the end-users. When you create a universe, you perform the following steps: 1. Create a new (empty) universe file and set the connection and parameter details. 2. Create a schema of the database tables that you want to use, and define the joins between tables. The schema is not visible to end-users who use reporting tools to create reports. 3. Resolve any join problems in the schema. 4. Create the classes and objects that make up the universe. The universe is used by end-users who use reporting tools to create reports. Related Topics • Doing basic operations • Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters 2011-04-1423 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 24. • Creating a schema with tables and joins • Resolving join problems in a schema • Creating universes • Optimizing universes 1.6 Introducing the universe development process The following sections give an overview of how you manually create a universe, and describe how universe creation fits into a typical universe development cycle. 1.6.1 Universe design methodology The universe design methodology described in this manual consists of one planning stage, and three implementation phases: • Analysis of business problem and planning the universe solution • Designing a schema • Building the universe • Distributing the universe to users Each implementation phase is based on an assumption that you have completed an initial planning phase. The planning phase can be done without using the universe design tool, and is the decisive phase for the success or failure of your universe. A poorly planned universe that is not based on a study of user reporting needs will be difficult to design, implement, maintain, and will not be useful to your target users. Each of these phases is described as follows: 1.6.1.1 Plan the universe before you start using the universe design tool Before starting the first phase, you should spend up to eighty percent of the time allotted for the universe creation project, planning the universe. You should note the following points: • You must analyze the data analysis and reporting needs of the target audience for the universe. The structures that you use to create the schema should be based on a clearly defined user need to access the data contained in those tables and columns. 2011-04-1424 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 25. • You should have a clear idea of the objects that you need to create before you start using the universe design tool. Do not create objects by looking at the columns available in the database, but identify columns that match an object that you have already identified from your user needs analysis. 1.6.1.2 Designing a schema You create a schema for the underlying database structure of your universe. This schema includes the tables and columns of the target database and the joins by which they are linked. You may need to resolve join problems such as loops, chasm traps, and fan traps, which may occur in the structure by using aliases or contexts. You test the integrity of the overall structure. In this guide, the designing a schema phase is described in the chapters Creating a schema with tables and joins and Resolving join problems in a schema. 1.6.1.3 Building the universe You create the objects that infer SELECT statements based on the components of your schema. You organize these objects into classes. These are objects that you have identified from an analysis of user reporting needs. You can create many types of objects to enhance user reporting capabilities, multidimensional analysis, and optimize query performance. You test the integrity of your universe structure. You should also perform tests by running reports in Web Intelligence. The building phase is described in the chapter Creating universes. 1.6.1.4 Distributing the universe You can distribute your universes to users for testing, and eventually for production, by exporting them to the Central Management System (CMS) repository. This phase is described in the chapter Deploying universes. 1.6.2 Universe development cycle 2011-04-1425 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 26. Universe development is a cyclic process which includes planning, designing, building, distribution, and maintenance phases. You use the universe design tool to design and build a universe, however, the usability of any universe is directly related to how successfully the other phases in the development cycle interact with each other. This section presents an overview of a universe design methodology that you can use to plan and implement a universe development project. The table below outlines the major phases in a typical universe development cycle: DescriptionDevelopment phase • Identify the target data source and become familiar with its structure. • Know what data is contained within each table of each of the target databases. • Understand the joins. • Identify the cardinality. • Know what is possible. Prepare • Identify the user population and how it is structured; for example is the user group structured by department or by task. • Identify what information the users need. • Identify what standard reports they require. • Familiarize yourself with their business termi- nology so that you can name objects sensibly. Analyze Identify a project strategy. For example, how many universes should be created and which ones should have the capacity to be linked and to what level. Plan • Build the universe using the tool. This manual covers this part of the universe development cycle, the actual use of the universe design tool. • Test frequently during the build process for validity and reliability of inferred SQL. Implement 2011-04-1426 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 27. DescriptionDevelopment phase Form a small group of Web Intelligence power users who have some knowledge of what informa- tion they expect to get from the universe. Ask the users to perform thorough tests simulating live usage of the universe(s). Test Distribute the universe by exporting universe to the Central Management System (CMS) reposito- ry, where it can be accessed by end users. Deploy Update and maintain the universe as the data sources and user requirements change and grow. Evolve Note: Universe design should always be driven primarily by user requirements and NOT the data source structure. 1.6.3 Optimizing universe planning and implementation time The analysis of user requirements and design are the most important stages in the process. Users must be heavily involved in the development process if the universe is going to fulfil their needs both with the business language used to name objects and the data that can be accessed. Implementation will be very quick and easy if the first three stages are carried out properly. You can spend up to 80% of the time allocated to the development of a universe on the first three stages: • Preparing • Analyzing • Planning If you have spent the time in the laying the foundation for your universe, the other 20% of the time spent actually using the universe design tool to build your universe will be much more productive than if you have not spent the necessary time in planning and analysis. 2011-04-1427 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 28. 1.7 Multilingual universes 1.7.1 Multilingual universes One of the key features of SAP BusinessObjects Enterprise XI4 is the ability to produce multilingual metadata and reports from the same universe. This feature enables the user to have a one-step multilingual reporting solution that is locale sensitive, supported by a single metadata universe model, and provides full Unicode support. Reports can then be built once from the same universe and displayed in several languages based on user preferences. The universe metadata that can be translated are: • Universe name • Universe description • Class names • Object names • Object names, descriptions and formats • Custom hierarchies names • Prompt and input column questions Note: Only prompts defined in the universe metadata can be translated. Prompts defined using the @Prompt function cannot be translated. A universe may contain translations in several locales. When creating reports on top of the universe, the metadata are displayed in a locale that depends on the user's Preferred Viewing Locale. A universe also defines a fallback locale that is a locale to use if no locale is available. Only locales that have their status set to Ready for use can be seen by the user that creates reports on top of the universe. In these visible locales, only metadata whose status is in the Translation Visible category can be seen by the user who creates reports on top of the universe. The Translation Visible category contains metadata that have the following statuses: • NEEDS_REVIEW_TRANSLATION • NEEDS_REVIEW_LOCALIZATION • NEEDS_REVIEW_ADAPTATION • TRANSLATED • FINAL • SIGNED_OFF 2011-04-1428 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 29. Translating universe metadata, setting the universe locales, and and metadata statuses are done through the translation management tool tool. Translations and locales parameters are stored in an additional XML stream and saved in the .unv file format. The universe design tool user interface can also be displayed in different languages. The following text describes the multilingual universe features of the tool. 1.7.2 Definitions of languages and locales Some languages are associated to several countries. For example French (fr) is a language spoken in the following countries: France (FR), Belgium (BE) and Switzerland (CH). In this example fr-FR, fr-BE, fr-CH means French (fr) as the language in France (FR), in Belgium (BE) and in Switzerland (CH). CountryLanguage FranceFrench BelgiumFrench SwitzerlandFrench At the same time a country can be associated to several languages (fr-CH, de-CH, it-CH). For instance, in Switzerland German, French and Italian are all spoken. CountryLanguage SwitzerlandFrench SwitzerlandGerman SwitzerlandItalian A locale defines the combination of a language and a geographical area, and the way data is sorted. Dates and times are often formatted in specific formats. When you combine language and country (for example, French language in France), the locale appears as follows depending on Operating System or applications: Locale formatOperating System Français (France) Where the locale is taken from your system set- tings (country) Windows fr_FRJava 2011-04-1429 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 30. Locale formatOperating System fr_FR.ISO8859-1Sun Solaris Français (France) [fr-FR]Infoview 6.5.1 To simplify the documentation and the application, the same term "language" may be used for both language and locale meanings. 1.7.3 The different locales DefinitionTerms This is the universe design tool user interface language. The menu and messages appear in that language. Product language Your preferred viewing language settings. This defines the locale in which strings, text and format - the parts of the resource (document or universe) content or attribute list - appear in the application on InfoView or Web Intelligence Rich Client. Preferred viewing locale (PVL) The locale used when your preferred viewing lo- cale is not available. Substitution (Fallback) locale The locale in which the document has been cre- ated. Source language 1.7.4 Setting the product language for the universe design tool user interface In the General tab of the Tools > Options settings of the universe design tool, choose a Language from the list of available languages, this is the product language, also known as the User Interface Language (UIL). There is no impact on the universe metadata: object names, context names, and classes appear in the original language of the database elements. To translate the universe metadata, use the translation management tool. 2011-04-1430 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 31. 1.7.5 Consuming multilingual universes When a user creates a report on top of a multilingual universe, in Web Intelligence for example, the locale in which metadata is displayed depends in the locale's availability/status and the metadata category: • A metadata translation in a locale is displayed if and only if its status is in the Visible category and this locale has been defined as Ready for use. • The locale in which to display the translation metadata is, by priority order: • The user's Preferred Viewing Locale. • If the Preferred Viewing Locale is not available, the fallback locale if it has been defined in this universe. • If no fallback locale has been defined in this universe, then the dominant locale of the user's Preferred Viewing Locale. • If it is not available, the original content is displayed. This original content is the metadata as it is defined in the universe design tool. 1.7.6 Determining the fallback locale in linked universes A derived universe may re-use metadata from different core universes. When the derived universe and the core universes define different fallback locales: • If a fallback locale is defined at derived universe level, then use this fallback locale. • If no fallback locale is defined at derived universe level, then use the fallback locale of the first core universe defined in the derived universe, if any. • If no fallback locale has been defined in any core universes, then the universe has no fallback locale. 1.7.7 The translation management tool The universe design tool cannot be used to translate universe metadata or even display metadata translations. In the universe design tool, only the original universe content is displayed. For translation tasks, the BusinessObjects Enterprise suite provides the translation management tool. This tool is a stand-alone application available only on Windows platforms. Through the translation management tool, the person designing the universe can: • Add new locales in a universe and set them as Ready to Use. • Define the universe's fallback locale. 2011-04-1431 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 32. • Translate universe metadata in the added locales through the interface itself. • Set the status of the translation of the metadata in the different locales. • Export universe metadata into XLIFF files for external translation and import them back into the application. Once the universe metadata has been translated, it can be re-saved and multilingual reports may benefit from these translations. Refer to the "Translation management tool" user guide for more information. 1.7.8 Multilingual data Through the PREFERRED_VIEWING_LOCALE and the DOMINANT_PREFERRED_VIEWING_LOCALE variables, the designer can customize the universe in order to filter multilingual data and retrieve only data in the user's Preferred Viewing Locale at query time. This can be done by using the @Variable function. 1.8 Universe design tool example materials The following samples are shipped with the universe design tool: 1.8.1 Demonstration databases Most of the examples in this guide are based on the Club database built with Microsoft Access 2000. This database is used by the sales manager of the fictitious business, Island Resorts, to perform sales and marketing analysis. You can find the database file, Club.mdb, in the Databases subfolder in the Business Objects installation path. For more information on the structure of this database, refer to the appendix at the back of this guide. The efashion database is also shipped with this release. This MS Access 2000 database tracks 211 products (663 product color variations), sold over 13 stores (12 US, 1 in Canada), over 3 years. The database contains: • A central fact table with 89,000 rows of sales information on a weekly basis. • A second fact table containing promotions. • Two aggregate tables which were set up with aggregate navigation. 2011-04-1432 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 33. 1.8.2 Demonstration universes A complete demo universe called beach.unv is delivered in the Universes subfolder of the Samples folder in the Business Objects installation path. It was built with the Club database described above. You can use this universe to learn how to build specific objects and classes with the universe design tool. The universe design tool also comes with the efashion universe built using the efashion database. 1.9 Using universes with the information design tool You can use the information design tool to work with .unv format universes that were created by the universe design tool, universe design tool desktop edition, Universe Designer or Universe Designer Personal. These files cannot be used directly by the information design tool, you must first convert them, or upgrade and then convert them, depending on the version of the file. See the information design tool for information about the steps to perform in order to use different versions of .unv universe files, and which features are supported after the files are converted. Note: Once a .unv file has been converted for use with the information design tool, the file cannot be opened with the tool that was originally used to create it. 2011-04-1433 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 34. 2011-04-1434 Introducing the universe design tool
  • 35. Doing basic operations 2.1 Overview This chapter describes the basic operations you perform in the universe design tool to create, modify, and update universes. The following topics are covered: • Starting the universe design tool • Importing a universe • Opening a universe • Exporting a universe • Saving a universe • Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters • Using the universe design tool user interface • Using Find and Replace • Organizing the table display • Selecting schema display options • Printing a universe 2.2 Starting the universe design tool The universe design tool can only be used with a Central Management System (CMS) repository. You must log in to the repository before starting the tool. If you are starting the tool for the first time and want to work on an existing universe, you need to open the universe directly first, save it with a secure connection, and export it to the repository. You then import the universe to make updates and export updated versions. This ensures that the CMS and the local universe versions are synchronized. Once you start the universe design tool you can open a universe in one of the following ways: 2011-04-1435 Doing basic operations
  • 36. • Create a new universe • Import a universe from the CMS repository • Open a universe directly from the file system A universe is only available to Web Intelligence users when it is exported to the repository. Importing a universe, making changes, then exporting the updated universe is the most common way of working with the universe design tool. It ensures that the CMS (repository) version is synchronized with the file version. Note: You can save a universe to the file system. You do this when you want to share the universe with other users who may not have a connection rights to the target CMS. See the section Saving a universe for more information. You start the universe design tool from the task bar by clicking the tool icon in the group of installed Business Objects products for this release. You are prompted to log into the CMS before the tool starts. 2.2.1 To start the universe design tool To start the universe design tool : 1. Click the Start button on the taskbar. 2. Point to the Programs menu. 3. Click the universe design tool program from the BusinessObjects command. The login box for the CMS appears. 4. Type the following information. This information is normally provided for you by the BusinessObjects administrator. DescriptionLogin information Name of the CMS server.System Your repository user name.User Name Your repository password.Password Your security levelAuthentication 5. Click OK. 2011-04-1436 Doing basic operations
  • 37. The universe design tool startup screen appears, and an empty session opens. The user name and CMS name appear in the title bar. Depending on options set for the universe design tool, the "Quick Start" universe design wizard can start automatically when you start the universe design tool. Click Cancel to close the wizard. For more information on disabling other wizard options, see the section Disactivating the Quick Design wizard. If you want to use the Quick Design wizard, then you can refer to the section Using the Quick Design Wizard. 2.2.2 Using the Quick Design wizard When you start a session for the first time, a "Quick Design" wizard appears by default. You can use the wizard to quickly create a universe, or to familiarize yourself with the universe design tool, however, it is not an appropriate tool for creating a complete universe that responds to end user reporting requirements. It is recommended that you disable the "Quick Design" wizard, and use it only as a means to familiarize yourself with the universe design tool , and not use it to design universes. All the universe design, building, and maintenance information and procedures in this manual assume that you have disabled the "Quick Design" wizard, except for the chapter Using the Quick Design Wizard which deals specifically with using the wizard. For information on disabling other "Quick Design" wizard options, see the section Disactivating the Quick Design wizard. 2.3 Working with XI R2 connections and universes with Designer XI R3 In this release of the universe design tool, you can access a connection and open or import a universe stored in an XI R2 CMS. When working with XI R2 universes and connections, you need to note the following points: • Desktop Intelligence XI R2 users can refresh documents created with Desktop Intelligence XI 3.1 based on XI 3.1 universes and XI R2 connections. • Desktop Intelligence XI R2 users can create documents based on XI 3.1 universes and XI R2 connections. • If you want to edit and save the XI R2 connection, a warning message appears informing you that if the connection is saved, it is saved as an XI 3.1 connection, and XI R2 reports using that connection will not be able to be refreshed. • You can open XI R2 universes with XI 3.1 Universe Designer, but you can not open an XI 3.1 universe with a prior version of Designer. This interconnection ability between Desktop Intelligence XI R2 and XI 3.1 installations, allows administrators to upgrade servers while retaining Desktop Intelligence XI R2 and XI 3.1 clients connecting 2011-04-1437 Doing basic operations
  • 38. to the upgraded XI 3.1 servers. This is a temporary phase while the upgrade of a large client population is managed. 2.4 Creating a basic universe with the Quick Design wizard For a demonstration or quick test universe based on a simple relational schema, use the "Quick Design" wizard for creating a basic yet complete universe. You can use the resulting universe immediately, or you can modify the objects and create complex new ones. In this way, you can gradually refine the quality and structure of your universe. If you are designing a production universe, you should create the universe manually. All other chapters of this guide are based on showing you how to manually create a universe. This is the only section that deals with automatic universe creation. 2.4.1 Why use the Quick Design wizard? The Quick Design wizard assists you throughout the creation of a universe. It guides you in establishing a connection to the database and then lets you create simple classes and objects. The wizard also provides built-in strategies for the automatic creation of objects, joins, and tables. Using Quick Design has the following benefits: • If you are new to the universe design tool, it can help you get familiar with the user interface and basic universe design. • If you are creating a demonstration universe, it saves you time by automating much of the design process. With the wizard, you can quickly set up a working model of your universe, and then you can customize the universe to suit the needs of your target audience. 2.4.2 Using the Quick Design Wizard Quick Design is the name of the wizard that you use to automatically create a universe. Each step in the wizard is described in each of the following sections. 2.4.2.1 Starting the Quick Design wizard 2011-04-1438 Doing basic operations
  • 39. To start the Quick Design wizard: 1. Start the universe design tool . The User Identification dialog box is displayed. 2. In the User Identification dialog box, enter your user name and password. 3. Click OK. The welcome screen of the Quick Design wizard appears. Note: If you do not want the wizard to appear the next time you launch a session, clear the check box Run this Wizard at Startup. In addition, you can find two options relating to the display of the wizard in the General tab of the Options dialog box: Show Welcome Wizard and File/New Starts Quick Design wizard (Tools menu, Options command). 2.4.2.2 The welcome screen The welcome screen displays an overview of the four steps necessary to create a basic universe. It also provides a check box: Click here to choose strategies. If you click this check box, you will be able to select the strategies for creating the universe; otherwise, the universe design tool applies the default built-in strategies. In each dialog box that follows, Quick Design prompts you for the information needed to carry out the action. To move from one dialog box to the next, click Next. You can return to the previous dialog box by clicking Back. You may end the process and quit Quick Design at any time by clicking the Cancel button. 2011-04-1439 Doing basic operations
  • 40. When you select the Click here to choose strategies check box, a dialog box appears listing strategies. This dialog box is described in Choosing the strategies. You can select a strategy, or accept the default strategies. Click Begin to start the creation process. 2.4.2.3 Defining the universe parameters In this step, you define the universe parameters: the universe name and a database connection. You can enter a long name of up to 35 alphanumeric characters for the universe. 2011-04-1440 Doing basic operations
  • 41. You can either create the connection, or select an existing one. To create a connection, click the New button, and specify the necessary parameters in the dialog boxes that follow. For more instructions on these dialog boxes, refer to the section Defining and editing connections. To check whether your connection is valid, click the Test button. The Edit button lets you modify the parameters of the connection. Click the Next button to proceed to the next step. 2.4.2.4 Choosing the strategies If you clicked the check box for strategies in the welcome screen, Quick Design prompts you to specify strategies for the creation of objects, joins, and tables. A strategy is a script that reads structural information from a database or flat file. The universe design tool uses these scripts to create objects, joins, and tables automatically. 2011-04-1441 Doing basic operations
  • 42. From a list box, you can select another strategy, or none at all. Brief descriptions of the current strategies appear just below the list boxes. In addition to the built-in internal strategies provided by the universe design tool , you can also create your own external strategies. Refer to the section Using external strategies to customize universe creation. Click the Next button to proceed to the next step. 2.4.2.5 Creating the initial classes and objects Based on the parameters of your database connection, the wizard presents you with a list of database tables and columns. You create the initial classes and objects by selecting tables and columns from the left pane, and adding them to the Universe classes and objects pane on the right. 2011-04-1442 Doing basic operations
  • 43. By default, the left pane shows only the names of the tables.You can use the following methods to navigate through the file trees, and add classes and objects to the right pane: • To view the columns of any table, click the plus sign (+) to the left of the table name. • To view the data values of any table or column, click it and then click the View Values button. • To select one table, click the table, and then click the Add button. • To select several contiguous tables, hold down the Shift key, then click the first table and last table. All the tables between the selected tables will be highlighted. Then click the Add button. • To select several tables that are not contiguous, click each table while holding down the Ctrl key. Click the Add button. • Another way to select tables is to drag and drop them from the left pane to the right pane. When you insert a table, the universe design tool includes all of its columns. In the right pane, the names of classes are displayed beside a folder icon. Click the plus sign (+) beside the class name to view the objects. You can rename a class or object by double-clicking it and entering a new name in the dialog box. By default, an object is qualified as a dimension object, which is indicated by the cube symbol that precedes the object's name. To remove a class or object, click it and then click the Remove button. Click Next to move to the next step. 2011-04-1443 Doing basic operations
  • 44. 2.4.2.6 Creating measure objects A measure object is derived from an aggregate function: Count, Sum, Minimum, or Maximum. This type of object provides numeric information. Examples of measure objects are shown in the right pane of the dialog box below: If you wish to view the data values associated with an object, click it and then click the View Values button. To create a measure object, click the appropriate object in the left pane, and then click the aggregate button. You can rename any measure object you create. Grouping measure objects in one or more measures classes improves the organization of the universe. It also facilitates the end user's ease of navigation. For more information on measure objects, refer to the section Defining a measure. When you click Next, Quick Design begins creating your universe. 2.4.2.7 Generating the universe Quick Design automatically generates your new universe based on the parameters you specified. It indicates the number of classes, objects, and joins created in your universe. 2011-04-1444 Doing basic operations
  • 45. In the dialog box above, a message states that loops exist within the joins of the universe. The universe design tool enables you to resolve loops with aliases and contexts. Refer to the Designing a Schema chapter for more information. When you click the Finish button, the Universe pane and the Structure pane of your new universe appear. 2.4.2.8 Ending a Work Session Select File > Save As to save the universe, then File > Close to close the universe. When you save the universe, the universe design tool prompts you to enter a file name. A universe file name can contain the maximum number of characters allowed by your operating system. It has a .unv extension. By default, the universe design tool stores these files in the Universe subfolder of the BusinessObjects folder. In Windows 2000, this folder appears under the Local Data folder for your user profile. To quit the universe design tool, select File > Exit. 2.4.2.9 Disactivating the Quick Design wizard When you first start a session, a "Quick Design" wizard appears by default. You can prevent the wizard appearing automatically when you create a new universe as follows: 2011-04-1445 Doing basic operations
  • 46. To disactivate the "Quick Design" wizard: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box opens to the General page. 2. Clear the Show Welcome Wizard check box. (This check box is already cleared if you have cleared the Run this Wizard at Startup check box from the "Startup Wizard" Welcome page.) 3. Clear the File/New Starts Quick Design Wizard check box. 4. Click OK. You can activate the "Quick Design" wizard at any time by selecting the above check boxes from the General page of the "Options" dialog box. Using the "Quick Design" wizard is covered in the section Using the Quick Design Wizard. 2.4.3 Following up on a universe created with the Quick Design wizard Once you have created a basic universe with the Quick Design wizard, you may find it necessary to edit joins, and to resolve all loops using aliases or contexts. In addition, you can choose to enhance your universe with more complex components using the various universe design tool features. For the appropriate information, you should refer to the relevant section in this manual. 2.5 Importing a universe You can import one or more universes stored in a universe folder in the repository. You can only import a universe that has already been exported to the repository. When you import a universe, the CMS checks the universe version on the repository file system. If the version is identical, the universe is made available to the universe design tool. If the universe version on the repository file system is more recent than the CMS version, a message box appears asking if you want to replace the universe in the folder. If you answer Yes, then the universe on the repository file system is replaced by the version in the CMS. 2.5.1 Importing a universe from the repository 2011-04-1446 Doing basic operations
  • 47. 2.5.1.1 To import a universe from the repository 1. Select File > Import. The "Import Universe" dialog box appears. 2. Select a universe folder from the drop down list box. Or Click the Browse button and select a universe using the folder browser. You want to import a universe from this folder. 3. If you want to lock the universe, double-click the universe name. A locked universe appears with a padlock symbol. To unlock a universe, double-click it again. 4. Click a universe name. This is the universe that you want to import. 5. Verify the file path for the import folder in the Import Folder box. The universe is imported to this folder. 6. Click OK. 2.5.2 What is the difference between opening and importing? You can open a universe directly from the file system. When you save this universe, it is saved only to the file system, it is not updated in the CMS. Updates in this universe are not available to Web Intelligence users. When you import a universe, the current version available in the repository is made available to the universe design tool. When you have finished modifying the universe, you export it to the repository. The CMS is updated with the latest changes. 2.6 Opening a universe 2011-04-1447 Doing basic operations
  • 48. You open a universe using the menu commands or by clicking Open. When you open a universe directly without importing, you are opening a version on the local file system, that may not correspond to the latest version in the CMS. 2.6.1 To open a universe directly 1. Select File > Open. A "Open" box opens to the directory designated as the default universe file store. You can set this directory in the Save page of the "Options" dialog box (Tools > Options > Save). 2. If necessary, browse to the directory that contains the universe file (.UNV). 3. Select a universe file and click Open Or Double-click the universe file. The Universe opens in the current universe design tool window. 2.7 Exporting a universe You make a universe available to Web Intelligence users and other designers by exporting a universe to the repository. When you export a universe the universe is: • Moved to the selected universe folder on the repository file system and • Created in the Central Management System (CMS) Each time the universe is exported to the repository, the universe version in the CMS is updated. This is the version that is available to Web Intelligence users. Note: Saving a universe is not the same as exporting a universe. Saving updates the universe on the repository local file system, but not the CMS repository version of the universe. See the section What is the difference between exporting and saving? for more information. 2011-04-1448 Doing basic operations
  • 49. 2.7.1 How are universes organized on the repository file system? The repository stores universes on the local file system and in the CMS server. You work on the universe version on the local file system. The local file system is the server on which the tool is installed. Your universes are saved by default in the universes folder in your user profile path as follows: Documents and Settings<user>Application DataBusiness ObjectsBusiness Objects 12.0universes@<repository name>universe folder<universe>.unv The universes stored in the CMS server are used for version control. When you export an updated universe to the repository, the updated universe is copied to the CMS server. 2.7.2 Exporting a universe to the repository 2.7.2.1 To export a universe to the repository 1. Select File > Export. The "Export Universe" dialog box appears. 2. Select a universe folder from the folder drop down list box. Or Click the Browse button and select a universe folder in the folder browser. You want to export the universe to this folder. 3. If you want to lock the universe, double-click the universe name. A locked universe appears with a padlock symbol. To unlock a universe, double-click it again. 4. Click a group in the "Groups" list box. This is the user group that uses the exported universe. 5. Click a universe in the "Universes" list box. The "Universes" list box shows the names of the active universes. 6. If you want to export other universes that are not open, click the Add Universe button, and then use the browser to select the other universes. 2011-04-1449 Doing basic operations
  • 50. 7. Click OK. 2.7.3 What is the difference between exporting and saving? When you save a universe, you update the version in the repository file system. This does not update the CMS version. When you export a universe, the update of the version in the repository file system is synchronized with the update of the universe in the CMS. If you save a universe and do not export the updated version, the CMS is not updated. The saved universe is not available to other users. Each universe in the repository is assigned a system identifier. Refer to the section Identifying a universe in the repository for more information in identifiers. You cannot export a universe if it has been locked in the repository by another designer. You can export only a universe defined with a secured connection. 2.8 Saving a universe You should regularly save your universes throughout a work session. When you save a universe, the universe design tool stores it as a file with a .unv extension on the local file system. In Web Intelligence, a user identifies the universe by the universe name (long name). When you save a universe, the changes are not saved to the CMS. You must export the universe to the CMS when you have completed updating a universe. You can use the following maximum characters in the universe name (the long name) and .unv file name: Maximum number of charactersName type 100Universe name Operating system maximum.unv name 2011-04-1450 Doing basic operations
  • 51. 2.8.1 Universe file names as identifiers You should not change the universe filename .unv after reports have been created based on that universe. If you change the filename, any report built on the universe with the old name, will not point to the universe once its name has been changed. 2.8.2 Saving a universe The universe name can be different from the .unv name. When you use Save As to save the universe under new name, the new universe is not associated in the CMS. You must export the new universe to the CMS to create a version of the new universe. You can use the following methods to save a universe: • Select File > Save from the menu bar • Click the Save icon • Press CTRL+S from the keyboard 2.8.3 Saving a universe definition as PDF You save the universe information as an Adobe PDF file. You can save the same information that you can print out for a universe. This information includes: • General information: parameters, linked universes, and the graphical table schema. • Component lists: lists of components in the universe including objects, conditions, hierarchies, tables, joins, and contexts. • Component descriptions: descriptions for the objects, conditions, hierarchies, tables, joins, and contexts in the universe. You can select what components that you want to appear in the PDF from the Print Options dialog box (Tools > Options > Print). These options are described in the section Setting print options. To save universe information as a PDF file: 1. Select File > Save As 2. Select Portable Document Format (*.pdf) from the Save as type drop down list box. 2011-04-1451 Doing basic operations
  • 52. 3. Click Save. 2.8.3.1 Setting default save options By default, the universe design tool stores the files that you save in the Universe subfolder in the Business Objects path. You can specify another default save folder as follows: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Save tab. The "Save" page appears. 3. Type a file path in the Default Universe Folder text box. Or 4. Browse to a folder that contains .unv files. 5. If you want to specify an automatic save time, select the Save Automatically check box and select or type a time period number from the Minutes value select box. 6. Click OK. 2.9 Closing a universe 2011-04-1452 Doing basic operations
  • 53. You can use the following methods to close a universe. To close a universe: • Select File > Close from the menu bar • Click the Close window button at the top right corner of the universe window • Press CTRL+W from the keyboard. 2.10 Working with multiple designers You can use the universe design tool in a multiple user environment in which several designers can work on the same universes without causing conflicts between versions. You can lock a universe so that only one designer at a time can make modifications on the universe, and a universe can also be assigned a version number to keep track of changes. 2.10.1 Locking a universe When stored in a universe folder, a universe can be shared by several designers provided that they have the necessary user rights. Only one designer can work on a given universe at a time. A designer who wants to work on a universe, can do so only if the universe has not been locked by another designer. Note: You lock a universe from the Import or Export dialog box. When a universe is locked, a padlock symbol is displayed next to the universe name. When another designer locks the universe, the padlock symbol appears dimmed. 2.10.2 Revision number Each time you export a universe to a universe folder, the universe design tool increments the revision number of the universe. This allows you to determine which is the latest version of the universe. The revision number appears on the Summary tab of Universe Parameters (File > Universe Parameters > Summary). 2011-04-1453 Doing basic operations
  • 54. 2.11 Using the universe design tool user interface The universe design tool interface user interface complies with Microsoft Windows standards. It features windows, menus, toolbars, shortcut keys, and online help. 2.11.1 The main components of the user interface Each universe is contained within a single universe window, which is contained within the main window. You also use an independent window called a "Table Browser" which shows all the tables available in the connected database. 2.11.1.1 Universe window The "Universe" window is divided into two panes: DisplaysPane Graphical representation of the underlying target database of the universe. It includes the tables and joins to which you map objects that end users use to run their queries. "Structure" Classes and objects defined in the universe. These are the components of the universe that Web Intelligence users see and use to create their queries. "Universe" 2.11.1.2 Table browser 2011-04-1454 Doing basic operations
  • 55. The "Table" browser is a window that displays the tables available in the connected database. You can insert tables into the "Structure" pane by selecting the table and dragging it into the "Structure" pane, or by double-clicking the appropriate table in the "Table" browser. You can display the "Table" browser by any of the following methods: • Double-click the "Structure" pane background. • Right-click the "Structure" pane background and select Insert Table from the contextual menu. • Select Insert > Tables. Note: Using the table browser is described fully in the Designing a Schema chapter. 2.11.2 The universe design tool user interface The main components of the interface are labeled below: 2.11.3 Manipulating windows You can use the windows in the user interface in the following ways: • In a work session, you can work on more than one universe at a time. the tool displays each universe in one "Structure" pane and in one "Universe" pane. 2011-04-1455 Doing basic operations
  • 56. • Recently opened universes are listed at the bottom of the File menu. You can modify the number of universes listed by selecting Tools > Options > General, and indicating the number of universes in the "Recent File" list. • You can move, resize, or minimize any window within the universe design tool window. • You can position these windows in the way you find most convenient by selecting Window > Arrange, and selecting Cascade, Tile Horizontally, or Tile Vertically. • You can line up all windows that were minimized in the tool window by selecting Window > Arrange Icons. 2.11.4 Using toolbars The universe design tool window contains two sets of toolbars: the "Standard" toolbar and the "Editing" toolbar. For either toolbar, the buttons that you can select depend on which pane is active the "Universe" pane or the "Structure" pane. Buttons that are not available are displayed as dimmed. The toolbars are dockable. You can drag a toolbar and position it anywhere in the universe window. 2.11.4.1 Moving a toolbar To move a toolbar: 1. Click in an area within the rectangle containing the toolbar. The area is shown for both toolbars in the illustration above. 2. While keeping the left mouse button pressed, drag the toolbar to the desired location. 3. Release the mouse button. The toolbar is displayed independently. 2.11.4.2 Hiding and showing toolbars To display or hide either toolbar alternately: 1. Select View > Toolbars. 2011-04-1456 Doing basic operations
  • 57. The "Toolbars" dialog box appears. 2. Select or clear check boxes corresponding to toolbars. 3. Select or clear options for the display of the toolbar buttons, tooltips, and shortcut keys listed at the bottom of the dialog box. 4. Click OK. 2.11.5 Performing an action or operation in the universe design tool In the universe design tool, you perform an action or operation in the following ways: • Select a command from a menu. • Press the Alt key and enter a shortcut key from the keyboard. • Click a button on the toolbar. 2.11.5.1 Using the mouse You can use single and double mouse clicks as follows: Single click You use a single click for the following actions: 2011-04-1457 Doing basic operations
  • 58. • Performing a standard action (selecting a command or clicking a button) • Selecting an element from the "Universe" pane, the "Structure" pane, or the "Table Browser". • If you select one or more components within the universe design tool window, a single-click with the right mouse button causes a pop-up menu to be displayed. It contains commands related to the components you selected. Double-click You can double-click the following universe structures to affect display changes or modify properties: Result...Double click... "Table Browser" appears.An empty space in the "Structure" pane Modifies table display. A table and its columns can be displayed in one of three views. Refer to the section Changing table display for more infor- mation. A table in the "Structure" pane "Edit Join" dialog box for the join appears. You can modify join properties from this dialog box. A join in the "Structure" pane "Edit Properties" dialog box for the class appears. You can modify class properties from this dialog box. A class in the "Universe" pane "Edit Properties" dialog box for the object appears. You can modify object properties from this dialog box. An object in "Universe" pane. "Edit Properties" dialog box for the condition ob- ject appears. You can modify object properties from this dialog box. A Condition object in the "Condition" view of "Universe" pane 2.11.5.2 Undoing an Action You can undo a previously performed action in two ways: • Select Edit > Undo. 2011-04-1458 Doing basic operations
  • 59. • Click Undo. 2.12 Using Find and Replace You can use Find to locate characters or a text string in both the universe and structure panes. You can use Find and Replace to locate and replace characters or text in the names and descriptions for any structure in the universe. 2.12.1 Using Find You can search for text contained in universe structures in the universe and structure panes. 2.12.1.1 Setting Find options The Find options available are dependant on whether the "Universe" pane or the "Structure" pane is active. You can set the following search options to locate a string: DescriptionOption is availableOption Text string to search. When "Universe" or "Structure" pane is active Find What Include upper and lower case character match in search. When "Universe" or "Structure" pane is active Match Case Match on entire string. When "Universe" or Structure pane is active Match whole word only 2011-04-1459 Doing basic operations
  • 60. DescriptionOption is availableOption When selected, searches class and object names or predefined condition names only. When cleared, class, object or predefined condition names are not included in search. When "Universe" pane is activeLook also in names When selected, includes all de- scriptions of universe structures in search. When "Universe" pane is activeLook also in descriptions When selected, includes SQL definitions of objects, joins, and other universe structures in search. When "Universe" pane is activeLook also in SQL 2.12.1.2 Searching in a universe To search in a universe: 1. Click in the "Universe" or "Structure" pane. You want to find a string in this pane. 2. Select Edit > Find. The "Find and Replace" box appears. The box for an active "Universe" pane is below. 2011-04-1460 Doing basic operations
  • 61. The box for an active "Structure" pane appears below. 3. Type a character or a string in the Find what text box. 4. Select or clear search option text boxes. 5. Click Find Next. When a character or string is found in the universe pane, the object is highlighted. When an instance is found in an object description, or SQL definition, the object properties box is opened automatically, and the character or string highlighted. 6. Click Find Next to search for another instance of the search string. 7. Click Cancel to close the "Find and Replace" box. 2.12.1.3 Searching and replacing in a universe To search and replace a character or string in a universe: 1. Select Edit > Replace Next. The "Find and Replace" box appears. 2. Type a character or a string in the Find what text box. 2011-04-1461 Doing basic operations
  • 62. 3. Type a character or a string in the "Replace" box. This is the text item that you want to replace an instance of the contents of the "Find what" box. 4. Select or clear search option text boxes. 5. Click Replace if you want to replace a text item each time an instance is found. Or Click Replace All to automatically replace all instances in the universe. If you replace found items individually, the object properties box automatically opens and becomes the active box when an item appears in an object description. You need to click the "Find and Replace" box to continue the search. 2.12.2 Using Quick Find You can search the active pane by typing the first letter of the search string in the search box at the bottom of the Universe pane. If the Universe pane is active, the search is performed on class and object names. If the Structure pane is active, the search is performed on table names. 2.13 Organizing the table display This section describes the graphic features that you can use to organize and manipulate tables in the structure pane. The design methodology that you use to design the schema, and what you need to know to create a successful schema in the "Structure" pane, is described in the chapter Creating a schema with tables and joins. 2011-04-1462 Doing basic operations
  • 63. 2.13.1 How are tables represented? In the "Structure" pane, tables are represented graphically as rectangular symbols. The name of the table appears within a strip in the upper part of the rectangle. The list of items within the rectangle represents the columns of the table. The lines connecting the tables are the joins. 2.13.2 Manipulating tables You can perform the following actions to manipulate tables in the "Structure" pane: 2.13.2.1 Selecting tables You can select tables as follows: Do the following...To select Click the table.One table • Hold left mouse button down while drawing a selection border around the tables. • Click multiple tables while holding down the SHIFT key. Several tables Select Edit > Select All.All tables at once 2011-04-1463 Doing basic operations
  • 64. To undo a selection, place the pointer away from the tables and click again. 2.13.2.2 Deleting tables To delete a table: 1. Select a table. 2. Do one of the following actions: • Click the Cut button on the "Standard" toolbar. • Select Edit > Cut. • Press Delete. 2.13.3 Using List mode You can use List Mode to list the tables, joins, and contexts used in the active universe. In List Mode, the universe design tool adds three panes above the "Structure" pane. These panes are labeled "Tables", "Joins", and "Contexts". You can use List Mode in the following ways: ResultAction Component is highlighted in "Structure" pane. Click a listed component in any of the List mode panes. Corresponding listed component in "List" pane is highlighted. Select a table, join, or context in the Structure pane. Rename Table box appears. You can rename the table and depending on the database, edit table owner and qualifier. Double-click a table name in the Table pane. "Edit Join" box for the join appears. You can edit join properties. Double-click a join name in the "Joins" pane. 2011-04-1464 Doing basic operations
  • 65. ResultAction "Edit Context" box appears. You can add joins to the selected context by pressing CTRL and clicking joins in the list. Double-click a context name in the "Contexts" pane. Components in neighboring list pane related to original component are displayed. All non-related components are filtered out. Click a component then click a triangle between two "List" panes. "List" pane enlarges or decreases size depending on drag direction. Click on separator line between "List" pane and "Structure" pane, then drag line up or down. 2.13.3.1 Using the triangles between panes to filter listed components The small triangles that appear between the panes act as filters on the display of the components. For example: • You click a table name in the "Tables" pane, and then click the triangle pointing to the "Joins" pane. The Joins pane now shows only the joins of the selected table. • You click a join name in the "Joins" pane, and then click the triangle pointing to the Tables pane. The "Tables" pane now only shows the tables linked by the join. 2.13.3.2 Returning to normal view from List Mode You can remove "List" view and return to normal view in two ways: • When in List Mode, select View > List Mode. • When in List Mode, click the List Mode button. 2.13.4 Arranging tables automatically 2011-04-1465 Doing basic operations
  • 66. You can automatically arrange the tables in the structure pane in two ways: • Select View > Arrange tables. • Click the Arrange button. 2.13.5 Changing table display You can display three different views of a table. Each type of view acts as a filter on the amount of information shown in the table symbol. Each view is described as follows: DescriptionTable view Each table is displayed with up to eight columns. You can modify this value. Refer to the section Selecting schema display options for more infor- mation. Default Only table names are displayed in the table sym- bols. This reduces potential clutter in the "Struc- ture" pane when you have many tables. Name only Only columns involved in joins between tables are shown in each table symbol. These are usu- ally key columns. Join columns Each table view is shown as follows: 2.13.5.1 Default table view A table symbol with the first eight columns is shown below. 2011-04-1466 Doing basic operations
  • 67. The ellipsis (...) appears after the last column when there are more then the default number of columns in a table. The scroll bar appears when you click the table once. You can enlarge a table by dragging the lower border of the table downward. 2.13.5.2 Table name only view You can display only table names in a table symbol as follows: • Double-click a table. Only the name of the table is displayed. 2.13.5.3 Join columns table view You can display only join columns in a table symbol as follows: • In the "Structure", double-click a table that is already in name only view. The table shows only the join columns. 2.13.5.4 Changing the display for all tables To change the view of all selected tables simultaneously: • Select View > Change Table Display. 2.14 Selecting schema display options 2011-04-1467 Doing basic operations
  • 68. You can customize the shape or appearance of the tables, columns, joins, and cardinalities in the "Structure" pane. You have the following graphical options for the display of components in the structure pane: DescriptionOption Joins can be represented as different types of simple lines, or as lines that include cardinality indicators such as crows feet ends, or cardinality ratios. Join shape When selected the join linking two tables is auto- matically evaluated as being better displayed on the left or right side of one table, ending on the left or right side of another table, and having the shortest length. Best Side Tables can have 3D effect, show an aliased name, or show the number of rows. To display the number of rows in each table, you also need to refresh the row count by selecting View > Number of Rows in Table. This is described in the section Viewing the number of rows in database tables. Tables A column data type can be displayed next to the column. Key columns can be underlined, and columns can also be shown left justified in the table symbol, or centered. Columns You can type the default number of columns that are shown in a table symbol. If a table has more than the default number, the table symbol appears with an ellipsis (...) at the end of the column list. When you click the table once, a scroll bar ap- pears at the side of the table. Default number of columns The view of the "Structure" pane based on a cal- culated center point. Center on selection 2011-04-1468 Doing basic operations
  • 69. 2.14.1 Setting graphic options for the Structure pane display You can set graphic options for the components of the "Structure" pane as follows: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Graphics tab. The "Graphics" page appears. It lists graphic options for components in the "Structure" pane. 3. Select or type graphic display options. 4. Click OK. 2.14.1.1 Examples of graphical options The following are some examples of the possible graphical representations of components in the structure pane using the graphical options available in the "Options" dialog box (Tools > Options > Graphics. Aliased name When selected an aliased table in the "Structure" pane is displayed both with its name and the name of the table from which it is derived, in parentheses. Show Row Count and Show Format When Show Row Count is selected the number of rows in each table appears at the bottom of each table symbol. You need to select View > Number of rows in Table to refresh row numbers for all tables before the row count is displayed. When Show Format is selected, a letter representing the column type appears beside the column name. The column type can be: • C for character • D for date • N for number • T for long text • L for blob (binary large object). In the "Structure" pane, the numbers appear below the lower left corner of the tables, the data types are shown next to the column names. 2011-04-1469 Doing basic operations
  • 70. 2.14.2 Viewing table and column values You can view the data values of a particular table or column. The default number of rows that you can view for any table is 100. You can change this value to return more or less rows depending on your needs. 2.14.2.1 Viewing the values of a table To view the values in a table: 1. Click the table in the "Structure" pane. 2. Select View > Table Values. A content dialog box for the table appears listing the values for each column in the table. 3. Select the Distinct Values check box if you want to show only distinct values. 4. Click Close. 2.14.2.2 Viewing the values of a column 2011-04-1470 Doing basic operations
  • 71. When viewing column values you can enlarge the view of the columns by selecting View > Zoom In. This makes it easier to select a column. You can view the values for an individual column as follows: 1. Place the pointer over a table column in the "Structure" pane. The pointer is transformed into a hand symbol. 2. Right-click the column and select View Column Values from the contextual menu. A content dialog box for the column appears listing the column values. 3. Select the Distinct Values check box if you want to show only distinct values. 4. Click Close. 2.14.2.3 Modifying the default value for number of returned rows You can modify the default value for the number of rows returned when you view table or column values. This can be useful if you only want to view a small sample of the values in a table, so you can restrict the returned values to a smaller number. To modify the number of rows fetched for a table: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Database tab. The "Database" page appears. 2011-04-1471 Doing basic operations
  • 72. 3. Type or select a number using the up and down arrows from the Table and Column values list box. The "Database" page below has 20 rows specified to be returned when values are viewed for a table or column. 4. Click OK. 2.14.3 Viewing the number of rows in database tables You can display the number of rows in each table. You do this in two stages: • Activate the graphic option Show Row Count (Tools > Options > Graphics), • Refresh the row count for all tables by selecting View > Number of Rows in Table. You can display the number of rows in each table in the database, or you can set a fixed number of rows for a selected table to optimize query performance. This allows you to control the order of tables in a FROM clause, which is based on table weight. This is described in the section Modifying the row count of a table. Note: Displaying the number of rows in a table is not the same as setting the number of rows that are returned to view table or column values. 2011-04-1472 Doing basic operations
  • 73. 2.14.3.1 Displaying number of rows in tables To display the number of rows in each table: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Graphics tab. The "Graphics" page appears. 3. Select the Show Row Count check box. 4. Click OK. 5. Select one or more tables. Or Click anywhere in the "Structure" pane and select Edit > Select All to select all the tables in the structure pane. Note: When you click in the "Structure" pane, you activate the menu items that relate to the components in the "Structure" pane. If you do not click in the "Structure" pane before selecting a menu item, only the menu items that apply to the "Universe" pane are available. 6. Select View > Number of rows in Table. The "Table Row Count" box appears. The options in this dialog box are described below: 2011-04-1473 Doing basic operations
  • 74. DescriptionOption Refreshes the display of the row count for select- ed tables, or all the tables in the Structure pane. Refresh row count for all tables Displays the row count of tables that were pre- viously not selected. As a result, all the tables in the "Structure" pane appear with their row count. Refresh undefined table row count only Lets you modify the row count for either selected tables or all the tables in the Structure pane. Enter the new value in the text box beside the option. This option is used for optimizing queries, a topic covered in the next section. Modify manually tables row count 7. Select the Refresh row count for all tables radio button. 8. Click OK. The row count for each selected table appears under the bottom left corner of each table symbol in the "Structure" pane. 2.14.3.2 Modifying the row count of a table You can modify the row count of tables. Two reasons for doing this are as follows: DescriptionModify row count to... Query optimization is based on the order of the tables in the FROM clause of the generated SQL. Tables with many rows appear before tables with fewer rows. This order can be important especially for RDBMS that lack an optimizer feature. By modifying the row count of tables, you can change their order in the FROM clause. Optimize queries 2011-04-1474 Doing basic operations
  • 75. DescriptionModify row count to... You can modify the row count of a table when the row count does not reflect the number of rows a table is to hold. For example, you can work with a test table having a row count of 100 even though the table will contain 50,000 rows. Adapt row count to a subsequent change in data capacity To modify row count of one or more tables: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Graphics tab. The "Graphics" page appears. 3. Select the Show Row Count check box. 4. Click OK. 5. Select one or more tables. Or Click anywhere in the "Structure" pane and select Edit > Select All to select all the tables in the structure pane. 6. Select View > Number of rows in table. The "Table Row Count" box appears. 7. Select the Modify manually tables row count radio button. 8. Type the number of rows that you want to display for the table. 9. Click OK. 2011-04-1475 Doing basic operations
  • 76. The row count for each selected table appears under the bottom left corner of each table symbol in the "Structure" pane. 2.15 Printing a universe The universe design tool provides all standard Windows print facilities. You can print out the schema, as well as lists of the tables, columns, and joins in the "Structure" pane. You can also control the way the components and information appear on a printed page. Note: You can print out a PDF version of the universe definition and schema by saving the universe as a PDF file, then printing the PDF file. See the section Saving a universe definition as PDF for more information. 2.15.1 Setting print options You can select print options from the "Print" page of the "Options" dialog box (Tools > Options > Print). The Print options that you set, also apply to the options that are saved to a PDF file when you save the universe definition as PDF. You can select the following print and PDF options: Prints out...Print option Information on the following: • Universe parameters • Linked universes The graphical structure of the schema in the "Structure" pane. You can select the scale for this graphic. General information Lists of components in the universe grouped by one or more of the following types: objects, condi- tions, hierarchies, tables, joins, and contexts. Component lists 2011-04-1476 Doing basic operations
  • 77. Prints out...Print option Descriptions for the following components: ob- jects, conditions, hierarchies, tables, joins, and contexts. The description includes detailed information on the properties of the component. For an object, this information can include the SQL definition, qualification and security access level. Component descriptions To set print options for a universe: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Print/PDF tab. The "Print" page appears. 3. Select print option check boxes as required. 4. Click OK. 2011-04-1477 Doing basic operations
  • 78. 2.15.1.1 Specifying page setup To specify page setup options: 1. Select File > Page Setup. The "Page Setup" sheet appears. 2. Select or type page setup options. 3. Click OK. 2.15.1.2 Using Print Preview You can preview your universe before printing in two ways: • Select File > Print preview. • Click the Print Preview button. 2.15.1.3 Printing the Universe You can print your universe in two ways: • Select File > Print. • Click the Print button. 2011-04-1478 Doing basic operations
  • 79. Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters Before you can build a universe, you must firstly create a new universe file. When you create a new universe file, you must define a connection parameter to allow the universe to access your database middleware. You can also define other parameters that determine how the universe design tool creates objects, links from the current universe to other universes, and query restrictions. You save the new universe as a .unv file. The new universe contains no classes and objects. You create these during the universe development process by designing a table schema and then creating objects that map to database structures. 3.1 What are universe parameters? Universe parameters are definitions and restrictions that you define for a universe that identify a universe and its database connections, specify the type of queries that can be run using the universe, and set the controls on the use of system resources. You define universe parameters from the "Universe Parameters" dialog box (File > Parameters) when you create a universe. The database connection is the only parameter that you must manually select or create when you create a new universe. You can modify these parameters at any time.You can define the following universe parameters: DescriptionParameter Universe name, description, and connection pa- rameters and information. These are the parame- ters that identify the universe. Refer to the section Identifying the universe for information on defin- ing and modifying this parameter. Definition 2011-04-1479 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 80. DescriptionParameter Version and revision information, designer com- ments, and universe statistics. Refer to the section Viewing and entering summary information for information on defining and modifying this param- eter. Summary information Indicates the strategies used by the universe. A strategy is a script used to extract structural infor- mation from a database. Refer to the section Se- lecting strategies for information on defining and modifying this parameter. Strategies Indicates the limitations set for the use of system resources. Refer to the section Indicating resource controls for information on defining and modifying this parameter. Controls Indicates the types of queries that the end user is allowed to run from the Query pane. Refer to the section Indicating resource controls for infor- mation on defining and modifying this parameter. SQL Indicates the settings defined for linked universes. Refer to the section Indicating options for linked universes for information on defining and modify- ing this parameter. Links 3.2 Creating a new universe The following procedure describes how you can create a new universe from scratch by defining universe parameters then saving the universe. The procedure provides an overview of all the pages available from the Parameters dialog box. For more detailed information on each step you should refer to the respective section for the parameter in this chapter. 2011-04-1480 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 81. Defining all the parameters at universe creation may not be necessary. You must select a connection, but you can accept the default values for other parameters, and then modify them as appropriate when necessary. 3.2.1 Creating a new universe from scratch To create a new universe from scratch: 1. Select File > New. The "Universe parameters" dialog box opens to the "Definition" page. See the section Identifying the universe for information on this page. Note: When you select any option for a universe parameter, the option Click here to choose stored procedure universe is greyed out. It cannot be selected or deselected. To change the type of universe you want to create, click Cancel and start again. • Type a name and description for the universe. • Select a connection from the "Connection" drop-down list box. Or • Click the New button if you want to define a new connection that is not listed in the drop-down list. See the section Defining and editing connections for information on defining a new connection. 2. Click the Summary tab. The "Summary" page appears. See the section Viewing and entering summary information for information on this page. • Type universe information in the "Comments" box. 3. Click the Strategies tab. The "Strategies" page appears. It displays the strategies available for your connected data source. See the section Selecting strategies for information on this page. • Select a strategy from each of the Objects, Joins, and Tables drop-down list boxes. Depending on the RDBMS for the connection, there can be more than one strategy available from each drop-down list box. 4. Click the Controls tab. The "Controls" page appears. See the section Indicating resource controls for information on this page. • Select or clear check boxes in the "Query Limits" group box. • Enter values for the check boxes that you select. 2011-04-1481 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 82. 5. Click the SQL tab. The SQL page appears. See the Indicating SQL restrictions for information on this page. • Select or clear check boxes as appropriate. 6. Click the Links tab, if you want to link the new universe with an existing universe. The Links page appears. See the section Indicating options for linked universes for information on this page. • Click the Add Link button to select a universe to link with the new universe. 7. Click the Parameters tab. The "Parameters" page appears. It lists SQL parameters that can be set to optimize SQL generation. See the section Setting SQL generation parameters for information on this page. 8. Click OK. The universe and structure panes open up in the universe design tool. 9. Select File > Save. • Type a name for the universe file. • Click Save. 3.3 Viewing and entering summary information The "Summary" page displays universe administration information. You can use this information to help you keep track of the development of the active universe. The "Summary" page displays the following information: DescriptionInformation Universe creation date and the name of the cre- ator. Created Date of last modification and the name of the modifier. Modified Revision number which indicates the number of times the universe has been exported to the CMS. Revision 2011-04-1482 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 83. DescriptionInformation Information about universe for yourself or another designer. This information is only available in th universe design tool. You should include informa- tion about the universe for users in the Descrip- tion field on the "Identification" page. Comments List of the number of classes, objects, tables, aliases, joins, contexts, and hierarchies contained in the universe. Statistics 3.4 Setting universe parameters You can set universe parameters for the following purposes: • Identifying the universe • Defining and editing connections • Viewing and entering summary information • Selecting strategies • Indicating SQL restrictions • Indicating options for linked universes • Setting SQL generation parameters Each type of parameter is contained on a page in the "Parameters" dialog box (File > Parameters). Each group of parameters is described in its respective section below. 3.4.1 Identifying the universe Each universe is identified by the following parameters: 2011-04-1483 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 84. Used byIdentifier File system, and Web Intelligence to reference the universe. File name (8 characters) Web Intelligence users.Long name (35 characters) Web Intelligence users.Description CMS to identify universe. This number is assigned to the universe when it is first exported to the CMS. Unique numeric ID The name and description parameters are defined at universe creation from the "Definition" page of the "Universe Parameters" dialog box. You can modify the universe identification parameters at any time. You also define the database connection from this page. For information on defining a new connection, you can refer to the section Defining and editing connections. You can define the following identification parameters for a universe: DescriptionIdentification parameter Universe name. Identifies the universe to Web Intelligence users. The name characters support- ed by the registry are defined by the General Su- pervisor. Character support is RDBMS dependent. Name Description of universe purpose and contents. Optional field. This description is viewable by Web Intelligence users, so information in this field can provide useful information about the role of the universe. Description Named set of parameters that defines how Web Intelligence accesses data in a database file. All available connections appear in the Connections drop-down list box. You can also create new connections. Connection 2011-04-1484 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 85. 3.4.1.1 Modifying universe identification parameters To modify universe identification parameters: 1. Select File > Parameters. Or Click the Universe Parameters button in the toolbar. The "Universe Parameters" dialog box opens to the "Definition" page. 2. Type a name and a description. 3. Select a connection from the Connection drop-down list box. 4. Click Test to verify that the connection is valid. If you receive a message informing you that the server is not responding, the connection is not valid. You can correct connection parameters by clicking Edit and editing connection properties. If the error persists, refer to the section of the RDBMS documentation relating to error messages. 5. Click OK. 3.4.2 Defining and editing connections A connection is a named set of parameters that defines how a Business Objects application accesses data in a database file. A connection links Web Intelligence to your middleware. You must have a connection to access data. You must select or create a connection when you create a universe. You can modify, delete, or replace the connection at any time. Note: See the Data Access Guide for complete information on creating, modifying, and optimizing connections. You can manage connections in the following ways: 2011-04-1485 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 86. DescriptionHow to manage the connection From the command in the menu: Tools > Connections. This panel displays the list of connections you can access: Personal, Shared and Secured in the CMS where you are logged. If the universe design tool has been started in Standalone mode, only Personal and Shared connections are displayed. The connections can be displayed as a flat list or as a hierarchy, where connections are displayed in sub- folders. You can delete, edit, and create new connections from this page. From the "Connection panel" From the "Definition" page of the "Universe Parameters" dialog (File > Parameters > Definition). You create a new connection when there is not an existing connection appropriate to the current universe. You can also edit connections. From the "Universe parameters" dialog A connection contains three elements: • Data Access driver • Connection and login parameters • Connection type Each element is described in the following sections: 3.4.2.1 About managing connection folders You can manage connection folders with the universe design tool. Connection folders are displayed in any location where a secured connection is displayed or managed. You can manage connections in the following ways: 2011-04-1486 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 87. Description How to manage the connection From the command in the menu: Tools > Connections. This panel displays the list of connections you can access: Personal, Shared and Secured in the CMS where you are logged. If the universe design tool has been started in Standalone mode, only Personal and Shared connections are displayed. The connections can be displayed as a flat list or as a hierarchy, where connec- tions are displayed in sub-folders. You can delete, edit, and create new con- nections from this page. Once validated, any actions run from the "Connection Panel" are automatically committed in the CMS. The "Connection Panel" From the "Definition" page of the "Universe Parameters" dialog box (File > Parameters > Definition). You create a new connection when there is not an existing connection appropriate to the current universe. You can also edit connections. "Universe parameters" dialog The actions you can perform depend on your user rights, but the available actions are as follows: • Create a new connection • Create a new connection folder • Edit a connection or folder • Delete a connection or empty folder • Rename a connection or folder • Edit a description of a connection • View tehe properties of a connection • Cut, copy and paste in edit mode. 3.4.2.2 Data Access driver A Data Access driver is the software layer that connects a universe to your middleware. Data Access drivers are shipped with Business Objects products. There is a Data Access driver for each supported middleware. When you install the universe design tool, your Data Access key determines which Data Access drivers are installed. When you create a new connection, you select the appropriate Data Access driver for the RDBMS middleware that you use to connect to the target RDBMS. 3.4.2.3 Connection and login parameters 2011-04-1487 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 88. You configure the Data Access driver by specifying the following connection and login parameters. DescriptionParameter Type of connection, personal, shared, or secured.Type Identifying name for the connection.Name Your database user name. This is normally as- signed to you by the database administrator. User name Your database password. This is normally as- signed to you by the database administrator. Password When selected, the user name and password used to access the CMS are automatically used as database login parameters. See the Busines- sObjects Enterprise Administrator's Guide for in- formation on setting up Single Sign-On. Use Single Sign-On when refreshing reports at view time When selected the user is forced to enter a database user password associated with their BusinessObjects account to refresh a report. This is set at the Central Management Console level. Refer to BusinessObjects Enterprise Administra- tor's Guide for information on setting up this op- tion. Use database credentials associated with Busi- nessObjects user account Data source or database name. If you are using an ODBC driver the data source name identifies the target database. If you are using a native driver, the database name identifies the target database. Data source/Service Note: You can create connections through ODBC to Excel files, and to text files in .csv format. So that Web Intelligence can use a universe based on a text file or an Excel file accessed through ODCB, you must edit the msjet.prm file for the connection. This file is located in the folder: $INSTALLDIR$/BusinessObjects Enterprise 12.0/win32_x86/dataAccess/connectionserver/odbc where $INSTALLDIR$ is the directory 2011-04-1488 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 89. in which your Business Objects applications are installed. In the msjet.prm file, change the DB_TYPE parameter as follows: From: <Parameter Name='DB_TYPE'>MS Jet Engine</Parameter> To: <Parameter Name='DB_TYPE'>MS Jet</Parameter> You must stop and restart the Business Objects Enterprise server after making this change. Note: If you are running the universe design tool on the same machine as your Web Intelligence server and you want to create additional universes based on text or Excel files after changing this value, you must reset the value to <Parameter Name='DB_TYPE'>MS Jet Engine</Parameter> 3.4.2.4 Connection type The type of connection determines who can use the connection to access data. The universe design tool automatically stores all the connections that you create during a work session. The next time you launch a session, these connections will be available to you. You can create three types of connections with the tool: • Personal • Shared • Secured Each connection type is described as follows: Personal connections Restricts access to data to the universe creator and the computer on which it was created. Connection parameters are stored in the PDAC.LSI file located in the LSI folder in the Business Objects 12.0 folder in you user profile directory, for example: C:Documents and Settings<user name>Application DataBusiness ObjectsBusi ness Objects 12.0lsi These parameters are static and cannot be updated. Personal connections are unsecured in terms of Business Objects products security. You do not use personal connections to distribute universes. You could use personal connections to access personal data on a local machine. Shared connections Allows access to data for all users. These connections are unsecured in terms of Business Objects products security. 2011-04-1489 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 90. Connection parameters are stored in the SDAC.LSI file located in the lsi folder in the Business Objects 12.0 folder in you user profile directory, for example: C:Documents and Settings<user name>Application DataBusiness ObjectsBusi ness Objects 12.0lsi Secured connections • Centralizes and controls access to data. It is the safest type of connection, and should used be to protect access to sensitive data. • You can create secured connections with the universe design tool. • You must use secured connections if you want to distribute universes through the CMS. • Secured connections can be used and updated at any time. 3.4.2.5 Setting passwords with personal and shared connections You can set a password on any universe that has a personal or shared connection type. Using passwords, you can protect the universe from unauthorized users in an environment without a repository. Note: If you forget a password, you can not recover the universe file. You should keep a backup file of universe passwords. There are two different options available for the password you can set: • Protection Password causes a dialog box to appear; it simply prompts the user to enter the password. If the password is correct, the universe is opened. • Write Reservation Password causes the following dialog box to appear: The user can then open the universe in read only mode, or in read-write mode by entering the correct password. To set a password when using personal or shared connections: 1. Select Tools > Options The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Save tab. 2011-04-1490 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 91. The "Save" page appears. 3. Type a password in the Protection Password or the Write Reservation Password text boxes. You can enter up to 40 alphanumeric characters. 4. Click OK. 3.4.2.6 Accessing the database after the user DBPass has changed The BusinessObjects administrator can let a BusinessObjects user login (name and password) continue to access data after the database user password has been changed. When the following parameters are set, a BusinessObjects user can continue to access data without contacting the BusinessObjects administrator, after the database password has been changed: • In the "Central Management Console", the Enable and update user's Data Source Credentials at logon time check box must be selected. • In the universe design tool, on the "Define a new connection" page of the "New Connection" wizard, the Use Database Credentials associated with BusinessObjects user account and the Use Single Sign On when refreshing reports at view time check boxes must be selected. When the check boxes described above are selected, the updated DBUser and DBPass parameters are automatically associated with the BusinessObjects user account. Note: DBUser and DBPass are static parameters, and must be updated in the Central Management Console. If the Database password is changed, it is recommended that the password is updated for each user account in the Central Management Console. 2011-04-1491 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 92. 3.4.2.7 Defining a new connection You can define a new database connection using the "New Connection" wizard. You access the wizard from: • "Definition" page of the "Universe Parameters" dialog box (File > Parameters > Definition). You normally define a new connection when there is not an existing connection available for the data that the universe needs to access. • "Connections" list (Tools > Connections). You can use the connection wizard to set advanced and custom parameters for a connection. Refer to the Data Access Guide for complete information on creating, editing, and optimizing connections. When you create the connection from the "Universe Parameters" dialog box, the "Universe Parameters" dialog box appears with the new connection listed in the "Connection" box. When you create the connection from the Connections dialog box, the connection appears in the list. Related Topics • To start the New Connection wizard 3.4.2.8 Viewing available connections You can view all available stored connections in the Connections list. You can edit existing connections, and create new connections. To view available connections: 1. Select Tools > Connections. The "Connections" list appears. It displays all the connections available to the current universe. 2. Click Cancel to close the dialog box. You can edit connections from the "Connections" dialog box. You can edit a secured connection only if you are working in online mode. Personal and Shared connections can be modified in any mode. You cannot modify the name of an existing connection. 2011-04-1492 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 93. 3.4.2.9 Editing a connection To edit a connection: 1. Select Tools > Connections. The "Connections" list appears. 2. Click a connection name in the list of available connections. 3. Click Edit. The "Login" page for the connection appears. 4. Type a new data source, or database name in the Data Source or Service box if required. 5. Type modifications to login parameters as required. 6. Click Next. The "Perform a Test" page appears. 7. Click Test Data Source to verify the modified connection. 8. Click Next to move to the "Advanced" and "Custom" pages. You can modify parameters as required. You can also accept the default or existing values. 9. Click Finish from the "Custom" page to apply the changes to the connection. 3.4.2.10 Deleting a connection You can delete connections from the Connections list. You can delete a secured connection only if you are working in online mode. Personal and Shared connections can be deleted in any mode. To delete a connection: 1. Select Tools > Connections. The "Connections" list appears. 2. Select a connection name in the list. 3. Click Remove. A confirmation box appears. 4. Click Yes. The connection is removed from the list. 2011-04-1493 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 94. 3.4.2.11 Adding a new connection You can add a new connection from the "Connections" page by selecting Tools > Connections, clicking Add, and following the "Define a new connection" wizard. Full Instructions for following the connection wizard are in the section Adding a new connection. 3.4.3 Setting universe summary parameters The Summary page displays universe administration information. You can use this information to help you keep track of the development of the active universe. The Summary page displays the following information: DescriptionInformation Universe creation date and the name of the cre- ator. Created Date of last modification and the name of the modifier. Modified Revision number which indicates the number of times the universe has been exported to the repository. Revision Information about universe for yourself or another designer. Comments List of the number of classes, objects, tables, aliases, joins, contexts, and hierarchies contained in the universe. Statistics 3.4.4 To view and enter summary information 1. Select File>Parameters or 2011-04-1494 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 95. Click the Parameters tool. The Universe parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click the Summary tab. The Summary page appears. 3. Type a comment in the Comment textbox. 4. Click OK. 3.4.5 Selecting strategies A strategy is a script that automatically extracts structural information from a database or flat file. Strategies have two principle roles: • Automatic join and cardinality detection (Join strategies) • Automatic class, object, and join creation (Objects and Joins strategies) Strategies can be useful if you want to automate the detection and creation of structures in your universe based on the SQL structures in the database. Note: Strategies that automate the creation of universe structures are not necessarily an essential part of universe design and creation. They can be useful if you are creating a universe quickly, allowing you to use metadata information that already exists in a database or database design tool. However, if you are building a universe by creating objects and joins that are based on relationships that come directly from a user needs analysis, then you will probably not use the automatic creation possibilities that strategies offer. In the universe design tool you can specify two types of strategies: DescriptionStrategy Default strategy shipped with the tool. Built-in strategies can not be customized. Built-in strategy User defined script that contains the same type of information as a Built-in strategy, but cus- tomized to optimize information retrieval from a database. External strategy 2011-04-1495 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 96. 3.4.5.1 Selecting a strategy To select a strategy: 1. Select File > Parameters. Or Click the Parameters tool. The "Universe Parameters" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Strategies tab. The "Strategies" page appears. 3. Select a strategy from the Objects, Joins, or Tables drop-down list boxes. 4. Click OK. 3.4.5.2 Using built-in strategies Built-in strategies are default strategies that are shipped with the universe design tool. There are built-in strategies for all supported databases. These cannot be modified. Built-in strategies appear by default before external strategies in the strategy drop-down lists. You can use built-in strategies for the following purposes: Used for...Strategy Automatic creation of default classes and objects when tables are created in the table schema.* Objects 2011-04-1496 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 97. Used for...Strategy • Automatic extraction of default joins when ta- bles are created in the table schema.* • Automatic insertion of cardinality at join cre- ation.* • Automatic detection of joins in table schema. When you select Tools > Automated Detec- tion > Detect Joins, the universe design tool uses the strategy to automatically detect can- didate joins. You can choose to implement the joins or not. • Automatic detection and insertion of cardinali- ties for existing joins in the table schema. When you select Tools > Automated Detec- tion > Detect Cardinalities, the universe de- sign tool uses the strategy to detect cardinali- ties for joins selected in the table schema. Joins Filtering information available for tables in the ta- ble browser. Tables * These automatic creation uses for strategies must be activated from the "Database" page of the "Options" dialog box. Using the Objects strategy The Objects strategies are used only for creating classes and objects automatically when you add a table to the table schema. To use this strategy you must activate it from the "Database" page of the "Options" dialog box. For more details see the section Using the automatic creation functions of a strategy. Using the Joins strategy The selected Joins strategy determines how the universe design tool automatically detects cardinalities and joins in your table schema. Depending on your database, there can be one or more Join strategies in the list. For example, when using Oracle databases, you can specify a Join strategy to automatically detect joins based either on matching column names, or matching column number names. If you do not select a strategy, the universe design tool uses the default Joins strategy which matches columns names to detect joins. The use of the selected join strategy to detect joins does not have to be activated. The strategy is always used when you choose to detect the joins or cardinalities in your table schema. 2011-04-1497 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 98. The Joins strategy is also used to automatically create joins and implement cardinality when joins are created. To use the automatic default creation functions of this strategy you must activate it from the "Database" page of the "Options" dialog box. For more details see the section Using the automatic creation functions of a strategy. Using the Tables strategy The selected table strategy reads the structure of database tables. Depending on the strategy, the strategy could determine what sort of information is shown in the table browser. For example, column data types and descriptions. 3.4.5.3 Using the automatic creation functions of a strategy The automatic creation and insertion functions of strategies are not activated by default. To use these functions, you must select the "Default Creation" check box that corresponds to the strategy that you want to apply at object or join creation. These are listed on the "Database" page of the "Options" dialog box (Tools > Options > Database). Each default creation option on the "Database" page is described as follows: When selectedWhen clearedOption Retrieves tables with the joins that link them according to the selected Join strategy. Joins must be created manually. If you select Tools > Automat- ed Detection > Detect Joins, then the universe design tool uses the strategy to detect joins and proposes candidate joins. You can choose to implement the candidate joins or not. Extract joins with tables Detects and implements the cardinalities inherent in the joins at join creation. Cardinalities must be manually defined. If you select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Cardinalities , then the uni- verse design tool uses the strategy to detect and imple- ment cardinalities for selected joins. Detect cardinalities in joins 2011-04-1498 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 99. When selectedWhen clearedOption Default classes and objects are created in the Universe pane automatically when a table is added to the "Structure" pane. A class corresponds to the table name, and objects correspond to column names. It replaces all underscore characters (_) with spaces Classes and objects must be created manually, either by cre- ating directly in the "Universe" pane, or by dragging a table or column from the "Structure" pane to the "Universe" pane. Create default classes and ob- jects from tables To select default creation options for strategies: 1. Select Tools > Options. The "Options" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Database tab. The "Database" page appears. 3. Select the check box that corresponds to the default creation function for which you want to use the strategy. 4. Click OK. 3.4.5.4 Setting the number of rows to be viewed From the "Database Options" dialog box, you can also indicate the maximum number of rows to be viewed from each table of the database. You can not restrict the physical number of rows retrieved from the database, but this modifies the default value for the number of rows that can be viewed at any one time when you view table or column values. This only applies to the rows returned in the universe design tool, and not for queries run in Web Intelligence. To set the number of rows that can be viewed: • Enter a value in the text box of the Maximum Number of Rows Fetched option. You can also click one or more times on the up or down arrow to increase or decrease the default value (100). 3.4.5.5 Using external strategies 2011-04-1499 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 100. An external strategy is a user defined SQL script that follows a defined output structure to perform customized automatic universe creation tasks. External strategies are stored in an external XML strategy file (<RDBMS>.STG). SQL scripts in this file appear in the drop down list on the Strategies page with the other strategies. External strategies contain the same type of information as the built-in strategies, but are often customized to allow the universe design tool to retrieve a specific type of database information, or to optimize how information is retrieved from the database. For complete information on defining external strategies, see the section Using external strategies to customize universe creation. 3.4.6 Indicating resource controls The universe design tool offers a number of options that let you control the use of system resources. Note: If you are viewing this tab from the Restriction Preview dialog box, then the modified parameters that apply to the restriction appear in red. 3.4.7 What system resource options are available? You can specify the following limitations on system resources: DescriptionQuery limits The number of rows that are returned in a query are limited to the number that you specify. This limits the number of rows returned, but does not restrict the RDBMS from processing all rows in the query. It only limits the number once the RDBMS has started to send rows. Limit size of result set to a specified value Query execution time is limited to the number of minutes that you specify. This limits the time that data is sent to WebIntelligence, but does not stop the process on the database. Limit execution time to a specified value 2011-04-14100 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 101. DescriptionQuery limits You specify the maximum number of characters for long text objects. When this check box is not selected, the parame- ter is not activated. It is automatically set to the default maximum value (1000). To ensure that you allow results larger than the default, the check box must be selected, and a value entered. Limit size of long text objects to a specified value 3.4.8 To enter resource control information 1. Select File > Parameters. Or Click the Parameters tool. The Universe parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click the Controls tab. The "Controls" page appears. 3. Select a check box in the Query Limits group box. Type a value in the text box that corresponds to the selected Query Limit option. You can click the up and down arrows at the end of the text boxes to increase or decrease the value entered. 4. Click OK. 3.4.9 Limiting execution time for queries generating more than one SQL statement The time limit that you specify for query execution is the total execution time for a query. If the query contains multiple SQL statements, then each statement is given an execution time equal to the total query execution time divided by the number of statements, so each statement in the query has the same execution time. If one statement requires a lot more time than others to run, it may not complete, as its execution time will not correspond to its alloted execution time within the query. 2011-04-14101 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 102. When you specify an execution time limit for multiple SQL statements, you need to take into account the normal execution time of the single statement that takes the longest time to run, and multiply this value by the number of statements in the query. 3.4.10 Indicating SQL restrictions You can set controls on the types of queries that end users can formulate from the "Query Pane" in Web Intelligence. You can indicate controls for the following areas of query generation: • Use of subqueries, operators, and complex operands in individual queries. • Generation of multiple SQL statements. • Prevent or warn about the occurrence of a cartesian product. Each of these sets of controls is described in the following sections: 3.4.10.1 Query controls You can set the following controls for individual queries: DescriptionOption Enables end users to combine queries using data set operators (union, intersect, and minus) to ob- tain one set of results. Allow use of union, intersect and minus operators 3.4.10.2 Multiple SQL statements controls You can set the following controls to determine how multiple SQL statements are handled: 2011-04-14102 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 103. DescriptionOption Enables end users to create queries that contain multiple SQL statements when using a context. Select this option if you have any contexts in the universe. Multiple SQL statements for each context Splits SQL into several statements whenever a query includes measure objects derived from columns in different tables. See the section Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure for more information on using this option. If the measure objects are based on columns in the same table, then the SQL is not split, even if this option is checked. Multiple SQL statements for each measure Enables end users to create queries on objects in more than one context and to generate one set of results from multiple contexts. If you are using contexts to resolve loops, chasm traps, fan traps, or any other join path problems, then you should clear this check box. Allow selection of multiple contexts 3.4.10.3 Cartesian product controls A Cartesian product is a result set which contains all the possible combinations of each row in each table included in a query. A Cartesian product is almost always an incorrect result. You can set the following controls for the production of a Cartesian product. DescriptionOption When selected, no query that results in a carte- sian product is executed. Prevent 2011-04-14103 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 104. DescriptionOption When selected, a warning message informs the end user that the query would result in a Cartesian product. Warn 3.4.10.4 Entering SQL restriction options To enter SQL restriction options: 1. Select File > Parameters. Or Click the Parameters tool. The "Universe Parameters" dialog box appears. 2. Click the SQL tab. The "SQL" page appears. 3. Select or clear options in the "Query" and "Multiple Paths" group boxes. 4. Select a radio button in the "Cartesian Product" group box. 5. Click OK. 3.4.11 Indicating options for linked universes The Links tab is used with dynamically linked universes, a subject covered in the Deploying universes chapter. 3.4.12 Setting SQL generation parameters In the universe design tool, you can dynamically configure certain SQL parameters that are common to most RDBMS to optimize the SQL generated in Web Intelligence products using the universe. 2011-04-14104 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 105. 3.4.12.1 Using parameter (PRM) files in previous versions of the universe design tool In versions prior to Designer 6.5, the SQL generation parameters used by a universe were maintained and edited in a separate file called a parameters (PRM) file. The values set in the PRM file applied to all universes using the associated data access driver defined for a connection. Many of the SQL parameters that are used to optimize query generation are now controlled within an individual universe file. The PRM file is now no longer used for the query generation parameters that you can set in the universe design tool PRM files are still used for parameters that are database specific. Note: See the Data Access Guide for more information on the PRM file for your data access driver. You can access this guide by selecting Help > Data Access Guide. 3.4.12.2 Setting the SQL parameters dynamically in the universe design tool Many of the parameters common to most supported RDBMS middleware are available for editing in the Parameters tab in the universe parameters dialog box (File > Parameters > Parameter). These parameters apply only to the active universe, and are saved in the UNV file. When you modify an SQL parameter for a universe in the universe design tool, the value defined in the universe design tool is used, and not the value defined in the PRM file associated with the data access driver for the connection. 3.4.12.3 Editing SQL generation parameters You can modify the values for SQL parameters that determine SQL generation in products using the universe. To edit SQL generation parameters: 1. Select File > Parameters. The "Parameters" dialog box appears. 2. Click the Parameter tab. The "Parameter" page appears. 2011-04-14105 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 106. 3. Edit, add, or remove parameters as follows: then do the following:To... • Click any parameter in the list. • Type a name in the Name box • Type a value in the Value box. • Click Add. • The new value appears at the bottom of the list Add a new parameter • Click a parameter in the list. • Type a new name in the Name box • Type a new value in the Value box. • Click Replace. The value is replaced by the new definition. Change name or value • Click the parameter that you want to remove from the list. • Click Delete. Delete a parameter 2011-04-14106 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 107. 4. Click OK. Note: The SQL generation parameter values that you set in a universe, are only available to products using that universe. 3.4.13 About SQL Generation Parameters The following reference describes the parameters that affect the generation of the query script. The parameters are listed alphabetical order in two groups: • SQL parameters that you set in the user interface of the universe design tool or the information design tool. These are SQL parameters that are common to most data access drivers. Each parameter is valid for the universe in which it is set. • SQL parameters that you set in the PRM files. These are connection-specific parameters that are listed in the data access parameter (PRM) file for the target data access driver. Related Topics • SQL Parameters that you set in the user interface • SQL Parameters that you set in the PRM files 3.4.14 SQL Parameters that you set in the user interface 3.4.14.1 ANSI92 ANSI92 = Yes|No Yes/NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14107 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 108. Specifies whether the SQL generated complies to the ANSI92 standard. Yes: Enables the SQL generation compliant to ANSI92 standard. No: SQL generation behaves according to the PRM parameter OUT- ER_JOIN_GENERATION. Description 3.4.14.2 AUTO_UPDATE_QUERY AUTO_UPDATE_QUERY = Yes|No Yes/NoValues NoDefault Determines what happens when an object in a query is not available to a user profile. Yes: Query is updated and the object is removed from the query. No: Object is kept in the query. Description 3.4.14.3 BACK_QUOTE_SUPPORTED BACK_QUOTE_SUPPORTED = Yes|No YES: the SQL uses backquotes. NO: the SQL does not use backquotes. Values YES No for OpenAccess database. Default 2011-04-14108 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 109. Specifies if the SQL uses backquotes to enclose table or column names containing spaces or special characters. Description Table name=`My Table`Result 3.4.14.4 BEGIN_SQL BEGIN_SQL = <String> StringValues Empty stringDefault This is used to prefix SQL statements for accounting, prioritization, and workload management. This parameter applies to any SQL generation, including document generation and LOV queries. It is supported in Web Intelligence , LiveOffice, and QaaWS. But it is ignored by Desktop Intelligence and Crystal Reports. Example for Teradata: BEGIN_SQL=SET QUERY_BAND='string' for transaction; This parameter requires a string that contains one or more name-value pairs, separated by a semicolon, all inside single quotes. All SQL statements are prefixed with the parameter that follows BEGIN_SQL. The name-value pairs entered in this parameter are written in the Get QueryBandPairs system table. Example of three name-value pairs: BEGIN_SQL=SET QUERY_BAND='UserID=Jones;JobID=980;Ap pID=TRM' for transaction; You can also use the @Variable function as the value in the name-value pair, the returned value is enclosed in single quotes: BEGIN_SQL=SET QUERY_BAND='USER='@Variable('BOUSER');Document='@Vari able('DPNAME')';' for transaction; Description 2011-04-14109 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 110. 3.4.14.5 BLOB_COMPARISON BLOB_COMPARISON = Yes|No Yes/NoValues NoDefault NoCan be edited? Species if a query can be generated with a DISTINCT statement when a BLOB file is used in the SELECT statement. It is related to the setting No Duplicate Row in the query properties. Yes: The DISTINCT statement can be used within the query. No: The DISTINCT statement cannot be used within the query even if the query setting No Duplicate Row is on. Description 3.4.14.6 BOUNDARY_WEIGHT_TABLE BOUNDARY_WEIGHT_TABLE = Integer 32bits [0-9] Integer 32bits [0-9, or a negative integer]Values -1Default 2011-04-14110 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 111. Allows you to optimize the FROM clause when tables have many rows. If the table size (number of rows) is greater than the entered value, the table is declared as a subquery: FROM (SELECT col1, col2,......, coln, ,...., FROM Table_Name WHERE simple condition). A simple condition is defined as not having a subquery. -1, 0, or any negative number means that this optimization is not used. Description Optimization is not implemented when: • The operator OR is in the query condition • Only one table is involved in the SQL • The query contains an outer join • No condition is defined on the table that is being optimized • The table being optimized is a derived table. Limitations 3.4.14.7 COLUMNS_SORT COLUMNS_SORT = Yes|No Yes/NoValues NoDefault Determines the order that columns are displayed in tables in the Struc- ture pane. Yes: Columns are displayed in alphabetical order No: Columns are displayed in the order they were retrieved from the database Description 2011-04-14111 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 112. 3.4.14.8 COMBINE_WITHOUT_PARENTHESIS COMBINE_WITHOUT_PARENTHESIS= Yes|No Yes/NoValues NoDefault Specifies whether or not to encapsulate a query with parentheses when it contains UNION, INTERSECT or MINUS operators. Used with RedBrick. Yes Removes the parentheses. No Leaves the parentheses. Description 3.4.14.9 COMBINED_WITH_SYNCHRO COMBINED_WITH_SYNCHRO = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14112 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 113. Specifies whether to allow a query to execute that contains UNION, INTERSECTION, or EXCEPT operators, and whose objects in each subquery are incompatible. Yes: Specifies that you do allow a query to execute that contains UNION, INTERSECTION and EXCEPT operators, and whose objects in each subquery are incompatible. This type of query generates syn- chronization (two blocks in the report). No: Specifies that you do not allow a query to execute that contains UNION, INTERSECTION and EXCEPT operators, and whose objects in each subquery are incompatible. When the query is executed the following error message is displayed: "This query is too complex. One of the subqueries contains incompatible objects." This is the default value. Description 3.4.14.10 COMPARE_CONTEXTS_WITH_JOINS COMPARE_CONTEXTS_WITH_JOINS = Yes|No Yes|NoValues YesDefault Specifies how contexts are compared. Yes: The system verifies that the contexts give the same joins. No: The system verifies that the contexts give the same sets of tables. This is the default value. Description 3.4.14.11 CORE_ORDER_PRIORITY CORE_ORDER_PRIORITY = Yes|No 2011-04-14113 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 114. Yes|NoValues NoDefault This parameter applies to classes or objects that you add to a linked derived universe. This parameter does not apply to the classes or objects in the core universe or in the original derived universe. This parameter specifies in how you want the new classes and objects to be organized in the universe design tool. See also the FIRST_LOCAL_CLASS_PRIORITY parameter. Yes: Specifies that classes and objects are organized as follows: • First core universe class Core universe objects Any derived universe objects belonging to first core universe class • Second core universe class Core universe objects Any derived universe objects belonging to second core universe class • Other core universe classes... • Derived universe classes and objects No: Specifies that classes and objects follow the original order defined in the derived universe. This is the default value. Description 3.4.14.12 CORRECT_AGGREGATED_CONDITIONS_IF_DRILL CORRECT_AGGREGATED_CONDITIONS_IF_DRILL = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14114 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 115. Applies to Desktop Intelligence only. Specifies whether Desktop Intelli- gence can aggregate measures in queries and conditions. Yes: Desktop Intelligence can aggregate measures separately in the main query and the condition, if the query is drill enabled. No: Desktop Intelligence cannot aggregate measures separately in the main query and the condition, if the query is drill enabled. Description 3.4.14.13 CUMULATIVE_OBJECT_WHERE CUMULATIVE_OBJECT_WHERE = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14115 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 116. This parameter applies to filtered objects only. Specifies how to combine the objects WHERE clause with the query condition on those objects. Yes: Specifies that WHERE clauses are combined with the main query condition with the AND operator. No : Specifies that the object's WHERE clause is combined with the condition for this object. Example: If the condition is find all French clients different from John or American cities different from New York, the SQL is: Yes: (customer.first_name <> 'John') OR (city.city <> 'New York AND customer_country.country = 'France' AND city_country.country = 'USA' No: (customer.first_name <> 'John' AND customer_country.country = 'France' ) OR (city.city <> 'New York' AND city_country.country = 'USA' ) Description 3.4.14.14 DECIMAL_COMMA DECIMAL_COMMA = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14116 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 117. Specifies that Business Objects products insert a comma as a decimal separator when necessary. Yes: Business Objects products insert a comma as a decimal separator when necessary. No: Business Objects products do not insert a comma as a decimal separator. This is the default value. Description 3.4.14.15 DISABLE_ARRAY_FETCH_SIZE_OPTIMIZATION DISABLE_ARRAY_FETCH_SIZE_OPTIMIZATION = Yes|No Yes/NoValues NoDefault An optimization algorithm can be used to optimize the size of the returned arrays instead of using the default setting. No: All queries run on the universe will benefit from the optimization. Yes: Queries use the default value set. This parameter also applies to OLAP connections. Description 3.4.14.16 DISTINCT_VALUES DISTINCT_VALUES = GROUPBY|DISTINCT GROUPBY|DISTINCTValues DISTINCTDefault 2011-04-14117 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 118. Specifies whether SQL is generated with a DISTINCT or GROUP BY clause in a list of values and Query pane when the option "Do not re- trieve duplicate rows" is active. DISTINCT: The SQL is generated with a DISTINCT clause, for example; SELECT DISTINCT cust_name FROM Customers GROUPBY: The SQL is generated with a GROUP BY clause, for example; SELECT cust_name FROM Customers GROUP BY cust_name Description 3.4.14.17 END_SQL END_SQL = String StringValues <empty string>Default The statement specified in this parameter is added at the end of each SQL statement. Description For IBM DB2 databases, you can use the following: END_SQL=FOR SELECT ONLY The server will read blocks of data much faster. Another example: END_SQL=’write ‘ UNVID To Usage_Audit.Querieded_uni verse Would write universe id to an audit table, this can be used to record other data such as user and tables queried. Example 2011-04-14118 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 119. 3.4.14.18 EVAL_WITHOUT_PARENTHESIS EVAL_WITHOUT_PARENTHESIS = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault By default, the function @Select(Classobject) is replaced by the SE LECT statement for the object <Classobject> enclosed within brackets. For example, when combining two @Select statements, @Select(ob- jet1) *@Select(objet2). If the SQL(object1) = A-B and SQL(object2) =C, then the operation is (A-B) * (C). You avoid the default adding of brackets by setting EVAL_WITH OUT_PARENTHESIS = Yes. The operation is then A - B * C. Yes: Brackets are removed from the SELECT statement for a function @Select(Classobject) No: Brackets are added around the Select statement for the function @Select(Classobject). Description 3.4.14.19 FILTER_IN_FROM FILTER_IN_FROM = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14119 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 120. Determines if query conditions are included in the FROM Clause. This setting is only applicable if the other universe parameter setting ANSI92 is set to Yes. Yes: When editing an outer join, the default behavior property selected in the drop down list box of the Advanced Join properties dialog box in the universe design tool, is set to "All objects in FROM". No: When editing an outer join, the default behavior property selected in the drop down list box of the Advanced Join properties dialog box in the universe design tool is set to "No object in FROM". Description 3.4.14.20 FIRST_LOCAL_CLASS_PRIORITY FIRST_LOCAL_CLASS_PRIORITY = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault This parameter only applies to Desktop Intelligence Only taken into account when CORE_ORDER_PRIORITY=Yes. Yes: Classes in the derived universe are listed first. No: Objects and sub classes from the derived universe appear after those of the core universe. Description 3.4.14.21 FORCE_SORTED_LOV FORCE_SORTED_LOV = Yes|No Yes|NoValues 2011-04-14120 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 121. NoDefault Retrieves a list of values that is sorted. Yes: Specifies that the list of values is sorted. No: Specifies that the list of values is not sorted. Description 3.4.14.22 INNERJOIN_IN_WHERE INNERJOIN_IN_WHERE = Yes|No Yes|NoValues No. You must manually add the parameter to activate it.Default Allows you to force the system to generate SQL syntax with all the inner joins in the WHERE clause when ANSI92 is set to yes . This is only possible if a query contains only inner joins (Does not contain FULL OUTER, RIGHT OUTER, or LEFT OUTER joins). Yes: If ANSI92 is set to yes, the system generates ANSI92 join syntax in the FROM clause except when the query contains only inner joins. In this case, the inner joins go into the WHERE clause. No: If ANSI92 is set to Yes, the system generates ANSI 92 join syntax in the FROM clause. Description 3.4.14.23 JOIN_BY_SQL JOIN_BY_SQL = Yes|No Yes|NoValues 2011-04-14121 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 122. NoDefault Specifies how multiple SQL statements are handled. Multiple statements can be combined (provided that the database permits this). Yes: Specifies that multiple SQL statements are combined. No: Specifies that multiple SQL statements are not combined. This is the default value. Description 3.4.14.24 MAX_INLIST_VALUES MAX_INLIST_VALUES = [0-99] Integer: min-1, max depends on DBValues -1Default Allows you to set the maximum number of values you may enter in a condition when you use the IN LIST operator. 99: Specifies that you may enter up to 99 values when you create a condition using the IN LIST operator. The maximum authorized value you may enter depends on your database. The value of -1 means that there is no restriction on the number of values returned, except that imposed by the database. Description 3.4.14.25 OLAP_UNIVERSE OLAP_UNIVERSE = Yes|No 2011-04-14122 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 123. Yes|NoValues No default value.Default Indicates if an OLAP universe is used. When the universe design tool uses an OLAP universe, the value is set to Yes and the parameter is visible in the SQL parameters list. When the universe is not an OLAP universe, the parameter is not visible in the SQL parameters list. Yes: The universe is an OLAP universe. No: The universe is not an OLAP universe. Description 3.4.14.26 PATH_FINDER_OFF Parameter is not listed by default. You must add the parameter manually to the list and set a value. PATH_FINDER_OFF= Yes|No Yes|NoValues No default. You must manually enter the parameter.Default Used for HPIW because the join generation is done by the database. Yes: Joins are NOT generated in the query. No: Joins are generated in the query. This is the default behavior. Description 3.4.14.27 REPLACE_COMMA_BY_CONCAT REPLACE_COMMA_BY_CONCAT= Yes|No 2011-04-14123 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 124. Yes|NoValues NoDefault In previous versions of the universe design tool, a comma could be used to separate multiple fields in an object Select statement. The comma was treated as a concatenation operator. For universes that already use the comma in this way you can set REPLACE_COM MA_BY_CONCAT to No to keep this behavior. In the current version of the universe design tool, this parameter is set to Yes by default, so that any expressions using a comma in this way are automatically changed to use concatenation syntax. Yes: Comma is replaced by the concatenation expression when multi field object is found. No: Keep the comma as it is. Description 3.4.14.28 SELFJOINS_IN_WHERE SELFJOINS_IN_WHERE = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault Self-joins are usually included in the FROM clause. This allows you to force the system to generate SQL syntax with all the conditions of a self-join in the WHERE clause. The ANSI92 parameter must be set to Yes for this parameter to be taken into account. You must manually add the parameter to the list to activate it. Yes: The conditions of a self-join go in the WHERE clause of the SQL query. No: The syntax for self-joins is generated according to the ANSI 92 convention, and conditions for a self-join go in the ON clause of the table join definition in the FROM clause of the SQL query. Description 2011-04-14124 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 125. 3.4.14.29 SHORTCUT_BEHAVIOR SHORTCUT_BEHAVIOR = Global|Successive Global|SuccessiveValues SuccessiveDefault Specifies how shortcut joins are applied. This parameter was formerly listed as GLOBAL_SHORTCUTS in the PRM files. The values have been changed to Global for Yes, and Successive for No. Global: Specifies that shortcut joins are considered one by one. A shortcut join is applied only if it really bypasses one or more tables, and if it does not remove a table from the join path used by a following shortcut join. Successive: Specifies that all shortcut joins are applied. Note: If it generates a Cartesian product, no shortcut joins are applied. Description 3.4.14.30 SMART_AGGREGATE SMART_AGGREGATE = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault 2011-04-14125 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 126. Determines how aggregate tables are used for smart measures that are based on an aggregate tables. This ensures that a universe object based on a ratio is correctly aggregated. By default the system takes the advantage of the pre-calculated values from the aggregated tables, if these table are not consistent during time (different time periods), you use this parameter to ensure the most detailed aggregate tables are used. This parameter is not visible in the universe parameter list (by default not activated). The universe designer must manually insert it in the pa- rameter list before activating it (value Yes). Yes: Any additional grouping set query should be based on the aggre- gate table of the initial query for the smart measure based on aggregate table. No: The system takes the most appropriate aggregate table. Description 3.4.14.31 STORED_PROC_UNIVERSE STORED_PROC_UNIVERSE = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault This value is automatically set to Yes when you create a universe that contains stored procedures. Do not change this value manually. Yes: The universe you are creating/editing contains stored procedures. No: The universe does not contain stored procedures. Description 3.4.14.32 THOROUGH_PARSE THOROUGH_PARSE = Yes|No 2011-04-14126 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 127. Yes|NoValues NoDefault Specifies the methodology used for default Parsing in the Query pane and individual object parsing. Yes: PREPARE, DESCRIBE, and EXECUTE statements are used to parse SQL for objects. Prepare+DescribeCol+Execute No: PREPARE and DESCRIBE statements are used to parse SQL for objects. Description 3.4.14.33 TRUST_CARDINALITIES TRUST_CARDINALITIES = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault Allows you to optimize the SQL in case of inflated results. Yes: For queries that include a measure, all conditions that inflate the measure and do not appear in the Result Objects, are transformed to sub queries to ensure that tables that may return false results for the measure are not included in the query. No: No optimization is implemented. Description 3.4.14.34 UNICODE_STRINGS 2011-04-14127 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 128. UNICODE_STRINGS = Yes|No Yes|NoValues NoDefault Specifies whether the current universe can manipulate Unicode strings or not. Only applies to Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle 9. If the database character set in the SBO file is set as Unicode, then it is nec- essary to modify the SQL generation to handle specific Unicode column types like NCHAR and NVARCHAR. Yes: Conditions based on strings are formatted in the SQL according to the value for a parameter UNICODE_PATTERN in the PRM file, for ex- ample for MS SQL Server (sqlsrv.prm) : UNICODE_PATTERN=N$ The condition Customer_name='Arai ' becomes Customer_name=N'Arai'. Note: When you create a prompt with @Prompt syntax based on Uni- code value, the datatype should be 'U' not 'C' No: All conditions based on strings are formatted in the standard SQL. For example the condition Customer_name='Arai ' remains Cus- tomer_name='Arai' Description 3.4.15 SQL Parameters that you set in the PRM files 3.4.15.1 CASE_SENSITIVE <Parameter Name="CASE_SENSITIVE">NO</Parameter> Specifies if the database is case-sensitive. This parameter is used with Oracle. Description 2011-04-14128 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 129. YES: the database is case-sensitive. NO: the database is not case-sensitive. Values NODefault 3.4.15.2 CHECK_OWNER_STATE <Parameter Name="CHECK_OWNER_STATE">NO</Parameter> Specifies if the SQL checks if the database supports table classification by owner name. Description YES: the SQL checks if the database supports table classification by owner name. NO: the SQL does not check if the database supports table classification by owner name. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.3 CHECK_QUALIFIER_STATE <Parameter Name="CHECK_QUALIFIER_STATE">NO</Parameter> Specifies if the SQL checks if the database supports table classification by qualifier. Description 2011-04-14129 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 130. YES: the SQL checks if the database supports table classification by qualifier. NO: the SQL does not check if the database supports table classification by qualifier. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.4 COMMA <Parameter Name="COMMA">||' '||</Parameter> Specifies what database concatenation operator should be used to re- places a comma for objects that have the following syntax: Tab.Col1, Tab.Col2. This parameter is used with all data access drivers. Description ||' '|| +' '+ Values ||' '||Default Tab.Col1||' '||Tab.Col2Result 3.4.15.5 CONCAT <Parameter Name="CONCAT">||</Parameter> Specifies the concatenation operator. The parameter is used with all data access drivers. Description 2011-04-14130 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 131. double pipe (||) or plus sign (+)Values ||Default 3.4.15.6 DATE_WITHOUT_QUOTE <Parameter Name="DATE_WITHOUT_QUOTE">YES</Parameter> Specifies if dates are surrounded with single quotes in the SQL syntax. This parameter is used with MS Access. Description YES: dates are not surrounded by single quotes. NO: dates are surrounded by single quotes. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.7 DELIMIT_LOWERCASE <Parameter Name="DELIMIT_LOWERCASE"></Parameter> Specifies if lowercase identifiers are delimited with quotes.Description YES: the lowercase identifiers are delimited with quotes. NO: the lowercase identifiers are not delimited with quotes. Values 2011-04-14131 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 132. 3.4.15.8 EXTERN_SORT_EXCLUDE_DISTINCT <Parameter Name="EXTERN_SORT_EXCLUDE_DISTINCT">YES</Parameter> Specifies if the application generates a SELECT DISTINCT when a query contains an ORDER BY clause. Description YES: a SELECT DISTINCT is not generated when the query contains an ORDER BY clause. NO: a DISTINCT is generated when the query contains an ORDER BY clause. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.9 GROUPBY_WITH_ALIAS <Parameter Name="GROUPBY_WITH_ALIAS">YES</Parameter> Specifies if the database can create a GROUP BY clause that contains aliases in the SELECT statement. Description YES: it allows you to create a GROUP BY clause in the SELECT state- ment. NO: it does not let you create a GROUP BY clause with aliases in the SELECT statement. Values YESDefault 2011-04-14132 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 133. 3.4.15.10 IDENTIFIER_DELIMITER <Parameter Name="IDENTIFIER_DELIMITER">"</Parameter> Specifies the following features: • Table or column names that contain spaces or special characters are enclosed within quotes if BACK_QUOTE_SUPPORTED parameter is activated. • Tables or column names regardless of their characters are enclosed within quotes if DELIMIT_IDENTIFIERS parameter is activated. To use this parameter, either BACK_QUOTE_SUPPORTED or DELIM IT_IDENTIFIERS must be set to YES. This is the default value of both parameters. Description " (double quotes): table or column names that contain spaces or special characters are enclosed in double quotes. ' (single quote): table or column names that contain spaces or special characters are enclosed in single quotes. This value can only be used with Microsoft Access. Values "Default Table name="My Table"Result 3.4.15.11 IF_NULL <Parameter Name="IF_NULL">NO</Parameter> Specifies a function that takes two parameters. If the first parameter returns NULL, the second parameter value is used. Description Database-dependent.Values 2011-04-14133 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 134. Database-dependent.Default 3.4.15.12 OUTERJOINS_COMPLEX <Parameter Name="OUTERJOINS_COMPLEX"></Parameter> Along with OUTERJOINS_GENERATION, this parameter controls the generation of outer join queries. Description YES NO Values 3.4.15.13 OUTERJOINS_GENERATION <Parameter Name="OUTERJOINS_GENERATION">ANSI92</Parameter> This parameter controls the default outer join generation behavior. You can set that • Outer join generation conforms to the ANSI92 specification. • Outer join generation remains the same as for previous versions of theuniverse design tool. Note: The PRM file OUTERJOINS_GENERATION parameter relates to the universe ANSI92 setting in the following way: • If the PRM file OUTERJOINS_GENERATION parameter is set to ANSI92 and the universe ANSI92 setting is set to NO, the PRM parameter overrides the universe setting and outer joins conform to ANSI92 behavior. • If the PRM file OUTERJOINS_GENERATION parameter is set to USUAL, then the universe ANSI92 setting takes precedence, and outer joins conform to ANSI92 depending on whether the universe ANSI92 setting is YES or NO. 2011-04-14134 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 135. Remember: The ANSI92 value makes REVERSE_TABLE_WEIGHT parameter not useful for optimization of SQL generation. Outer joins that conform to ANSI92 behavior leads the order of the tables in the SQL sentence. Specifies the SQL syntax for outer joins. The value ANSI 92 generates an outer join in the FROM clause. Other values generate the outer join in the WHERE clause. When you modify this setting, you should check join properties to verify that the outer join expression is valid, and that the cardinalities are cor- rect. ANSI92 does not support any manual customization in the join syntax. Description The primary values for OUTERJOINS_GENERATION are: • ANSI92: the default outer join behavior conforms to the ANSI92 standard no matter what the ANSI92 parameter value of the universe design tool. • No: outer joins are not supported. • USUAL: the default outer join behavior is the same as with previous versions of the universe design tool . This behavior is overridden if ANSI92 parameter of the universe design tool is set to YES. Other settings are available depending on the database. See the defaults below. Values ANSI_92: default value for Oracle, MS SQL Server 2005 and Sybase. DB2: default value for IBM DB2. FULL_ODBC: default value for Microsoft SQL Server. INFORMIX: default value for IBM Informix. INGRES: default value for Teradata. NO: default value for ODBC. USUAL: default value for HP Neoview, Netezza, IBM Red Brick and MS SQL Server 2000. Default 2011-04-14135 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 136. Examples of OUTERJOINS_GENERATION parameter settings Setting = USUAL: FROM T1, T2 WHERE T1.col1(+) = T2.col2 Setting = DB2: FROM T2 LEFT OUTER JOIN T1 ON T1.col1 = T2.col2 Setting = ODBC: FROM {oj T1 LEFT OUTER JOIN T2 ON T1.col1=T2.col2} Where (T2.col3 = T3.col1) Setting = INFORMIX FROM T2 OUTER T1 WHERE T1.col1=T2.col2 Setting = FULL-ODBC FROM {oj T1 RIGHT OUTER JOIN T2 ON T2.col2=T1.col1 T2 INNER JOIN 3 on T2.col3 = T3.col1} Setting = ANSI_92: SELECT DISTINCT t1.col1, t2.col2 FROM (t1 RIGHT OUTER JOIN t2 ON (t1.col1=t2.col2) ) Using OUTERJOINS with Oracle The default OUTERJOINS_GENERATION setting can affect the behavior of existing universes irrespective of the universe-level setting for the ANSI92 parameter. To set that your existing Oracle universes behave as with the previous universe design tool versions: 1. In the PRM file, ensure that the OUTERJOINS_GENERATION parameter is set to USUAL. 2. In the PRM file , set the LEFT_OUTER and RIGHT_OUTER parameters to $(+) For more information about universe SQL parameters and PRM files in previous versions of the universe design tool, see the Designer Guide. 3.4.15.14 OVER_CLAUSE <Parameter Name="OVER_CLAUSE">YES</Parameter> 2011-04-14136 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 137. Allows SAP BusinessObjects applications to include RISQL functions when generating SQL. The supported RISQL functions for the database are listed in the ANALYTIC_FUNCTIONS parameter. Description YES: applications can include RISQL functions when generating SQL. NO: applications cannot include RISQL functions when generating SQL. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.15 OWNER <Parameter Name="OWNER">YES</Parameter> Specifies if the database supports the owner name as prefix for tables.Description YES: the database supports prefixing tables with the owner name. NO: the database does not support prefixing tables with the owner name. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.16 PREFIX_SYS_TABLE <Parameter Name="PREFIX_SYS_TABLE">RBW_</Parameter> <Parameter Name="PREFIX_SYS_TABLE">MSys</Parameter> Specifies if the system tables are displayed in the universe design tool . Description 2011-04-14137 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 138. MSys: the MS Access system tables are hidden in the universe design tool table browser. RBW_ : the IBM Red Brick system tables are hidden in the Universe Designer table browser. no value: the database system tables are displayed in the universe de- sign tool table browser. Values MSys: default value for MS Access RBW_: default value for IBM Red Brick Default 3.4.15.17 QUALIFIER <Parameter Name="QUALIFIER">NO</Parameter> Specifies if the database supports the qualifier name as prefix for tables.Description YES: the database supports prefixing tables with the qualifier name. NO: the database does not support prefixing tables with the qualifier name. Values RDBMS-dependent.Default 3.4.15.18 QUOTE_OWNER <Parameter Name="QUOTE_OWNER">YES</Parameter> Specifies if an owner name should be in single quotes. Used by IBM Informix only. Description 2011-04-14138 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 139. YES: table names are prefixed by an owner name in single quotes. This is mandatory for an ANSI-compliant IBM Informix database. If not, IBM Informix converts the owner name to upper case characters. NO: table names are not prefixed by an owner name in single quotes. Values YESDefault SELECT Alias.col (<Alias> is a local Alias) FROM 'Owner'.table.col Alias Result 3.4.15.19 REFRESH_COLUMNS_TYPE <Parameter Name="REFRESH_COLUMNS_TYPE">O</Parameter> Specifies how columns are refreshed.Description O: columns are refreshed by owner name. Q: columns are refreshed by qualifier name. T: columns are refreshed by table name. Values O: default value for Oracle Q: default value for IBM Red Brick, Sybase, MS SQL Server and MS Access Default 3.4.15.20 REMOVE_SEMICOLONS <Parameter Name="REMOVE_SEMICOLONS"></Parameter> 2011-04-14139 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 140. Instructs the Query Panel of SAP BusinessObjects applications whether to remove semicolons in freehand SQL. Description YES: the Query Panel removes semicolons. NO: the Query Panel does not remove semicolons. Values 3.4.15.21 REVERSE_TABLE_WEIGHT <Parameter Name="REVERSE_TABLE_WEIGHT">YES</Parameter> Specifies in which order tables are to be generated. This parameter is used with Oracle. This parameter can also be used with some other databases, possibly with the YES and NO reversed. Note: This parameter is not supported by Teradata. Remember: If OUTERJOINS_GENERATION parameter is set to ANSI92 or if the universe ANSI92 setting is set to YES, then REVERSE_TABLE_WEIGHT parameter does not affect the optimization of SQL generation. Description YES: tables are generated from the smallest to the largest. NO: tables are generated from the largest to the smallest. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.22 UNICODE_PATTERN <Parameter Name="UNICODE_PATTERN">UNISTR($)</Parameter> 2011-04-14140 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 141. Only applies when the universe SQL generation parameter UNI CODE_STRINGS is set to YES. All conditions based on strings are then formatted with this string value. This is used with MS SQL Server and Oracle only. Description N$: for MS SQL Server UNISTR($): for Oracle Values 3.4.15.23 USER_INPUT_DATE_FORMAT <Parameter Name="USER_INPUT_DATE_FORMAT">'dd-MM-yyyy HH:mm:ss'</Parameter> Specifies the default date and hour formats generated in the WHERE clause of a SQL statement. Description {d 'yyyy-mm-dd'}: default date format with ODBC. 'DD-MM-YYYY HH:MM:SS': default date and hour formats with Oracle. 'MM/DD/YYYY': default date format with IBM Informix. 'yyyy-mm-dd HH:mm:ss': default date and hour formats with MS SQL Server and for most IBM DB2 servers. 'mm/dd/yyyy hh:m:s am/pm': default date and hour formats with Sybase. 'yyyy-mm-dd': default date format with a Sybase gateway. Note: If you need to use time or timestamp variables with ODBC, you must replace the default date format value with {t 'hh:mm:ss'} or {ts 'yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss'} in the odbc.sbo file. Values See values above.Default 2011-04-14141 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 142. 3.4.15.24 USER_INPUT_NUMERIC_SEPARATOR <Parameter Name="USER_INPUT_NUMERIC_SEPARATOR">.</Parameter> Specifies the default decimal separator that is used in the generated SQL script. Description '.' (period)Values '.'Default 3.4.15.25 DELIMIT_IDENTIFIERS <Parameter Name="DELIMIT_IDENTIFIERS">YES</Parameter> Specifies if database identifiers can be quoted. Identifiers are quoted using the delimiter specified in the IDENTIFIER_DELIMITER parameter. Description YES: identifiers can be quoted. NO: identifiers cannot be quoted. Values YESDefault Table name="my_table"Result 3.4.15.26 EXT_JOIN_INVERT <Parameter Name="EXT_JOIN_INVERT">YES</Parameter> 2011-04-14142 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 143. Specifies how to display an outer join symbol in a join expression. This parameter is used with IBM DB2, IBM Informix, Oracle, and Teradata. Description YES: when you click an Outer join check box in the Edit Join dialog box of Universe Designer, the outer join symbol appears reversed in position in a join expression. NO: when you click an Outer join check box in the Edit Join dialog box of Universe Designer, the outer join symbol appears on the same side on which you created the outer join. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.27 KEY_INFO_SUPPORTED <Parameter Name="KEY_INFO_SUPPORTED">YES</Parameter> Specifies if you can retrieve primary and secondary key definitions from the database. Description YES: the database lets you retrieve primary and secondary key definitions from the database. This parameter enables Universe Designer to display the keys in the Structure window. NO: the database does not let you retrieve primary and secondary key definitions from the database. Values YESDefault 3.4.15.28 ORDER_BY_STRINGS <Parameter Name="ORDER_BY_STRINGS">YES</Parameter> 2011-04-14143 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 144. Specifies if the database is capable of correctly processing an ORDER BY clause based on a string column. This parameter corresponds to the ORDERBYSTRINGS capability of SAP BusinessObjects Data Fed- erator. If the database cannot do the processing, Data Federator Query Server performs the sort. Description YES: the database can perform the sort processing. NO: the database cannot perform the sort processing. Values 2011-04-14144 Creating a universe and setting the universe parameters
  • 145. Creating a schema with tables and joins 4.1 Overview This chapter describes how you can create a schema that contains all the SQL structures necessary to build the objects that Web Intelligence users use to build reports. These SQL structures include tables, columns, joins, and database functions. Building a correct schema is the basis for building a universe that meets all its end user reporting requirements. 4.2 What is a schema? A schema is a graphical representation of database structures. In the universe design tool, you create a schema for the part of the database that your universe represents. The schema contains tables and joins. The tables contain columns that you eventually map to objects that end users use to create reports. The joins link the tables so that the correct data is returned for queries that are run on more than one table. You design the schema in the "Structure" pane by selecting tables from the target database using the "Table Browser". You create joins to link the tables. When you have designed the schema for your universe, you can verify the schema using an automatic integrity check. A schema for the example Beach universe appears as follows: 2011-04-14145 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 146. 4.2.1 Schema design is the basis for a successful universe Good schema design is essential to good universe design. You populate the schema with tables based on the columns that correspond to the objects that end users need to create reports. These objects should be defined from a user needs analysis. You should be looking at the database for tables that allow you to create these necessary objects. 4.2.2 Schema design and the universe creation process Creating a schema is the first phase of the implementation stage of the universe development cycle. The user analysis and planning phases can all be done without using the universe design tool; however, creating your schema is the first step using the tool to build your universe. The following list indicates where the schema design phase appears in a typical universe development cycle (Implementation, step 1): • Preparation 1. User needs analysis 2. Planning • Implementation using the universe design tool 1. Design and test schema 2. Build and test universe objects 3. Deploy universe using repository • Maintenance 1. Update and maintain universe based on changes in user requirements or data source 2011-04-14146 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 147. 4.2.3 What are the stages of schema design? This chapter covers the following stages of schema design: • Inserting and organizing tables. • Creating joins and setting cardinalities • Resolving join problems such as loops, chasm traps, and fan traps. • Testing the integrity of your schema. 4.3 Inserting tables You start designing a schema by selecting tables from the target database and inserting symbols that represent the tables in the "Structure" pane. In the universe design tool, the table symbols are referred to simply as tables. You use the "Table Browser" to select insert tables into your schema. The "Table Browser" is an independent window that shows a tree view of the tables available in the target database. Note: Before selecting tables, you can indicate strategies that you wish to use to help create your universe. For more information on this topic, see Selecting strategies. 4.3.1 Using the Table Browser The "Table Browser" is an independent window that shows a tree view of the tables and columns in your target database. You use the "Table Browser" to view and select tables in your database that you want to insert into your schema. You expand the node next to a table name to display the columns for the table. 4.3.1.1 Activating the Table Browser 2011-04-14147 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 148. The "Table Browser" is not visible by default. You must activate the "Table Browser" when you want to add tables to the "Structure" pane. You can activate the "Table Browser" using any of the methods listed below. To activate the "Table Browser": • Select Insert > Tables. Or • Double-click an empty space in the "Structure" pane. Or • Click the Table Browser button. The "Table Browser" window appears in the "Structure" pane. 4.3.1.2 Inserting Tables From the Table Browser You can use any one of the following methods to insert one or multiple tables using the "Table Browser": Inserting a single table To insert a single table: • Click a table and click the Insert button. Or • Right-click a table and select Insert from the contextual menu. Or • Double-click a table. Or • Click a table and drag it into the "Structure" pane. The table appears in the "Structure" pane. Inserting multiple tables To insert multiple tables: 1. Hold down CTRL while you click individual tables. Or 2. Hold down SHIFT while you click the first table and last table in a continuous block of tables. Multiple tables are selected. 2011-04-14148 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 149. 3. Click the Insert button. Or Drag the tables into the "Structure" pane. Or Right click the selected tables and select Insert form the contextual menu. Each table including all of its columns appears in the "Structure" pane. In the "Table Browser" any table that you insert in the universe is displayed with a check mark beside its name. 4.3.1.3 Viewing data from the Table Browser You can use the "Table Browser" to view the data contained in a table, or in an individual column. To view data from the "Table Browser" : 1. Right-click a table in the "Table Browser" Or Expand a table node in the "Table Browser" and right click a column for the table. 2. Select View Table Values from the contextual menu. Or Select View Column Values from the contextual menu. A box appears listing the data contained in the table or column. 2011-04-14149 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 150. Tip: If columns are to narrow to see complete row values, you can widen columns by pressing the key combination CTRL-SHIFT and +. 4.3.1.4 Optimizing Table Browser Performance The time taken for a table to be inserted in the "Structure" pane from the "Table Browser" can vary depending on the following factors: Optimize table insertion by...Table insertion slow because... Building a data warehouse using the tables that you want to insert in a separate database account. Create a connection to the new warehouse. There are a large number of tables in your database. The universe design tool queries the system catalog, so when the catalog is very large, retrieving tables can be slow. Inserting tables only. You do this as follows: 1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box appears. 2. Click the database tab. The Database page appears. 3. Clear the following check boxes: Extract Joins With Tables and Detect Cardinalities in Joins. 4. Click OK. You are automatically inserting joins and checking cardinalities with the tables that you are inserting. 4.3.2 Arranging Tables in the Structure Pane You can automatically arrange your tables in the "Structure" pane to tidy up your initial schema before you start manually rearranging the tables to create your joins. 2011-04-14150 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 151. 4.3.2.1 Automatically arranging tables in the Structure pane To automatically arrange tables: • Select View > Arrange Tables. The tables are arranged in an orderly manner. 4.4 Using derived tables Derived tables are tables that you define in the universe schema. You create objects on them as you do with any other table. A derived table is defined by an SQL query at the universe level that can be used as a logical table in the universe design tool. Derived tables have the following advantages: • Reduced amount of data returned to the document for analysis. You can include complex calculations and functions in a derived table. These operations are performed before the result set is returned to a document, which saves time and reduces the need for complex analysis of large amounts of data at the report level. • Reduced maintenance of database summary tables. Derived tables can, in some cases, replace statistical tables that hold results for complex calculations that are incorporated into the universe using aggregate awareness. These aggregate tables are costly to maintain and refresh frequently. Derived tables can return the same data and provide real time data analysis. 2011-04-14151 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 152. Derived tables are similar to database views, with the advantage that the SQL for a derived table can include prompts. 4.4.1 Adding, editing, and deleting derived tables Derived tables appear in your universe design tool schema in exactly the same way as normal database tables, but the workflow for creating them is different. Adding, editing, and deleting derived tables is described in the following sections. 4.4.1.1 Adding a derived table To add a derived table: 1. Click Derived Tables on the Insert menu. The "Derived Tables" dialog box appears. 2. Type the table name in the Table Name box. 2011-04-14152 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 153. 3. Build the table SQL in the box beneath the Table Name box. You can type the SQL directly or use the Tables and Columns, Operators and Functions boxes to build it. 4. Click OK. The derived table appears in the schema with the physical database tables. 5. Build objects based on the derived table columns in exactly the same way you do with regular tables. 4.4.1.2 Editing a derived table To edit a derived table: 1. Right-click the table in the universe design tool schema and select Edit Derived Table from the shortcut menu. 2. Edit the derived table, then click OK. 4.4.1.3 To delete a derived table 1. In the schema pane, select the derived table that you want to delete. 2. Press the Delete key. 4.4.1.4 Example: Creating a derived table Example: Creating a derived table to return server information In this example you want to create objects that allow the user to add information about the database server to their reports. You create two objects, servername and version, that return the values of the in-built variables @@SERVERNAME and @VERSION in a universe running on an SQL Server database. Do the following: 1. Select Derived Tables on the Insert menu. The "Derived Tables" dialog box appears. 2011-04-14153 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 154. 2. Type serverinfo in the Table Name box. 3. Type the SQL Select @@SERVERNAME as servername, @@VERSION as version in the SQL box. Note: You must provide aliases in the SQL for all derived columns. The universe design tool uses these aliases to name the columns of the derived tables. 4. Click OK. The derived table serverinfo appears in the universe design tool schema. 5. Create a class called Server Info and add two dimension objects beneath the class, based on the servername and version columns of the serverinfo derived and columns of the table. Note that the serverinfo table appears in the list of tables like any ordinary database table, and its columns appear in the list of columns like ordinary table columns. The user can now place the servername and version objects on a report. Example: Showing the number of regions in each country In this example you create a table that shows the number of regions in each country. The SQL is as follows: select country, count (r.region_id) as number_of_regions from country c, region r where r.country_id = c.country_id group by country It is important in this case to alias the column that contains the calculation. The universe design tool uses these aliases as the column names in the derived table. In this case the table has two columns: country and number_of_regions. 4.5 Nested derived tables A nested derived table (also known as a 'derived table on a derived table') is a table that is derived from at least one existing derived table. The nested derived table can also reference the database tables. 2011-04-14154 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 155. Use the "Derived Tables" editor to enter your SQL expression and select derived tables (and physical tables in the database, if required) to create your nested derived table. The SQL expression for the derived table is inserted into the SQL expression for the nested derived table when the report generates. 4.5.1 Using the Derived Tables editor You use the "Derived Tables" editor to define derived tables or nested derived tables. You enter the SQL expressions and double-click on the objects (tables, derived tables, columns, functions) in the editor to create the SQL expression for your derived table or nested derived table. Use the @DerivedTable function to reference a derived table in your nested derived table. • The function @DerivedTable(Derived_table_name) is included in the functions catalog in the Derived Tables editor. • A center pane in the bottom part of the Derived Tables editor displays existing derived tables and nested derived tables. This pane is only visible when derived tables exist in the universe. The following checks are performed for both derived tables and nested derived tables when you click Check Integrity: • Detects impacts on derived tables when a referenced derived table is removed. • Checks for circular references. • Checks for @DerivedTable() within Object definitions (SELECT and WHERE), which are not allowed. 4.5.2 To create a nested derived table You create a nested derived table in the same way that you create a derived table. You can add and rename a nested derived table in the same way you add and rename a derived table. To create a nested derived table: 1. Open your universe (*.unv) in the samples directory (Business ObjectsBusinessObjects Enterprise 12SamplesenUniverseSamples). 2. Right-click in the Universe Structure pane and select Derived Table in the context menu. The "Derived Tables" editor opens and the center pane at the bottom of the "Derived Tables" editor lists the available derived tables. 3. Type the name your nested derived table. 4. Type the SQL expression. You can type the entire text or use the editor assistants. 5. Double-click on the objects (tables, derived tables, columns, functions). 6. Use the @DerivedTable function with the syntax: @DerivedTable(Derived_table_name) to choose a derived table. 2011-04-14155 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 156. 7. Click Check Syntax to check the syntax of your derived table and correct any potential errors, then validate your nested derived table. The nested derived table is added to the universe. 8. Click OK to validate your nested derived table. The nested derived table appears in the "Structure" pane. Derived tables and nested derived tables are lighter in color than tables that represent actual database tables. Note: To display the table values, right-click the different tables. You have created your nested derived table in your universe. 4.5.3 Renaming nested derived tables When you rename a Derived Table, the new name is propagated and updated through all the other Derived Tables that reference it. 4.6 Using tables that have input columns When a table containing an input column is inserted in the universe, the Web Intelligence or Query as a Web Service user will be required to choose values or enter values in order for the input columns to be calculated. The input columns are bound to values. The data for the input columns is not necessarily available in the original database, the data can be the following: • Values hard-coded when you create the universe • Values provided by the end user (after a prompt), or selected from a list • Values provided via a join with another table Tables with input columns are only supported when the Database connection is the Business Objects Data Federator server. When analyzing joins that are eligible to solve the input column, note that: • Only simple joins will be considered in the resolution algorithm • No complex joins such as joins with multiple left columns or multiple right columns are allowed • Only joins with equal or IN (INLIST) operands will be considered. Operators such as Between cannot be used to solve the input column Tables with input columns have an arrow at the side of the input column in the "Structure" pane, and in the "Table Browser" pane, the input columns are identified by a specific icon. When you insert a table that has an input column, use the "Input Columns" editor to enter your settings. 2011-04-14156 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 157. Note: It is mandatory to assign default values for the input columns of a table when you add it to a universe. This feature can be used with the following products and components: • Web Intelligence • Query as a Web Service Related Topics • To define a hard-coded list of values • To define a list of values for the user to enter or select 4.6.1 To define a hard-coded list of values The database contains at least one table that has one or more input columns. A hard-coded list of values is used as the input for the table to determine the value(s) for the input column(s). The end user does not enter any values. Follow the steps below to define the list of values. 1. Select the table from the database and add it to the "Structure" pane of the universe design tool. The "Input Columns" editor appears. 2. In the "Input Columns" editor, click a parameter. 3. In the Value field, type a value or list of values. Type each value in double quotes and separate the values with a semicolon (;). The values appear in the "Value" column. 4. In the Next execution list, ensure Use this value is selected. Use this value appears in the "Next execution" column. 5. Click OK. The table appears in the "Structure" pane of the universe design tool. The input column is identified by an arrow. 4.6.2 To define a list of values for the user to enter or select The database contains at least one table that has one or more input columns. The user can enter a value or select a value from a list of values that will be used by the table to determine the value(s) for the input column(s). Follow the steps below to define the values for the input column table in your schema. 1. Select the table from the database and add it to the "Structure" pane of the universe design tool. 2011-04-14157 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 158. 2. In the "Input Columns" editor, click a parameter. 3. In the Next execution list, click Prompt me for a value. When a Web Intelligence or Query as a Web Service query executes, the user is prompted to select a value from the associated list of values. 4. In the Prompt Label Edition field, edit the default prompt that appears for the end user. 5. Click Browse universe objects to select a list of values from the universe. If you want to remove an object from the list of values that you have added to your settings, in the "Selected Object" pane, click the object and click Erase. 6. Click OK. The table appears in the "Structure" pane of the universe design tool. The input column is identified by an arrow. In the "Table Browser", the input column is identified by a specific icon. 4.7 Defining joins Once you have inserted more than one table in the schema, you need to create joins between related tables. Joins are as important as the tables in a schema, as they allow you to combine data from multiple tables in a meaningful way. 4.7.1 What is a join? A join is a condition that links the data in separate but related tables. The tables usually have a parent-child relationship. If a query does not contain a join, the database returns a result set that contains all possible combinations of the rows in the query tables. Such a result set is known as a Cartesian product and is rarely useful. For example, the Cartesian product of a query referencing two tables with 100 and 50 rows respectively has 5000 rows. In large databases or queries involving many tables, Cartesian products quickly become unmanageable. In the universe design tool, joins are represented as lines linking tables in a schema. 4.7.2 Why use joins in a schema? You use joins to ensure that queries returning data from multiple tables do not return incorrect results. A join between two tables defines how data is returned when both tables are included in a query. 2011-04-14158 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 159. Each table in a schema contains data in one or more columns that correspond to user requirements. In a production universe, Web Intelligence users may want to run queries that combine a number of different objects (each inferring a column) returning data from any combination of tables. Linking all tables in the schema with joins ensures that you restrict the number of ways that data from columns in different tables can be combined in a query. Joins limit column combinations between tables to matching or common columns. This prevents result data being returned that contains information from columns that have no sense being matched. Note: You should always create joins in the Structure pane. Joins that are not created from the Structure pane, for example a join manually defined in the Where clause for an object, are created at run time, so are not considered by the universe design tool for integrity checks and context detection. The information for these processes is required at design time. Contexts and universe integrity are covered later in this chapter. 4.7.3 What SQL does a join Infer? By default the universe design tool specifies a join implicitly in a WHERE clause through a reference to the matching or common columns of the tables. Normally there is one WHERE clause for each pair of tables being joined. So, if four tables are being combined, three WHERE conditions are necessary. The result of a query run including two tables linked by a join is a single table with columns from all the combined tables. Each row in this table contains data from the rows in the different input tables with matching values for the common columns. 4.7.3.1 ANSI 92 support If the target RDBMS supports ANSI 92, then you can set a universe parameter (File > Parameters > Parameter) ANSI92 to Yes to activate ANSI 92 support for joins created in your schema. When a universe supports the ANSI 92 standard for joins, newly created joins are specified in the FROM clause. You can also select the objects that are inferred by columns to be included in the FROM clause. ANSI 92 support is described in the section ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe. 4.7.4 What tables do not have to be joined? 2011-04-14159 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 160. You should join all tables in the schema that are inferred in the SQL generated by objects in Web Intelligence queries run against the universe. The only exceptions to these are the following types of tables: • Base tables from the schema that have been aliased for each use. These are the original tables for which you have created aliases either for renaming, or join problem resolution reasons. These base tables are typically not used in any object definition. • Tables that are the target of aggregate awareness syntax (although this has to be taken on a case-by-case basis). For example the aggregate tables in the sample efashion universe (their names begin with "Agg_") are not joined to any table in the schema: 4.7.5 Joining primary and foreign keys You normally create a join between the primary key in one table and the foreign key of another table. You can also create a join between two primary keys. It is very unusual for at least one side of a join to not include the primary key of the table. You need to understand how each key is constructed in your database. Multi column keys can affect how you set cardinalities for joins, and this can affect how you set up contexts in your schema. Detecting and Using contexts is described in Detecting and Solving Join Problems 4.7.5.1 Displaying keys You can display primary and foreign keys in all tables in the Structure pane. The key columns appear underlined in each table that contains keys. When you select the option to display keys, you must refresh the structure before keys appear underlined. The ability to display key columns as underlined depends on primary keys being defined in the target database. Note: When you display underlined key columns, the information is stored in the .UNV file. This information is lost when you export a universe to the Central Management Server (CMS) repository. You have to re-display keys for a universe, each time it is imported. To display keys: 1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. 2. Click the Graphics tab. The Graphics page appears. 2011-04-14160 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 161. 3. Select the Underline Keys check box in the Columns group box. 4. Click OK. You need to refresh the structure before key columns appear underlined. 5. Select View > Refresh Structure. The database structure is refreshed. The key columns in your schema are underlined as shown below: 4.7.6 Understanding the cardinality of a join Cardinalities further describe a join between 2 tables by stating how many rows in one table will match rows in another. This is very important for detecting join problems and creating contexts to correct the limitations of a target RDBMS structure. You should set cardinalities for each join in the schema. The universe design tool can automatically detect and set cardinalities, but you should always manually check the cardinalities, taking into account the nature of the keys that are joined. Setting and using cardinalities is described in the section Using cardinalities. 4.7.7 Creating joins You have several approaches to creating joins with the universe design tool: • Tracing joins manually in the schema. • Defining join properties directly. • Selecting automatically detected joins. • Automatically creating joins on table insertion. 2011-04-14161 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 162. Each of these approaches is described in detail below. 4.7.7.1 Tracing joins manually in the schema You can graphically create individual joins between tables by using the mouse to trace a line from a column in one table to a matching column in another table. To create a join by tracing manually: 1. Position the pointer over a column that you want to be one end of a join. The pointer appears as a hand symbol. 2. Click and hold down the left mouse button. The column is highlighted. 3. Drag the mouse to the column in another table that you want to be the other end of the join. As you drag, the pointer is transformed into a pencil symbol. 4. Position the pencil symbol over the target column. The target column is highlighted. 5. Release the mouse button. The join between the two tables is created. 6. Double click the new join. 2011-04-14162 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 163. The Edit Join dialog box appears. It lists join properties. The properties that you can set for a join, including cardinality and join type, are described in the section Join properties. 7. Enter and select properties for the join. 8. Click OK. 4.7.7.2 Defining join properties directly You create a join by directly defining join properties in the Edit Join dialog box. To create a join directly: 1. Select Insert > Join. Or Click the Insert Join button. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2. Select a table from the Table1 drop-down list. The columns for the selected table appear in the list box under the table name. 2011-04-14163 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 164. 3. Click the name of the column that you want to be at one end of the new join. 4. Select a table from the Table2 drop-down list box. The columns for the selected table appear in the list box under the table name. 5. Click the name of the column that you want to be at the other end of the new join. The properties that you can set for a join, including the join operator, cardinality, and join type are described in the section Join properties 6. Enter and select properties for the join. 7. Click OK. The new join appears in the schema linking the two tables defined in the Edit Join dialog box. 4.7.7.3 Selecting automatically detected joins You can use the universe design tool feature Detect Joins to automatically detect selected joins in the schema. The tool identifies column names across tables in the target database and proposes candidate joins for the tables in your schema. You can then select which, or accept all, proposed joins you want to be created. How are joins automatically detected? The joins are detected based on the Joins strategy that appears in the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box (File > Parameters > Strategies tab). A strategy is a script file that automatically extracts structural information from the database. There are a number of inbuilt strategies that are shipped with the universe design tool. These are listed in drop-down list boxes on the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box. The default automatic join detection strategy detects joins based on matching column names, excluding key information. You can select which join strategy you want to apply when you use automatic join detection. Note: Refer toSelecting strategies for more information on using strategies. Using automatic join detection appropriately Detecting joins automatically is useful to help you quickly create joins in your schema. However, you need to be aware of the limitations of automatic join detection when designing your schema. Join strategies used to detect candidate joins match column names from the database. There may be instances in the target database when primary, foreign keys, and other join columns do not have the same name across different tables. The universe design tool will not pick up these columns. You should always verify manually each join that you accept to be created that has been automatically detected. You should be aware that there may be other joins necessary that have not been detected. 2011-04-14164 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 165. To create a join using automatic detection: 1. Verify that the join strategy that you want to use to detect joins is selected in the Joins drop down list box on the Parameters dialog box. You can verify this as follows: • Select File > Parameters and click the Strategies tab. • Select the strategy that you want to use to detect joins from the Joins drop-down list box and click OK. 2. Select multiple tables in the Structure pane. You can select multiple tables by pressing SHIFT while clicking each table, or you can select all tables in a zone by clicking in an empty space, and dragging the cursor to define a rectangular zone that includes any number of tables. 3. Select Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Joins. Or Click the Detect Joins button. The Candidate Joins dialog box appears. It lists candidate or proposed joins for the selected tables. The candidate joins also appear as blue lines between selected tables in the Structure pane. 4. Click Insert to create all candidate joins. 5. Or Select one or more joins and click Insert. You can select one or more joins by holding down CTRL and clicking individual tables, or holding down SHIFT and clicking the first and last join in a continuous block. The joins are inserted in you schema. 6. Click Close. 2011-04-14165 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 166. 4.7.7.4 Inserting joins automatically with associated tables You can choose to insert joins automatically in the schema at the same time as the tables that use the joins are inserted into the structure pane. Automatic join creation is determined by two processes: • The active join strategy determines the column information used to detect the join. • The default creation option Extract Joins With Tables must be selected to allow the automatic creation of joins with their associated tables. This option is on the Database page of the Options dialog box. Limitations when inserting joins automatically Inserting joins automatically into your schema with associated tables is a quick way to get joins into your schema, but it can lead to serious design faults with your schema. The joins are inserted based on the database structure, so columns common to more than one table that have been renamed in the database will not be picked up. You should not use this technique to create joins in a production universe. Instead, use it for demonstration purposes, or as a quick way to build a universe, in which you will then carefully validate each join after insertion. To create a join automatically with an associated table: 1. Verify that the join strategy that you want to use to detect joins is selected on the Strategies page of the Parameters dialog box. 2. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box appears. 3. Click the Database tab. The Database page appears. 4. Select the Extract Joins With Tables check box. 5. Click OK. Now when you insert a table that has columns referencing other columns in tables that have already been inserted into the Structure pane, the references between tables are automatically inserted as joins between appropriate tables. 4.7.8 Join properties You define join properties in the Edit Join dialog box. You can define the following properties for a join: 2011-04-14166 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 167. DescriptionProperty Table at the left end of the join. Columns are listed for the table selected in the drop-down list box. Table1 Table at the right side of the join. Columns are listed for the table selected in the drop-down list box. Table2 Operator that defines how the tables are joined. The operators available to a join are described in the section Join Operators. Operator When selected, determines which table contains unmatched data in an outer join relationship. Outer joins are described fully in the section Outer joins. Outer Join When selected, allows you to define the cardinal- ity for the join. Defining and using cardinalities is described in the section Using cardinalities. Cardinality Defines the join as a shortcut join. Shortcut joins are described in the section Shortcut joins. Shortcut Join WHERE clause that is used to restrict the data that is returned when the two joined tables are included in a query. Expression Available when ANSI 92 support is activated for the universe. When clicked, opens a second join properties box that lists the objects built on columns for the two tables in the join. You can select the objects to be included in the FROM clause. See the section ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe for information on activating ANSI 92 support for join syntax. Advanced 2011-04-14167 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 168. 4.7.8.1 Join Operators You can select an operator for a join from the drop-down list box between the Table1 and Table2 boxes. The operator allows you to define the restriction that the join uses to match data between the joined columns. You can select the following operators for a join: DescriptionOperator is equal to= is not equal to!= is greater than> is less than< is greater than or equal to>= is less than or equal to<= is between (theta joins)Between complex relationshipComplex 4.7.8.2 Edit and Parse The Edit Join dialog box also has two features available that allow you to edit and verify the join syntax: 2011-04-14168 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 169. Edit The Edit button opens an SQL editor. You can use this graphic editor to modify the syntax for tables, columns, operators, and functions used in the join. For more information on using this editor, refer to the section Using the Join SQL Editor. Parse The Parse button starts a parsing function that verifies the SQL syntax of the join expression. If the parse is successful, you receive a result is OK message. If the universe design tool encounters an error, you receive an error message indicating the source of the problem. 4.7.9 Editing a join You can use any of the following methods to edit a join: • Modify join properties from the Edit Join dialog box. • Modify join SQL syntax directly using the Join SQL Editor. • Modify join SQL syntax directly using the formula bar. Each of these methods is discussed in this section. 4.7.9.1 Using the Edit Join dialog box You can use the Edit Join dialog box to define and edit join properties. You can also access the Join SQL Editor to edit join syntax directly from this dialog box. Join properties are described in the section Join properties. To edit a join using the Edit Join dialog box: 1. Double click a join in the Structure pane. Or Click a join and select Edit > Join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2011-04-14169 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 170. 2. Select an operator from the drop-down list box between the tables. 3. Select other properties as required. 4. If you are defining a join with ANSI 92 syntax, then click the Advanced button. 5. Click OK. Tip: You can edit the SQL directly for the join by clicking the Edit button and using the Join SQL editor. See Using the Join SQL Editor for more information. 4.7.9.2 Using the Join SQL Editor You can use a graphical editor to directly modify the SQL expression for a join. You access this editor from the Edit Joins dialog box. To modify a join using the Join SQL Editor: 1. Double click a join in the Structure pane. Or 2011-04-14170 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 171. Click a join and select Edit > Join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2. Click the Edit button. The Join SQL Definition box appears. The SQL expression for the join appears in the text box. 3. Click the join expression in the edit box at the place where you want to add or modify the SQL syntax. You can use the editing features to modify or add SQL syntax as follows: Then do the following...You want to... • Expand a table node in the Tables and Columns box. • Double click a column name. Change a column at either join end Double click an operator in the Operators box.Change an operator used by the join • Expand a function family node. • Double click a function.Use a function in the join The column, operator, or function appears in the join definition. 4. Click OK. 2011-04-14171 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 172. 4.7.9.3 Using the Formula bar The "Formula" bar is a text box above the "Universe" window that shows the formula or expression of any selected join in the "Structure" pane, or selected object in the "Universe" pane. You can use three editing buttons placed to the left of the Formula bar: DescriptionEdit button Cancel last modification that has not been validat- ed. If you make several changes to a join expres- sion without validating the changes, clicking Cancel returns the expression to its original state. If you want to undo any individual modifications, you should use the Edit > Undo option, or click Undo. Validate expression. This applies any changes to the join expression. You can undo changes after validation use the Edit > Undo option, or click Undo. Open Edit Join dialog box for selected join. To display the Formula bar: • Select View > Formula Bar. The "Formula Bar" appears above the "Universe" window. To modify a join using the "Formula Bar": 1. Click a join that you want to edit. The formula for the join appears in the "Formula Bar". 2. Click the join expression in the "Formula Bar" at the place you want to modify the syntax. 3. Modify the expression as required. 4. Click Validate to apply the changes. 5. Press the Return key to quit the "Formula Bar" . Or 2011-04-14172 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 173. Click anywhere outside of the "Formula Bar". 4.7.10 ANSI 92 support for joins in a universe The universe design tool supports ANSI 92 syntax for joins. ANSI 92 is not supported by default. You must activate support by setting the SQL universe parameter ANSI92 to YES. This parameter is listed on the Parameter page of the universe parameters dialog box (File > Parameters > Parameter). Once activated, you can choose to use ANSI 92 syntax for joins in the universe. Note: The ANSI 92 setting is also declared in the .prm files. If the .prm setting is 'usual', then the universe design tool setting takes preference. If the .prm setting is 'ANSI92', then the universe design tool-level settings will be overridden. Refer to the "Data Access Guide" for more details about .prm files and the ANSI 92 setting. The behavior can depend on your database version. Refer to your database technical details for more information. Ensure that you verify that the target RDBMS supports ANSI 92 before using the syntax in joins. Activating ANSI 92 support in the universe and defining a join using ANSI 92 syntax are described below. 4.7.10.1 Example: comparing default join syntax and ANSI 92 syntax Join syntax for two joins is shown below. The first shows the default behavior where the join is defined in the WHERE clause, the second shows the same join in the FROM clause using the ANSI 92 standard. Default join syntax SELECT Resort.resort, 'FY'+Format(Sales.invoice_date,'YYYY'), sum(Invoice_Line.days * Invoice_Line.nb_guests * Service.price) FROM Resort, Sales, Invoice_Line, Service, Service_Line WHERE ( Sales.inv_id=Invoice_Line.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.service_id=Service.service_id ) AND ( Resort.resort_id=Service_Line.resort_id ) AND ( Service.sl_id=Service_Line.sl_id ) GROUP BY Resort.resort, 'FY'+Format(Sales.invoice_date,'YYYY') Same join using the ANSI 92 standard SELECT Resort.resort, 2011-04-14173 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 174. 'FY'+Format(Sales.invoice_date,'YYYY'), sum(Invoice_Line.days * Invoice_Line.nb_guests * Service.price) FROM Resort INNER JOIN Service_Line ON (Resort.resort_id=Service_Line.resort_id) INNER JOIN Service ON (Service.sl_id=Service_Line.sl_id) INNER JOIN Invoice_Line ON (Invoice_Line.service_id=Service.service_id) INNER JOIN Sales ON (Sales.inv_id=Invoice_Line.inv_id) GROUP BY Resort.resort, 'FY'+Format(Sales.invoice_date,'YYYY') 4.7.10.2 Activating ANSI 92 support in a universe To activate ANSI 92 support for joins: 1. Select File > Parameters. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click the Parameter tab. The Parameters page appears. It lists certain SQL generation parameters that you can set at the universe level to optimize SQL generation for the current universe. These are parameters that were included in the PRM file for the target RDBMS in previous versions of Business Objects products. Certain RDBMS specific parameters are still contained in the PRM files, but many standard SQL parameters are now listed in the Parameter page. See the chapter Setting SQL generation parameters for a complete list of the available parameters. 3. Click the ANSI92 parameter in the list. 4. Type YES in the value box. 5. Click Replace. 6. Click OK. The ANSI 92 standard can now be applied to join definitions for the current universe. When you click the Advanced button on the Edit Join dialog box, the Advanced Join box appears. You can define a filter to determine which dimensions you want to include in the FROM clause for a join. 4.7.10.3 Defining a join with ANSI 92 syntax You can use ANSI 92 syntax to define a join from the Edit Join properties dialog box. You can do this by using an advanced editing box that allows you to select objects to be included in a join definition. To define a join using ANSI 92 syntax: 1. Activate ANSI 92 support for the universe. See the section Activating ANSI 92 support in a universe for information. 2011-04-14174 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 175. 2. Double click a join in the schema. The Edit Join box for the join appears. 3. Click the Advanced button. The Advanced Joins Properties dialog box appears. 4. Select one of the following FROM clause filters from the drop-down list. DescriptionFROM option Default syntax for joins is applied. Joins are defined in the WHERE clause. Default behavior All objects defined on columns in the tables on the right and left side of the join are included in the FROM clause. All objects in FROM No objects are included in the FROM clause.No objects in FROM 2011-04-14175 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 176. DescriptionFROM option Only objects selected in the Advanced Join Properties tree view of the join tables are includ- ed in the FROM clause. Selected objects in FROM 5. Select objects to be included in the FROM clause if you selected the Selected objects in FROM filter. 6. Click OK. 7. Enter any other join parameters in the Edit Join box. 8. Click OK. 4.7.11 Deleting joins To delete a join: 1. Click a join. The join is selected 2. Do any of the following: • Press the backspace key on your keyboard • Press the Delete button on your keyboard • Right click the join and select Clear from the contextual menu. A confirmation box appears asking to you to confirm the join deletion. 3. Click Yes. The join is deleted. Note: Ensure that you are aware of all the consequences in both the schema and universe when you delete a join. Verify that deleting the join does not affect a context. If you try to delete a join, the universe design tool warns you if the join is used in one or more contexts. You need to manually verify which context, and access the effect on the universe if the context is affected by the join deletion. 2011-04-14176 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 177. 4.8 Defining specific types of joins You can define the following types of joins in the universe design tool: DescriptionJoin type Link tables based on the equality between the values in the column of one table and the values in the column of another. Because the same col- umn is present in both tables, the join synchro- nizes the two tables. You can also create complex equi-joins, where one join links multiple columns between two ta- bles. Equi-Joins (includes complex equi-joins) Link tables based on a relationship other than equality between two columns. Theta Joins (conditional joins) Link two tables, one of which has rows that do not match those in the common column of the other table. Outer Joins Join providing an alternative path between two tables, bypassing intermediate tables, leading to the same result, regardless of direction. Optimizes query time by cutting long join paths as short as possible. Shortcut Joins Single table join used to set a restriction on the table. Self restricting joins Each join type is described fully in its respective section in this chapter. You use the same method to create each type of join; however, you must define different properties for each join in the Edit Join box at join creation. 2011-04-14177 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 178. 4.8.1 Creating Equi-joins An equi-join links two tables on common values in a column in table 1 with a column in table 2. The restriction conforms to the following syntax: Table1.column_a = Table2.column_a In a normalized database the columns used in an equi-join are usually the primary key from one table and the foreign key in the other. For information on keys, see the section Joining primary and foreign keys. When you create a new join, it is an equi-join by default. Most joins in your schema should be equi-joins. Example: Equi-join restricts data When a Select statement is run in the example below, the Select and From clauses create a Cartesian product. However, before any data is returned, the Where clause applies a restriction so that only rows where there is a match between the Country ID column in both the tables are returned. 4.8.1.1 Creating a new equi-join To create a new equi-join: • Create a join between two tables. 2011-04-14178 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 179. The default new join is an equi-join. Tip: The different methods you can use to create joins are described in the section Creating joins. 4.8.1.2 Creating an equi-join from an existing join To create an equi-join from an existing join: 1. Double click an existing join. The Edit Join box appears. 2. Select a column in the Table1 list box. 3. Select the matching column in the Table2 list box 4. Select = from the Operator drop-down list box. The Edit Join box below shows an equi-join between the tables Customer and Reservations. 2011-04-14179 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 180. Note: Common columns do not always have the same name. You need to verify primary and foreign key column names in the database. Different tables may use the same key columns, but have them renamed for each table depending on the table role in the database. 5. Click the Parse button to check the join syntax. If you receive an error message, check to see that the column is common to both tables. 6. Click OK. 4.8.1.3 Creating complex equi-joins You can also create a complex equi-join. This is a single join that links multiple columns between two tables. You can create complex equi-joins by using the Complex operator for a join in the Edit Properties sheet for a join. The sample eFashion universe contains a complex join shown below. Using a complex equi-join instead of multiple single equi-joins between joined columns has the following advantages: • Only one cardinality to detect. This can save time when detecting cardinalities, and also keeps the schema uncluttered and easier to read. • You can view the SQL for all the joins between two tables in the Expression text box in the Edit Properties box for the join. When you use multiple single equi-joins between two tables, you have a one expression for each join. To create a complex equi-join: 1. Double click an existing join. The Edit Join box appears. 2. Select multiple columns in the Table1 list box. 3. Select the matching columns in the Table2 list box 4. Select "Complex" from the Operator drop-down list box. 2011-04-14180 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 181. The Edit Join box below shows a complex equi-join between the tables Article_Color_Lookup and Shop_facts. 5. Click the Parse button to check the join syntax. If you receive an error message, check to see that the column is common to both tables. 6. Click OK. 4.8.2 Theta joins A theta join is a join that links tables based on a relationship other than equality between two columns. A theta join could use any operator other than the "equal" operator. The following example and procedure show you how to create a theta join that uses the "Between" operator. Example: Theta join The Age_Group table below contains age range information that can be used to analyze data on the age of customers. 2011-04-14181 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 182. You need to include this table in the universe, but there is no common column between the Customer table and the Age_Group table, so you cannot use an equi-join. You create a theta join using the operator "Between" for maximum age range and minimum age ranges. By using a theta join, you infer that a join exists where the value in a row of the Age column in the Customer table is between the values in a row for the Age_Min and Age_Max columns of the Age_Group table. The join is defined by the following expression: Customer.age between Age_group.age_min and Age_group.age_max The diagram below shows the joins between Age max, Age min, and Age, and the result set that is returned when the theta join is used in a query run on both Age_Group and Customer tables. 4.8.2.1 Creating a theta join To create a theta join using range columns: 1. Create a join between two tables. An equi-join is created by default. 2. Double click the join. 2011-04-14182 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 183. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 3. Click a column in the Table1 column list box. 4. Press and hold down the CTRL key and click two columns from the Table2 column list box. The example below shows the two columns age_min and age_max selected. The Between operator automatically appears in the operator drop-down list. 5. Click the Parse button to test for the validity of the join. If you receive an error message, check to see that you have correctly selected the columns. 6. Click OK. The join is created in the Structure pane. 2011-04-14183 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 184. 4.8.3 Outer joins An outer join is a join that links two tables, one of which has rows that do not match those in the common column of the other table. You define an outer join by specifying which table is the outer table in the original equi-join. The outer table contains the column for which you want to return all values, even if they are unmatched. You specify the outer table from the Edit Join dialog box for the selected join. 4.8.3.1 Full outer joins By default you can create either a left outer, or a right outer join depending on which side of the join the outer table is designated. You can also create a full outer join by activating ANSI 92 support for joins in the universe. This is achieved by setting a universe SQL parameter ANSI 92 to YES (File > Parameters > Parameter). This allows the universe to support ANSI 92 syntax for joins, and you can select the tables on either side of a join to be outer tables. Refer to the section Defining a full outer join for information on creating full outer joins. Example: Outer join The tables Resort_Country and Resort below are linked by an equi-join. Each resort belongs to a country, but each country may not have a resort. If you use an equi-join, the result set of a query would only show information on the countries that have a resort; Australia, France, and the US. 2011-04-14184 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 185. However, you may wish to show all countries irrespective of an equivalent value in the foreign key of the Resort table. To achieve this you define an outer join so that all counties are returned, despite having no match in the Resort column. The syntax (Microsoft Access) for the outer join is as follows: SELECT Resort_Country.country, Resort.resort FROM Country Resort_Country, Resort, { oj Resort_Country LEFT OUTER JOIN Resort ON Resort_Country.country_id=Resort.country_id } Note: The example above uses Microsoft Access, so any one-to-many joins following the table Resort, would also have to have to use outer joins. If not, then a NULL returned by the original outer join, will not be taken into account if there is no matching NULL returned by following joins. The treatment of outer joins is RDBMS specific, so refer to your RDBMS documentation for information. See also the section Restrictions for the use of outer joins for more information on restrictions using outer joins. 4.8.3.2 Creating an outer join To create an outer join: 1. Double click an existing equi-join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2. Select the Outer Join check box for the table that returns all values in a query. In the example below, you want to return all values for Resort_Country. 2011-04-14185 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 186. 3. Click the Parse button to validate the join syntax. If you receive an error message, check to see that you selected the columns correctly. 4. Click OK. The universe design tool displays the join in the Structure pane. The outer join is indicated by a small circle on the opposite side of the join to the table that returns unmatched values. 4.8.3.3 Defining a full outer join You can define an outer join using the ANSI 92 standard for defining outer joins. This allows you to specify a full outer join. To use the ANSI 92 standard for outer joins, you must set the ANSI 92 parameter to YES. This parameter is available on the Parameter page (File > Parameters > Parameter). Note: For information on setting this parameter and other SQL generation parameters for the universe, refer to the section Setting SQL generation parameters. 2011-04-14186 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 187. When the ANSI 92 parameter has been set to YES, you can select the tables on both sides of the join to be outer tables. Before setting this parameter, you must ensure that your target RDBMS supports the ANSI 92 syntax for outer joins. You define a full outer join in two phases: • Activate ANSI 92 support for outer joins for the universe. See the section Activating ANSI 92 support in a universe for information. • Use the Edit join dialog box to define the full outer join. To define a full outer join: 1. Activate ANSI 92 support for the universe. 2. Double click a join in the schema. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 3. Select the Outer Join check box for both tables included in the join. 4. Click OK. The universe design tool displays the join in the Structure pane. The full outer join is indicated by two circles on the join link between two tables. 4.8.3.4 Restrictions for the use of outer joins Using outer joins can be very useful, but you should be aware of the following performance and implementation issues: • Performance can be slower. More rows are returned and some databases will not use indexes when outer joins are involved, so large amounts of data could slow query performance. • Database limitations on the use of outer joins. Not all databases allow control over outer joins in the WHERE clause. This is necessary when using a self restricting join. For example, a self restricting join 'TYPE_CODE=10', could return all rows where TYPE=10 or Type is NULL, as TYPE=10 will never be true when the type code is NULL, whereas NULL values are generated by the outer join. • You should verify how your target RDBMS processes outer joins to avoid incomplete query paths after the original outer join. For example, in the Microsoft Access sample Club.mdb database, all one-to-many joins following the outer join in the join path must also be defined as outer joins. If not, the original outer join will be ignored by the resulting query. In the example below, the join between Resort and Service_Line ignores the NULL values returned by the outer join between Resort_Country and Resort. When you run a query with the three tables, a database error is returned advising the user to create a separate query that performs the first join, and then include that query in the SQL statement. This type of error could be confusing to many users, so it is preferable in such cases to either not use outer joins, or to complete the path with outer joins. 2011-04-14187 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 188. 4.8.4 Shortcut joins A shortcut join is a join that provides an alternative path between two tables. Shortcut joins improve the performance of a query by not taking into account intermediate tables, and so shortening a normally longer join path. A common use of shortcut joins is to link a shared lookup table to another table further along a join path. The join path comprises several different tables in the same context. In such a case, the shortcut join is only effective when the value being looked up has been denormalized to lower levels in a hierarchy of tables, so the same value exists at all the levels being joined. The shortcut join will be ignored if it is not “short cutting” any join path for a given context. The SQL generated for the related Web Intelligence query will not take into account the ineffective shortcut join. Note: The universe design tool does not consider shortcut joins during automatic loop and context detection. However, if you set the cardinality for a shortcut join you avoid receiving the message 'Not all cardinalities are set' when detecting contexts. 4.8.4.1 Creating a shortcut join To create a shortcut join: 1. Identify the two tables in a join path that can be linked directly. 2. Create a join between the two tables. 3. Double click the new join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 4. Select the Shortcut join check box. 5. Select or type other join properties as required. 6. Click OK. The shortcut join appears joining the two tables. A shortcut join is shown as dotted line in the Structure pane. 2011-04-14188 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 189. Note: You should set the cardinality of a shortcut join to the same cardinality as the join path it replaces. 4.8.5 Self restricting joins A self restricting join is not really a join at all, but a self restriction on a single table. You can use a self restricting join to restrict the results returned by a table values using a fixed value. Example: Self restricting join The Sales table shown below contains rows of data for cars both sold and rented. The Sale_Type column is used as a flag to indicate the type of transaction (S = car sale, R = car rental). The self restricting join restricts the data returned from Sales to Sale_Type = S. This ensures that any object based on the Sales table, or joins passing through that table, would produce query results covering only car sales. Without the self restricting join, the results set of the query would produce rows where the Sale_Type column is equal to either 'S' or 'R'. Tip: Setting the cardinality for a self restricting join helps to prevent receiving the message 'Not all cardinalities are set' when detecting contexts. You should set cardinality as one-to-one consistently, although the actual setting is not important, as long as it is set. 2011-04-14189 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 190. 4.8.5.1 Creating a self restricting join To create a self restricting join: 1. Select Insert > Join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2. Select the table that you want to set the self restricting join against from the Table1 drop- down list box. The columns for the selected table appear in the table column list. 3. Click the column that you want to use to define the restriction from the column drop-down list box. 4. Select the same table that you selected from the Table1 drop-down list box. 5. Click the same column that you selected in the Table1 column list box. The expression for the join appears in the Expression text box. 6. Replace the operand value in the join expression with the restriction value that you want to set on the join column. For example, if you want to restrict the returned values from the Family_code column to 'F3', you replace Article_lookup.Family_code after the = sign with 'F3' as shown below: 2011-04-14190 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 191. 7. Click the Parse button to verify the syntax. 8. Click OK. The self restricting join appears as a short line displayed against the column on which the self restricting join is defined. 4.9 Using cardinalities Cardinality is a property of a join that describes how many rows in one table match rows in another table. 2011-04-14191 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 192. Cardinality is expressed as the minimum and maximum number of rows in a column at one end of a join, that have matching rows in the column at the other end of the join. The minimum and the maximum number of row matches can be equal to 0, 1, or N. A join represents a bidirectional relationship, so it must always have two cardinalities, one for each end of the join. Example: Cardinality of a join The two tables Customer and Reservations are linked by a join. The cardinalities in the above join can be expressed as follows: NotationDescription (1,N) For each customer, there can be one or more reservations (1,1) For each reservation, there can be one and only one customer 4.9.1 How are cardinalities used in the universe design tool? The cardinality of a join does not have a role in the SQL generated when you run a query. However, the universe design tool uses cardinalities to determine contexts and valid query paths. A context is a collection of joins which provide a valid query path. You use contexts to resolve join problems that can return too many or too few rows because of the way that tables are linked in the target database. Contexts are described in Detecting and Solving Join Problems. Contexts affect the SQL generated for a query as they either direct the end user to take a particular join path, or solve a join path problem: 2011-04-14192 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 193. You need to verify that cardinalities are correctly set for all joins in your schema to ensure that you have the correct contexts, and that you have valid join paths. Setting cardinalities can also help you understand how tables are related in the database, and to graphically identify potential join path problems in your schema. 4.9.1.1 Displaying cardinalities You can display cardinalities in the Structure pane using the following symbols: DescriptionExampleCardinality symbol Arrow indicates the "one" direc- tion of the join. If cardinality is 1,1 then an arrow head is shown at each join end. Arrow Crow's foot indicates the "many" end of the join. If cardinality is 1,1, then a straight line is shown. Parity Cardinality is shown as a ratio at each end of the join. 1,N To display cardinalities: 1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. 2. Click the Graphics tab. The Graphics page appears. 3. Click the Arrow, Arity, or 1,n radio button. 4. Click OK. 2011-04-14193 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 194. 4.9.1.2 What cardinalities can be set for a join? You can set the following cardinalities for a join: DescriptionCardinality For every row in table 1, expect one and only one row in table 2 one-to-one (1,1) For every row in table 1, expect one or many rows in table 2 one-to-many (1,N) Same as for one-to-many (1,N), but the direction for the row match is opposite. many-to-one (N,1) For each one or multiple rows in table 1, expect one or multiple rows in table 2. Many-to-many cardinalities are rare in relational databases and will return duplicate rows, causing slower performance and potentially inaccurate results. If you have (N,N) cardinalities, you should re-check the concerned joins, and ensure that you understand the relationship between the ta- bles. many-to-many (N,N) You can set cardinalities manually, or use the automatic cardinality detection tool in the universe design tool. Both methods are described in the following sections. 4.9.2 Setting cardinalities manually You can manually set cardinalities for joins by defining cardinality for a join in the "Edit Join" box for a join. 2011-04-14194 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 195. Why set cardinalities manually? When you set cardinalities manually, you must consider each individual join. This helps you to become aware of potential join path problems in your schema. You may not find these problems if you only select automatically detected cardinalities; for example, isolated one-to-one joins at the end of a join path, or excessive primary keys where not all columns are required to ensure uniqueness. Understanding keys You determine cardinalities for most join cases by evaluating the primary and foreign keys in each table. Primary and foreign keys are described as follows: DescriptionKey Single or combination of columns in a table whose values identify each row in the table. The primary key guarantees row uniqueness in a table. Each table has only one primary key. Primary Column or combination of columns whose values are required to match a primary or another unique key in another table. Foreign keys implement constraints such as 'you cannot create a sale for a customer if that cus- tomer hasn't yet been created'. Each table can have multiple foreign keys. Foreign What are the criteria for setting cardinalities? You evaluate the relationship between primary and foreign keys to determine the cardinality for a join as follows: Cardinality is likely to be...If join links... One-to-one (1,1). Only one row from each table will be returned for each primary key value. Complete primary key of Table 1 with complete primary key of Table 2. For example: 2011-04-14195 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 196. Cardinality is likely to be...If join links... One-to-many (1,N). Foreign key values of a table are not guaranteed to be unique and so can return many matching values for a single value of the primary key on the original table. Complete primary key of one Table 1 with corre- sponding foreign key of Table 2. For example: Cardinality is likely to be...If join links... One-to-many (1,N). The incomplete primary key match can return many matching values for a single value of the primary key on the original ta- ble. Complete primary key of Table 1 with part of pri- mary key of Table 2. For example: 4.9.2.1 To set cardinalities manually: 1. Double-click a join. Or Click a join and select Edit > Properties. The "Edit Join" dialog box appears. 2. Select the Cardinality check box. 3. Select the 1 or N radio button for "Table1". 4. Select the 1 or N radio button for "Table2". 2011-04-14196 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 197. 5. Click OK. 4.9.2.2 Detecting cardinalities automatically You can use the universe design tool feature Detect Cardinalities to automatically detect cardinalities for the following situations: • Selected joins • All joins • At join creation • From the Edit Join box When using automatic cardinality detection, cardinalities are implemented automatically on detection. Note: You should use automatic cardinality detection appropriately. It can be very useful to quickly get all the cardinalities detected in the schema, however, there are a number of structural problems inherent in many relational databases which can lead to incorrect cardinality detection. These include incomplete primary joins, and over engineered primary keys. These are discussed in the section Using cardinalities to resolve database limitations. 2011-04-14197 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 198. Detecting cardinalities automatically for selected joins To automatically detect cardinalities for a selected join: • Click a join and select Tools > Detect Cardinalities. • Right click a join and select Detect Cardinalities from the contextual menu. The cardinality is displayed with the crow's foot at the many end. If you select Tools > Detect Cardinalities directly without selecting a join, you receive a message indicating that no join is selected, and asking if you want to detect cardinalities for all joins. Detecting cardinalities automatically for all joins To automatically detect cardinalities for all joins: 1. Select Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Cardinalities. Or Click the Detect Cardinalities button. A message box appears asking if you want to detect cardinalities for all joins. 2. Click Yes. All joins in the Structure pane are shown with cardinalities. Automatically detecting cardinalities on join creation To automatically detect cardinalities on join creation: 1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. 2. Click the Database tab. The Database page appears. 3. Select the Detect Cardinalities in Joins check box. 2011-04-14198 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 199. 4. Click OK. 5. When you create a new join, the cardinality is automatically detected and displayed on the join. Automatically detecting cardinality from the Edit Join box To automatically detect cardinality from the Edit Join box: 1. Double click a join. The Edit Join dialog box appears. 2. Select the Cardinality check box. 3. Click the Detect button. The cardinality radio buttons are automatically selected for the detected cardinality. The two cardinalities are also expressed in sentence form. 4. Click OK. 4.9.2.3 Optimizing automatic cardinality detection You can improve the response time of cardinality detection by modifying a parameter in the PRM file of the target RDBMS. This directs the detection algorithm to read two instead of three SQL statements, improving the performance of the algorithm. The PRM file is a text file that lists parameters used to configure universe creation and SQL query generation in Web Intelligence. There is a PRM file for each supported RDBMS. PRM files are located in the database folders under <INSTALLDIR>win32_x86dataAccessConnectionServer Verifying which PRM file is used by a connection To verify which PRM file is used by a universe connection: 1. Select File > Parameters. 2011-04-14199 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 200. The Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click the Test button. The Test Connection message box appears. 3. Click the Details button. The details of your connection appear in a drop down message box. 4. Scroll down the message box to the line that starts with PRM. This line indicates the file path and name of the PRM file currently used by the active universe. 5. Click OK. You return to the Parameters dialog box. 6. Click Cancel. Optimizing cardinality detection using the PRM file To optimize cardinality detection using the PRM file: 1. Open the PRM file for your target database in a text editor. The PRM files are stored in the Data Access folder in the Business Objects path. 2. Set the LIGHT_DETECT_CARDINALITY parameter to YES. 3. Save and close the PRM file. The next time you open the universe, automatic cardinality detection is optimized. 4.9.2.4 Using cardinalities to resolve database limitations 2011-04-14200 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 201. You can use the following criteria for determining cardinalities in special join situations, which if untreated, could lead to errors in your schema design: SolutionProblem Change a "many" end to a "one" for join at lookup table end. Do this as follows: Add a self restricting join (one-to-one) on the lookup table of the type; lookup.pk_column = pk_column value. This ensures the uniqueness of values in the primary key of the lookup table. The cardinality of the join at the lookup table is now one. Primary key of a lookup table has two columns. Each column is joined to a different fact table. Joins with each fact table are many-to-many as the primary key in both joins is incomplete. If you are the DBA for the target database, you can change the multi column primary key to a single column alpha numeric identifier. This would allow the table to take a "one" side of a join, which is much more difficult with a multi column primary key. If you are not the DBA, you could raise this point with your administrator. Primary key is excessive, so not all columns in a primary key are needed to guarantee uniqueness. 4.10 Checking the universe As you design your universe, you should test its integrity periodically. You can verify universe integrity as follows: DescriptionCheck universe You can set the universe design tool options to check the SQL syntax of universe structures at creation, universe export, or when a universe is opened. Automatically You run Check Integrity to check selected uni- verse structures. Manually 2011-04-14201 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 202. 4.10.1 Checking universe integrity automatically You can set the following integrity check options in the universe design tool to parse SQL structures at creation, universe export, and universe opening: DescriptionAutomatic check option The universe design tool automatically checks the SQL definition of all objects, conditions, and joins at creation. It is applied when you click OK to validate structure creation. Automatic parse upon definition The universe design tool displays a warning each time you attempt to export an unchecked uni- verse. Send check integrity warning before export All universes are checked automatically when opened. Check universe integrity at opening 4.10.1.1 Setting automatic universe check options To set automatic universe check options: 1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. 2. Select or clear check boxes for appropriate universe automatic check options in the Integrity group box. 3. Click OK. 2011-04-14202 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 203. 4.10.1.2 Checking universe integrity manually You can use Check Integrity to test to verify if the design of your active universe is accurate and up-to-date. Check Integrity detects the following: • Errors in the objects, joins, conditions, and cardinalities of your universe. • Loops in join paths. • Any necessary contexts. • Changes to the target database. Before examining the elements of the universe against those of the database, the function checks whether the connection to the database is valid. If the connection is not valid, the function stops and returns an error message. 4.10.1.3 Types of errors detected by Check Integrity Check Integrity can detect: • Invalid syntax in the SQL definition of an object, condition, or join. • Loops • Isolated tables • Isolated joins • Loops within contexts • Missing or incorrect cardinalities How does Check Integrity determine changes in a connected database? The Check Integrity function sends a request to the database for a list of tables. It then compares this list with the tables in the universe. It carries out the same action for columns. In the Structure pane, Check Integrity marks any tables or columns not matching those in the list as not available. These are tables or columns that may have been deleted or renamed in the database. See the section Refreshing the Universe Structure. Note: The option Check Cardinalities can be slow to run with large amounts of data. If there is ambiguous or missing data, results can also be inaccurate. If your database is large, and may have incomplete data 2011-04-14203 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 204. entries, then you should not select the option Check Cardinalities. If you do use this option, then you can optimize the cardinality detection by modifying the PRM file. For more information, refer to the section Optimizing automatic cardinality detection. 4.10.1.4 Verifying universe integrity with Check Integrity To verify universe integrity: 1. Select Tools > Check Integrity. Or Click the Check Integrity button. 2. The Integrity Check dialog box appears. 3. Select check boxes for components to be verified. Note: You can select Check Cardinalities independently of the Check All option. This allows you to verify the universe structure without checking cardinalities which may take a long time depending on the database. 4. Clear check boxes for components not to be verified. 5. Select the Quick Parsing check box to verify only the syntax of components. Or Select Thorough Parsing check box to verify both the syntax and semantics of components. 2011-04-14204 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 205. 6. Click OK. A message box displays the universe check progress. If Check Integrity encounters no errors, it displays "OK" beside each error type. 7. Click the plus sign (+) beside the error type to view the list of components in which the error occurred. 2011-04-14205 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 206. You can double click an item in the list to highlight the corresponding components in the Structure pane. 8. Click the Print button to print the window contents. 9. Click OK. Note: Before selecting the Check for Loops check box, ensure that the cardinalities of joins have already been detected. Otherwise, the function erroneously identifies loops in the joins. 4.10.1.5 Refreshing the Universe Structure If Check Integrity indicates that the database of your universe connection has been modified, you can use Refresh Structure to update the contents of the Structure pane. Refresh Structure can modify the universe structure to comply with changes in the database as follows: Then the tool does the followingIf Adds the columns to the corresponding tables in the universe. Columns were added to tables Displays a warning message indicating the columns and associated joins you should delete. Columns were removed from tables Displays a warning message indicating the tables and associated joins you should delete. Tables were removed from the database Displays a message that says it no longer recog- nizes the corresponding tables in the universe. You should rename these tables to match those in the database. If the names still do not match, the universe design tool returns a message stating that the renamed tables do not exist in the database. Tables were renamed in the database Displays a message informing you that no update is needed. No changes were made to the database To refresh the universe structure: 2011-04-14206 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 207. • Select View > Refresh Structure. • A message box appears informing you of a change in the database, or that no update is needed if no changes have been made. 2011-04-14207 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 208. 2011-04-14208 Creating a schema with tables and joins
  • 209. Resolving join problems in a schema 5.1 Overview This chapter describes the types of problems that can arise as you create joins between the tables in your schema. It explains how you can detect and resolve these join problems to ensure that the join paths taken by queries run on the universe return correct results. You must resolve the join problems before building the universe. 5.2 What is a join path problem? A join path is a series of joins that a query can use to access data in the tables linked by the joins. Join path problems can arise from the limited way that lookup and fact tables are related in a relational database. The three major join path problems that you encounter when designing a schema are the following: • loops • chasm traps • fan traps You can solve all these problems by creating aliases (a copy of a base table), contexts (a defined join path), and using features available in the universe design tool to separate queries on measures or contexts. This section briefly defines lookup and fact tables, and describes the types of join path problems that you can encounter using these tables. It explains how you can use aliases, contexts, and other universe design tool features to resolve join path problems in your universe schema. In the universe design tool, you typically create joins between lookup tables and fact tables. 2011-04-14209 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 210. 5.2.1 What is a Lookup Table A lookup (or dimension) table contains information associated with a particular entity or subject. For example, a lookup table can hold geographical information on customers such as their names, telephone numbers as well as the cities and countries in which they reside. In the universe design tool, dimension and detail objects are typically derived from lookup tables. 5.2.2 What is a Fact Table A fact table contains statistical information about transactions. For example, it may contain figures such as Sales Revenue or Profit. In a universe, most but not all, measures are defined from fact tables. 5.2.3 What Types of Join Paths Return Incorrect Results? Queries can return incorrect results due to the limitations in the way that joins are performed in relational databases. Depending on how the lookup and fact tables in your table schema are related, join paths can produce instances where a query returns too few, or too many rows. The following types of join paths can produce incorrect results: DescriptionReturnsType of Join Path Joins form multiple paths be- tween lookup tables. Too few rowsLoop Many to one joins from two fact tables converge on a single lookup table. This type of join convergence can lead to a join path problem called a chasm trap. Too many rowsConverging many to one joins 2011-04-14210 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 211. DescriptionReturnsType of Join Path A one to many join links a table which is in turn linked by a one to many join. This type of fan- ning out of one to many joins can lead to a join path problem called a fan trap. Too many rowsSerial many to one joins 5.2.4 Detecting and Solving Join Problems The universe design tool provides a number of methods for detecting and solving join problems. Each of these methods is fully described in its corresponding section. You can use the following methods to detect and solve join path problems: Solved byDetected byJoin Problem Creating aliases and contexts to break loops. • Detect Aliases • Detect Contexts • Detect Loops • Check Integrity • Visual analysis of schema Loop • Creating a context. • Using the feature Multiple SQL statements for each measure. • Creating multiple universes (Web Intelligence only). Visual analysis of table schema. Chasm trap (converging many to one joins) 2011-04-14211 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 212. Solved byDetected byJoin Problem • Creating an alias, creating a context using the alias, then building affected measure objects on the alias. • Using Multiple SQL State- ments for Each Measure. Visual analysis of table schema. Fan trap (serial many to one joins) Most join path problems can be solved by creating an alias or implementing a context. You can use the automatic loop detection tools in the universe design tool to identify loops in the schema, and automatic context detection to identify where Chasm traps occur. However, to resolve fan traps, you have to be able to visually analyze the schema and create aliases and if necessary contexts manually. 5.3 Defining aliases Aliases are references to existing tables in a schema. An Alias is a table that is an exact duplicate of the original table (base table), with a different name. The data in the table is exactly the same as the original table, but the different name "tricks" the SQL of a query to accept that you are using two different tables. The Beach universe schema contains two alias tables; Resort_Country (the alias for the Country table) and Sponsor (the alias for the Customer table). For each alias table, the name of the original table is shown in brackets. 5.3.1 How are Aliases Used in a Schema? You use aliases for two main reasons: • To use the table more than once in a query. This is the main reason for using aliases, and includes using aliases to solve loops and fan traps. The example Beach universe contains 2 aliases; Resort_Country for Country, and Sponsor for Customer. • To abbreviate the table name to save typing when writing freehand SQL. Tip: Another possible use of aliases is to create an alias for each table as it is inserted into the schema. You then build the schema using the alias tables, not the original base tables. You place the base tables together away from the main universe structure. This allows you to give meaningful names to tables, 2011-04-14212 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 213. and prevents the need to rebuild major sections of a universe structure should a base table need to be aliased at a later stage. 5.3.1.1 Using aliases to solve loops The most common use of aliases in universe development is to solve potential loops in the use of common tables. A loop is a set of joins that defines a closed path through a set of tables in a schema. Loops occur when joins form multiple paths between lookup tables You use an alias to break a loop by providing alternative table for an original lookup table that is being used for multiple query paths. This use of aliases is discussed in the section Resolving loops. 5.3.1.2 Using aliases to solve fan traps Aliases are also used to solve potential fan traps. These can occur in a serial one-to-many join path that can return inflated results when aggregates are summed at the "many" end of the joins. This use of aliases is discussed in the section Resolving Chasm Traps. 5.3.2 Creating Aliases You can create aliases manually, or let the universe design tool automatically detect potential aliases that will solve a join path loop. You need to create an alias manually to solve a fan trap. You also create aliases manually if you are creating a schema using only aliases and not the base tables. The automatic detection and creation of aliases to solve loops is described in the section Detecting and creating an alias. 5.3.2.1 Creating an alias manually To create an alias manually: 1. Click the table that you want to use to create an alias. 2011-04-14213 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 214. 2. Select Insert > Alias Or Click the Insert Alias button. The Creating an Alias box appears. It prompts you to enter a name for the new alias. 3. Enter a new name for the aliased table, or keep the one proposed. Note: The name that you give to an alias should be relevant to the role of the alias to distinguish it from the base table. For example, Resort country is an alias for Country. Resort Country is used for queries returning data for resort countries, the base table Country is used in queries returning data for customer countries. 4. Click OK. The aliased table appears in the Structure pane. 5. Create any joins necessary between the alias and other tables in the schema. Tip: To avoid confusing base tables with aliases, you can display the alias with the name of the base table it represents in the table title as follows: Select Tools > Options > Graphics, and then select the Aliased Name check box. 5.3.2.2 Renaming an alias You can rename an alias at any time. Alias and table naming conventions are RDBMS dependent. You can rename an alias directly by renaming the table, or from a list of aliases in the universe. Renaming an alias directly To rename an alias directly: 1. Click a table and select Edit > Rename Table. Or Right click a table and select Rename table from the contextual menu. 2011-04-14214 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 215. The Rename Table dialog box appears. 2. Type a new name in the Table Name box. The availability of the Owner and Qualification fields is database specific. If they are active, then you can modify these as necessary. 3. Select the Upper case check box if you want the alias name to be shown as all uppercase. Or Select the Lower case check box if you want the alias name to be shown as all lowercase. 4. Click OK. Renaming an alias from a list To rename an alias from a list: 1. Select Tools > List of Aliases. 2. The List of Aliases appears. It lists all the aliases in the active universe. 3. Click an alias name in the list. 4. Type a new name for the selected alias in the New Name text box. 5. Click Apply. 6. Click OK. 5.3.2.3 Deleting an alias 2011-04-14215 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 216. You delete an alias in the same way that you delete a table. If you have defined objects using the alias, you must modify these objects before you delete the alias, so that they use another table, or delete the objects if they are no longer necessary. If you do not modify or remove the objects using a deleted alias, queries using those objects will generate errors in Web Intelligence. To delete an alias: 1. Click an alias and select Edit > Clear. Or Right click an alias and select Clear from the contextual menu. Or Click an alias and press the DELETE key. If any objects use the alias, the following message appears: If no objects use the alias, you do not receive a confirmation box. The alias is deleted immediately. 2. Click Yes. The alias is deleted from the Structure pane. 5.4 Defining contexts Contexts are a collection of joins which provide a valid query path for Web Intelligence to generate SQL. 5.4.1 How are Contexts Used in a Schema? You can use contexts in a universe schema for the following purposes: • Solving loops. • Solving chasm traps. 2011-04-14216 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 217. • Assisting in some solutions for fan traps. • Assisting in detecting incompatibility for objects using aggregate awareness. 5.4.1.1 Using contexts to solve loops The most common use of contexts is to separate two query paths, so that one query returns data for one fact table, and the other query returns data for another fact table. You use contexts to direct join paths in a schema which contains multiple fact tables. Aliases are not appropriate in such schema. This use of contexts is covered in the section Resolving loops. 5.4.1.2 Using contexts to solve chasm and fan traps Contexts are also used to solve potential chasm traps. These can occur when two many-to-one join paths converge on a single table. Multiple rows can be returned for a single dimension causing inflated results. Contexts can split out the query so that the correct number of rows are returned for the dimension. Contexts can also be used with aliases to solve fan traps. These uses of contexts are discussed in the section Resolving Chasm Traps. 5.4.1.3 Using contexts to determine AggregateAwareness incompatibility You can use contexts to exclude objects that are not compatible with an object using the @AggregateAware function in its definition, from being used in a query with the aggregate aware object. . 5.4.2 Creating a Context You can let the universe design tool automatically detect contexts, or you can create contexts manually. If you are using a context to resolve a loop or a chasm trap, you should always let the universe design tool detect the contexts. However, for solving a fan trap (another join path problem), you may have to manually build a context. The automatic detection of contexts for loop resolution is described in the section Resolving loops. 2011-04-14217 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 218. Note: When you create one or more contexts, all joins must be included in one or multiple contexts. If a table is linked by a join that is not included in a context, the join will not be considered when a query is run. The following procedures describe how you can create a context automatically and manually. 5.4.2.1 Creating a context automatically To create a context automatically 1. Select Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Contexts. The Candidate Contexts box appears. It proposes candidate contexts for your schema. These candidate contexts may be necessary to solve either loops or a chasm trap, as chasm traps exist at the branch where two contexts meet. 2. Click a context in the Candidate Contexts list and click the Add button. 3. Repeat step 2 for each candidate context in the list. Note: Once you have added the candidate context to the Accepted Contexts list, you can rename a context as follows: Click a context and click the Rename button. An edit box appears. Type the new name and click OK. 4. Click OK. The contexts are listed in the Contexts pane when List mode (View > List Mode) is active. The context for invoice Line is shown below. 2011-04-14218 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 219. 5. The context for Invoice_Line is shown below. 5.4.2.2 Creating a context manually To create a context manually: 1. Select Insert > Context. Or Click the Insert Context button. The New Context box appears. 2011-04-14219 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 220. 2. Type a name for the context in the Context Name text box. 3. Select all the joins defining the context in the Current Context Joins list. You have the following options when creating the context: 4. Click the Detect button to show the joins making up a suggested context with context name. 5. Select the Show Selected Only check box to see only selected joins. 6. Click the Check button. The universe design tool checks the selected joins for any loops. 7. Type a description of the data the context returns. This is the help text that a Web Intelligence user sees when they run a query that takes the context path. This text should be useful to the end user. 8. Click OK. The context is created. 5.4.3 Editing a context You can use a context editor to modify the following properties of a context: • Name • Joins included in the context • Description 2011-04-14220 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 221. You can also check the context for any unresolved loops. 5.4.3.1 Editing context properties To edit context properties: 1. Select View > List Mode. The List pane appears above the Structure pane. It contains list boxes for all the tables, joins, and contexts in the Structure pane. 2. Double click a context name in the Contexts list pane. The Edit Context box appears. 3. Type a new name in the Context Name box if you want to change the context name. 4. Click a highlighted join to remove it from the context. Or Click a join that is not highlighted to add it to the context. 5. Type a description for the context. 2011-04-14221 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 222. 6. Click OK. The modifications appear in the context. 5.4.4 Deleting a context You can delete a context at any time from the Context list in the List pane. If you are adding or deleting a table or join within a context, you should delete the context before making the modification to the table or join. Once the modification is complete, you can either manually recreate the context if it is being used to solve a chasm trap, or use Detect Contexts to automatically detect a new context if it is being used to resolve a loop. Refer to the sectionDetecting and creating a context for information on detecting contexts. 5.4.4.1 Deleting a context from the Context list To delete a context from the context list: 1. Ensure that List mode is active (Select View > List Mode). 2. Right click a context name in the Contexts list box and select Clear from the contextual menu. Or Click a context name in the Context list box and select Edit > Clear. The context is removed from the list. 5.4.5 Updating contexts Contexts are not updated automatically when the universe structure is changed. If you add or remove any tables to the structure, or if you add or remove any joins, you must update all the contexts. If you have made only a simple change to the structure, you can update the joins that are included in each context manually using either the Edit Context box or the List pane. However, if you have made significant changes to the universe structure, you should delete the current contexts and re-create them. 2011-04-14222 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 223. 5.4.6 Join Paths that Prevent Context Detection A one-to one-cardinality positioned at the end of a join path can prevent Context Detection in the universe design tool from detecting a context. You resolve this problem by changing the cardinality of the table at the end of the join path to one-to-many. Example: One-to-one cardinality preventing context detection The schema below shows a table Sales_Extra_Info that contains particular information about each sale. It is joined by a one-to-one join to the Sales table. When you visually examine the join paths, there are clearly two contexts in this schema; a reservations context, and a sales context. However, when you automatically detect contexts on this type of join path (Tools > Automated Detection >Detect Contexts), you receive the following message: The universe design tool has not considered the one-to-one join at the end of the join path in the context detection, so does not consider that there are two contexts. 5.4.6.1 Changing cardinality to allow the context detection You solve this problem by setting the cardinality of the join linking Sale_Extra_Info to Sales to one-to-many. It can also be many-to-one, the important factor is not to have the one-to-one join at the end of the join path. The schema below now has a one-to-many join at the end of the join path. 2011-04-14223 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 224. When you run Detect Contexts, the two contexts are detected as shown below: 5.4.7 How do Contexts Affect Queries? Depending on how you allow Web Intelligence users to use the objects defined on schema structures, contexts can lead to three types of queries being run: • Ambiguous queries • Inferred queries • Incompatible queries You can run these types of queries in Web Intelligence to test the SQL generated by the contexts. If any of these query types produces an error, or returns incorrect data, you need to analyze the concerned join paths. 5.4.7.1 Ambiguous queries An end user is prompted to choose between one query path or another. This occurs when a query includes objects that when used together do not give enough information to determine one context or the other. When a query is ambiguous, Web Intelligence displays a dialog box that prompts the user to select one of two contexts. When the user selects a context, the corresponding tables and joins are inserted into the SQL query. 2011-04-14224 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 225. Example: Running an ambiguous query A Web Intelligence user runs the following query: Give me the services used by each age group of visitors for each resort: When the query is run, a dialog box appears asking the user to choose a context, in this case either the Reservations or Sales context: The user must choose if they want information for services reserved by age group, or services paid by age group. If they select the Reservations context, the following SQL is generated: SELECT Service.service, Age_group.age_range, Resort.resort FROM Service, Age_group, Resort, Customer, Reservations, Reservation_Line, Service_Line WHERE ( Resort.resort_id=Service_Line.resort_id ) AND ( Service.sl_id=Service_Line.sl_id ) AND ( Customer.age between Age_group.age_min and Age_group.age_max ) AND ( Customer.cust_id=Reservations.cust_id ) AND ( Reservation_Line.res_id=Reservations.res_id ) AND ( Reservation_Line.service_id=Service.service_id ) The joins referenced by the other context (Sales) do not appear in the SQL. 5.4.7.2 Inferred queries A Web Intelligence query is run without prompting an end user to choose a context. The query contains enough information for the correct context to be inferred. For example, a user runs the following query: Give me the number of future guests by age group for each available service: When the query is run, the data is returned without prompting the user to select a context. The Future Guests object is a sum on the Reservation_Line table, which is part of the Reservations context. Web Intelligence infers that the Reservation context is the one to use for the query. 5.4.7.3 Incompatible queries Objects from two different contexts are combined in a query. The two Select statements are synchronized to display returned data in separate tables. 2011-04-14225 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 226. Example: Running an incompatible query A Web Intelligence user runs the following query: Give me the total number of guests company wide by age group and the months that reservations were made. When the query is run, no prompt appears as Web Intelligence infers the use of both the Sales and Reservations contexts. The Select statements for both contexts are synchronized as follows: The query is split into two parts: • Age Group and Number of Guests • Reservation Month When retrieving the results of the two queries, Web Intelligence combines the results (using Age Group). It then displays the results in two tables in the same report as follows. 2011-04-14226 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 227. To allow incompatible queries to be run in Web Intelligence, you must select the Multiple SQL statements in the universe design tool for each context option. This is described in the following section. 5.4.7.4 Selecting Multiple SQL statements for each context To select Multiple SQL statements for each context: 1. Select File > Parameters. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click the SQL tab. The SQL page appears. 3. Select the Multiple SQL statements for each context check box. 4. Click OK. 5.5 Resolving loops In a relational database schema, a common type of join path that returns too few rows is called a loop. 5.5.1 What is a Loop? A loop is a set of joins that defines a closed path through a set of tables in a schema. Loops occur when joins form multiple paths between lookup tables. An example of a loop is shown below. 2011-04-14227 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 228. The schema contains two linked sets of information: the following information is linkedFor each... Available service lines, services for each service line, invoice information for each service, and the country where the resort is situated. Resort The city, region, and country where the customer lives, the sales for the customer, and the invoice information for each sale. Customer These two sets of information are linked in a common join path forming a loop. The lookup table Country can be the country where a resort is situated, or the country in which a customer lives. 5.5.1.1 Why loops in a universe schema and not in the database? In a database, multiple paths between tables may be valid and implemented to meet specific user requirements. When each path is included individually in a query it returns a distinct set of results. However, the schema that you design in the universe design tool often needs to allow queries that include more than one path, which a relational database may not be designed to handle, so the information returned can be incorrect. 2011-04-14228 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 229. The rows that are returned are an intersection of the results for each path, so fewer rows are returned than expected. It is also often difficult to determine the problem when you examine the results. 5.5.2 How Does a Loop Affect Queries? If you created a universe based on the above structure, any query run against the tables in the loop would return only results where the country values for resorts and the country values for customer origin are equivalent. This double restriction on the shared lookup Country table returns fewer rows than expected. Example: Loop returns incorrect results You create the following objects using the schema that contains the above loop: You run the following query in Web Intelligence: For each resort country, give me the number of guests from each country that stay at each resort. You would expect the following type of result: 2011-04-14229 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 230. For the resorts in France and the US, you have the number of German, Japanese, and US visitors staying in resorts in those countries. However, when you run the query using the universe containing the loop, you receive the following results: This suggests that only visitors from the US stayed in resorts in the US. No other visitors came from any other country. 5.5.2.1 What is the loop doing to the query? The joins in the Structure are used to create the Where clause in the inferred SQL of a query. The purpose of the joins is to restrict the data that is returned by the query. In a loop, the joins apply more restrictions than you anticipate, and the data returned is incorrect. The Where clause created by the loop is shown below: WHERE ( Country.country_id=Resort.country_id ) AND ( Resort.resort_id=Service_Line.resort_id ) AND ( Service_Line.sl_id=Service.sl_id ) AND ( Service.service_id=Invoice_Line.service_id ) AND ( Sales.inv_id=Invoice_Line.inv_id ) AND ( Customer.cust_id=Sales.cust_id ) AND ( City.city_id=Cus tomer.city_id ) AND ( Region.region_id=City.region_id ) AND ( Country.country_id=Region.country_id ) AND ( Service_Line.service_line = 'Accommodation' ) The following two joins are both applying a restriction to the Country table: • Country.country_id=Resort.country_id • Country.country_id=Region.country_id Country is serving two purposes: 2011-04-14230 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 231. • Lookup for the resort country. • Lookup for the customer country of origin. This creates a restriction so that data is returned only when the resort country is the same as the customer country. The resulting report shows only the number of visitors from the US who visited resorts in the US. Depending on the nature of the loop, you can resolve the loop in the universe design tool using either an alias to break the join path, or a context to separate the two join paths so that a query can only take one path or the other. 5.5.2.2 How does an alias break a loop? An alias breaks a loop by using the same table twice in the same query for a different purpose. The alias is identical to the base table with a different name. The data in the alias is exactly the same as the original table, but the different name "tricks" SQL into accepting that you are using two different tables. Note: You can resolve the loop satisfactorily by creating only one alias table in the example we have been using. The Region join uses the original Country table, while the Showroom join uses the alias table. However, you could create a separate alias table for each join in the original table. In some relational database systems, this is necessary. Example: Breaking a loop with an alias The schema below is the same schema that contained the loop in the previous section. It shows a join path in which the Country lookup table receives only the "one" ends of two joins, so it can be used for the following two purposes in the join path: • Countries for resorts • Countries for customers 2011-04-14231 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 232. You create an alias for Country and rename it Country_Region. The two "one" ended joins are now separated as follows: • Country keeps a join to the Resort table. • Country_Region is joined to the Region table. The schema now appears as shown below: When you run the same query that produced too few rows in the previous example: For each resort country, give me the number of guests from each country that stay at each resort. 2011-04-14232 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 233. The Where clause for this query is now: WHERE ( City.city_id=Customer.city_id ) AND ( City.region_id=Region.region_id ) AND ( Country.coun try_id=Region.country_id ) AND ( Resort_Country.country_id=Resort.country_id ) AND ( Cus tomer.cust_id=Sales.cust_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.inv_id=Sales.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.service_id=Ser vice.service_id ) AND ( Resort.resort_id=Service_Line.resort_id ) AND ( Service.sl_id=Service_Line.sl_id ) AND ( Service_Line.service_line = 'Accommodation' ) There is now one join applying a restriction on the Country table and another join applying a restriction on the Resort_Country table. The loop has been broken. When the query is run, the following table is returned: 5.5.2.3 How does a context resolve a loop? A context resolves a loop by defining a set of joins that specify one specific path through tables in a loop. It ensures that joins are not included from different paths within the same SQL query. You often use contexts in schema that contain multiple fact tables ("multiple stars") that share lookup tables. Example: Resolving a loop with a context The schema below contains statistical information about sales and reservations. The statistics relating to each type of transaction are stored in the fact tables Sales and Reservations. The schema contains a loop as a join path can follow the sales path or the reservations path to get service information. 2011-04-14233 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 234. If you created an alias for the Customer so that you had a Customer to Reservation join and a Customer_Sales to Sales join, you break the loop, but if you want to add a City table to the schema, you end up with a loop again as shown below: You must continue creating aliases for each new table you add to the schema. This is difficult to maintain, and also ends up proliferating the number of similar objects using each table in the universe. 2011-04-14234 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 235. The only way to resolve this loop is to leave the loop in place, and create a context that specifies one or the other path around the schema. This ensures that queries answer questions for one transaction or the other, such as: Is the customer information needed from the perspective of sales or reservations? In the example, you can follow two different paths from the Customer table to the Service table: The tool detects these contexts...For this path... Reservation_LineReservations and Reservation_Line Sales_LineSales and Invoice_Line The Reservation_Line context appears below: The Sales_Line context appears below: 2011-04-14235 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 236. You then create different sets of objects from the tables in the different contexts. Users can then run either Reservation queries or Sales queries, depending on the objects they select. 5.5.3 Visually Identifying Loops You can use the following guidelines to help you analyze your schema to determine whether an alias or context is appropriate for resolving loops. These can be useful to understand your schema, but you should use Detect Aliases and Detect Contexts to formally identify and resolve loops. See the section Detecting and creating an alias and Detecting and creating a context for more information. then loop can be resolved by...If loop contains... AliasOnly one lookup table Alias A look up table that receives only "one" ends of joins 2011-04-14236 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 237. then loop can be resolved by...If loop contains... ContextTwo or more fact tables 5.5.4 Automatically Identifying and Resolving Loops You can use the universe design tool to automatically detect loops and propose candidate aliases and contexts that you can insert in your schema to resolve the loops. 5.5.4.1 Cardinalities must be set before detecting loops Before using the automatic loop detection and resolution features, all cardinalities must be set for all joins in the schema. It is good design practise to either define cardinalities manually, or manually validate each cardinality that the universe design tool proposes when using the automatic routine. You can set cardinalities in two ways: • Manually. Refer to the section Using cardinalities for more information. • Use Detect Cardinalities. Refer to the section Using cardinalities for more information. 5.5.5 Tool Features to Detect and Resolve loops You can use the following features in the universe design tool to identify and resolve loops: 2011-04-14237 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 238. DescriptionIdentify and resolve loop using... Detects tables that can be aliased to solve a loop in the structure and proposes a candidate alias for each table. You can insert and rename the alias directly from the box. You should run Detect Aliases before Detect Contexts to ensure that aliases that you create are included in any contexts that you implement. It does not detect the need for an alias to resolve a fan trap. Detect Aliases Detects contexts that can be used to solve a loop in the structure and proposes candidate contexts. You can implement and rename each context di- rectly from the box. Run Detect Contexts after Detect Aliases to en- sure that any contexts that you implement include any new aliases. It does not always detect the need for a context to resolve a chasm trap. If not, you need to iden- tify the context manually. Detect Contexts Detects and highlights loops in the structure It proposes to insert an alias or context to resolve each loop. You can implement the proposed alias or context directly from the Detect Loops box. Use Detect Loops to run a quick check on the schema, or to visualize the loop. Do not use it to identify and then resolve loops as you cannot edit or see the candidate alias before insertion. Detect Loops 5.5.5.1 General method for identifying and resolving loops A general procedure for detecting and resolving loops is given below. The sections that describe the step in detail are also given. 1. Verify that all cardinalities are set. 2011-04-14238 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 239. See the section Using cardinalities. 2. Run Detect Aliases to identify if your schema needs an alias to solve any loops. See the section Detecting and creating an alias for more information. 3. Insert the candidate aliases proposed by Detect Aliases. 4. Run Detect Contexts to identify if your schema needs a context to solve a loop that could not be solved with an alias only. See the section Detecting and creating a context for more information. 5. Implement the candidate contexts proposed by Detect Contexts. 6. Test the resolved loop by creating objects and running queries. See the chapter Creating universes for information on creating objects and testing the universe structures. Note: If you are resolving loops for a schema that already has objects defined on the tables, then you must redefine any objects that now use an alias and not the base table. 5.5.5.2 Detecting and creating an alias You can use Detect Aliases, to automatically detect and indicate the tables causing loops in the active universe. Detect Aliases proposes candidate tables that you can edit, and insert in the schema. Note: Before using Detect Aliases, verify that all the tables in schema are linked by joins, and that all cardinalities are set. To detect and create an alias: 1. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Deetct Aliases. Or Click the Detect Aliases button. The "Candidate Alias" dialog box appears. The left pane lists the table or tables that need an alias. The right pane lists proposed aliases that can be inserted to break the loop. 2011-04-14239 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 240. 2. Select a table in the left pane. A suggested name for the candidate alias is listed in the right pane. 3. If you want to rename the proposed alias, click Rename and enter a new name in the "Rename" box. 4. Click Create. A message box prompts you to confirm the creation of the alias. 5. Click OK. The alias appear in the Structure pane. 6. Repeat steps 2 to 5 for any remaining tables. 7. Click Close. 5.5.5.3 Detecting and creating multiple aliases Sometimes when you create an alias, you need to create additional aliases to accommodate new join paths. When using Detect Alias, if the universe design tool detects the need for further aliases, the following dialog box appears when you click the Create button. 2011-04-14240 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 241. In such a situation, two options are available to you: • You can accept that only the first table proposed will be aliased. • You can alias all the tables listed. 5.5.5.4 Detecting and creating a context You can use Detect Contexts to automatically detect the need for a context. Detect Contexts also proposes a candidate context. You can edit the candidate context before it is implemented. To detect and create a context: 1. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Contexts. Or Click the Detect Contexts button. The Candidate Contexts dialog box appears. The proposed contexts appear in the left pane. 2. Click a context name. 2011-04-14241 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 242. The tables included in the candidate context are highlighted in the schema. 3. Click the Add button. The context name appears in the Accepted Contexts pane. You can remove any context from the right pane by selecting it, and then clicking the Remove button. 4. Repeat steps 3 and 4, if applicable, to add the other contexts. 5. If you want to rename a context, select it from the right pane, and then click the Rename button. The Rename Context dialog box appears. Type a new name. 6. Click the OK button. The contexts are listed in the Contexts box in the Universe window. Note: If your universe contains a loop that could be ambiguous for a user, you should always give a name to the context resolving the loop that is easy for users to understand. It should be clear to the Web Intelligence user what information path is represented by a context. 5.5.5.5 Automatically detecting loops You can detect loops in your universe using Detect Loops. This is a feature that automatically checks for loops in the schema, and proposes either an alias or context to solve the loop. Detect Loops is useful to run quick checks for loops in the schema. It also proposes aliases and contexts to resolve detected loops; however, you have less control over the order that the alias and contexts are created than if you used Detect Aliases and Detect Contexts to resolve a loop. The recommended process for resolving loops is described in the section General method for identifying and resolving loops. 2011-04-14242 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 243. Note: You can also use Check Integrity to automatically check for errors in universe structures, including joins, cardinalities, and loops. Check Integrity proposes solutions to any errors it discovers. See the section Checking Universe Integrity Manually for more information. To detect loops in a schema: 1. Verify that you have set cardinalities for all joins in the schema. 2. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Loops. Or Click the Detect Loops button. The Loop Detection box appears. It indicates how many loops have been detected and proposes a possible solution. The detected join path that forms a loop is simultaneously highlighted in the Structure pane as follows: 2011-04-14243 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 244. 3. Click the forward button to display the next loop and proposed solution. For each loop that the universe design tool detects, the join path is highlighted in the structure pane. 4. Click Close. 5.5.5.6 Creating aliases and contexts automatically The universe design tool proposes a candidate alias or a context to resolve a loop when you run Detect Loop. You can choose to insert the candidate alias or implement the candidate context directly from the Detect Loops box. To create an alias using Detect Loop: 1. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Loops. The Detect Loops box appears. It indicates one or more loops detected in the schema, and proposes a candidate alias or context for each loop. 2. Click the forward arrow button until the following message appears for a detected loop: This loop can be resolved with an alias. 3. Click the Insert Alias button. An alias is automatically inserted in the Structure pane. It is joined to the table that table that is causing the loop in the schema. 5.5.5.7 Creating a context using Detect Loop To create a context using Detect Loops: 1. Select Tools > Automated Detection > Detect Loops. 2011-04-14244 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 245. The Detect Loops box appears. It indicates one or more loops detected in the schema, and proposes a candidate alias or context for each loop. 2. Click the forward arrow button until the following message appears for a detected loop: This loop is not covered by any context. 3. Click the Candidate context button. The Candidate Contexts dialog box appears. 4. Click a context name. The tables included in the candidate context are highlighted in the schema. 5. Click the Add button. The context name appears in the Accepted Contexts pane. You can remove any context from the right pane by selecting it, and then clicking the Remove button. 6. Repeat steps 3 and 4, if applicable, to add the other contexts. 7. Click OK. A context confirmation box appears. 2011-04-14245 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 246. 8. Click Close. The contexts are listed in the Contexts box in the Universe window. 5.5.6 Examples of Resolving Loops The following are worked examples showing you how to do the following: • Creating an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables • Creating an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables • Determining when an alias is not appropriate to break a loop • Creating a context to resolve a loop • Using an alias and context together to resolve a loop These schemas are not based on the Beach universe. They use a schema based on a Shipping company and show another perspective of certain loop resolution examples already shown in this chapter with the Beach universe. 5.5.6.1 Creating an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables A sales database holds information about products sold to customers on a worldwide basis. These customers can: • Reside anywhere in the world • Order products from the company • Request that these products be shipped to a destination in any country 2011-04-14246 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 247. For example, a customer residing in the UK can order a vehicle and then ask for it to be shipped to Brazil. The schema for this type of database is as follows: You can interpret this schema as follows: • Each customer comes from one country. • Each customer can place one or more orders for a product. • The company ships each product ordered to a destination country, which may not necessarily be the same as the customer's country of residence. The tables and their columns are shown below: You run a query to obtain the following information: • Names of customers • Customer's country of residence 2011-04-14247 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 248. • Dates of each order • Destination country of the shipment The SQL to extract this data is as follows: SELECT CUSTOMERS.LAST_NAME, COUNTRY.COUNTRY, ORDERS.ORDER_ID, ORDERS.ORDER_DATE, COUNTRY.COUNTRY FROM CUSTOMERS, ORDERS, COUNTRY WHERE (CUSTOMERS.CUST_ID=ORDERS.CUST_ID) AND (ORDERS.SHIP_COUNTRY=COUNTRY.COUNTRY_ID) AND (CUSTOMER.LOC_COUNTRY=COUNTRY.COUNTRY_ID) When executed, this SQL returns incomplete results; only those customers who requested a shipment to their country of residence are returned. The customers who chose another country for shipment are not returned. The returned rows are an intersection of both the customer's country of residence and the destination country of the shipment. Instead of generating the full results shown below The SQL returns only these results: You can break the loop by inserting an alias. The first step in creating an alias is to identify the lookup table having more than one purpose in the database structure. This is described in the following section. 5.5.6.2 Identifying multi-purpose lookup tables The COUNTRY table is used to look up both the customer's country of residence and the shipment destination. This type of table is called a shared lookup table. 2011-04-14248 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 249. You create an alias in the schema called DESTINATION. The three original joins still exist but the loop has been broken by the DESTINATION alias so there is no longer a closed join path. 5.5.6.3 Referencing the shared lookup table and alias in the FROM clause You now need to reference the table name twice in the From clause, the first time with its ordinary name and the second time with an alias; so the original name is suffixed with an alternative name. The resulting SQL is as follows: SELECT CUSTOMER.NAME, COUNTRY.NAME, ORDERS.ORDER_DATE DESTINATION.NAME FROM CUSTOMER, ORDERS, COUNTRY, COUNTRY DESTINATION WHERE (CUSTOMER.CUST_ID=ORDERS.CUST_ID) AND (ORDERS.SHIP_DEST_ID= DESTI NATION.COUNTRY_ID) AND (CUSTOMER.CUST_LOC_ID=COUNTRY.COUNTRY_ID) 5.5.6.4 Creating an alias to break a loop caused by shared lookup tables A sales database holds information about customers living in different countries. These customers can place orders for goods that can be delivered by a number of couriers or shipping companies. In this database, the names of the countries and shippers have been normalized into lookup tables. Normalization is a process that refines the relationships of tables by removing redundancies. For structural reasons, rather than two lookup tables, only one lookup table (SYSLOOKUPS) was created with a code, description and type field. The type field indicates the particular type of information the record holds; for example, country or shipper. Referred to as a "flexible lookup," this type of table often appears in schemas automatically generated by CASE tools. The schema and table layout are shown below: 2011-04-14249 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 250. The SYSLOOKUPS table serves more than one purpose so you have to create as many aliases as the table has domains (distinct values for the type field). Based on the two purposes that are represented in the SYSLOOKUPS table, you can create two aliases, COUNTRY and SHIPPERS. The resulting schema is shown below: 2011-04-14250 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 251. In the universe design tool, you create the object Customer's Country defined as COUNTRY.DE SCRIPTION and the object Shipper defined as SHIPPERS.DESCRIPTION. The corresponding joins would be: CUSTOMERS.LOC_COUNTRY=COUNTRY.CODE ORDERS.SHIP_ID=SHIPPERS.CODE Using self restricting joins to restrict results Once you have defined the objects, you now need to restrict each alias so that it returns only its own domain information and not that of the others. For more information on creating self restricting joins, see the section Self restricting joins. For example, if you wanted to know the names of the shippers who dispatched two orders to customer 101, you would expect two rows to be returned. However, the following SQL SELECT ORDERS.ORDER_ID, ORDERS.CUST_ID, ORDERS.ORDER_DATE, SHIPPERS.DESCRIPTION SHIPPER FROM ORDERS, SYSLOOKUPS SHIPPERS WHERE (ORDERS.SHIP_ID=SHIPPERS.CODE) would produce the results below: The query has returned the names of countries and shippers. Both "Man With a Van" and "USA" share code 1 while "France" and "Parcel Fun" share code 3. You can correct the error as follows: • Apply a new self restricting join to the SHIPPERS alias. In the Edit Join dialog box, you set both Table1 and Table2 to SHIPPERS and enter the SQL expression SHIPPERS.TYPE='SHIP'. • Apply a new self restricting join to the COUNTRY alias. In the Edit Join dialog box, you set both Table1 and Table2 to COUNTRY and enter the SQL expression COUNTRY.TYPE='CTRY'. 2011-04-14251 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 252. Problems using restrictions When you add the restriction to either the object's Where clause or to the existing join between the alias and the CUSTOMERS/ORDERS table, this can produce the following problems: • When you add the restriction to the Where clause of an object, you must also add the same restriction to every object built from the alias. If you are creating a number of objects on an alias that has many columns, you could have problems maintaining the universe. • The restriction to the join between the alias and another table only takes effect when the join is invoked. If you run a simple query containing only the Shipper object, every row in the SHIPPERS alias (including the unwanted Country rows) is returned as there is no reason to include the ORDERS table. As the join is not seen as necessary, the restriction is not applied. Summary In this example, we considered a schema with a shared lookup table. The actions carried out can be summarized as follows: 1. Create a COUNTRY and SHIPPERS alias for the shared lookup table. 2. Create self restricting joins for the aliases as restrictions. The aliases in this example resolve a loop by using one combined lookup table as two different lookup tables. These aliases also required the setting of restrictions (self-joins), so in some structures aliases may lead to the need for additional adjustments or restrictions. 5.5.6.5 Determining when an alias is not appropriate to break a loop Creating an alias to resolve the loop described above is not the optimal solution. In this case, the use of contexts is a better solution. The following example describes why aliases are not appropriate, and why contexts are a better solution in this case. If you try to identify the lookup table used for more than one purpose, it is not clear if it is the PRODUCTS table, or the CUSTOMERS table. If you decide to create two aliases for the PRODUCTS table as shown below: 2011-04-14252 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 253. The two aliases are ORDERED_PRODUCTS and LOANED_PRODUCTS. This could be confusing for users as they are more likely to understand products, and not ordered products or loaned products. If you also decide to add a COUNTRY table to indicate that the products are manufactured in several different countries you would have to join it directly to the PRODUCTS table. The resulting schema would be as follows: In the schema above, it was necessary to create two new aliases, ORDERED_PRODUCTS_COUNTRY and LOANED_PRODUCTS_COUNTRY. The use of aliases is obviously an unsatisfactory and complicated solution for this particular schema. In this case, you should create contexts. 5.5.6.6 Creating a context to resolve a loop A database contains information about customers who can either buy or rent products. In this database, there are two different ways to present the relationship between the customers and the products: • By products that have been ordered by (or sold to) customers. • By products that have been rented to customers. This database has the following type of schema: If we wanted to run a query that returns only a list of customer names and a list of products, we could use the ORDER and ORDER_LINES table. The result would be a list of products ordered by each customer. 2011-04-14253 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 254. By using the LOANS and LOAN_LINES tables, we would obtain a list of products rented by each customer. This schema contains a loop that causes any query involving all six joins simultaneously to result in a list made up of both products sold and rented to customers. If a product has been sold, but never rented to a customer or vice-versa, it would not appear in the list of results. Using an alias and context together to resolve a loop You can use contexts and aliases to resolve loops in a universe. The following example shows how to use both aliases and contexts together in a loop resolution. A universe has the following schema: You can use aliases and contexts to resolve the loops as follows: • Create two aliases for the COUNTRY table: CUST_COUNTRY and PROD_COUNTRY • Define two contexts to resolve the CUSTOMERS to PRODUCTS loops (Orders and Loans) • Ensure that the two joins between CUSTOMERS and CUST_COUNTRY and PRODUCTS and PROD_COUNTRY appear in both contexts. The resulting schema appears as follows: 2011-04-14254 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 255. 5.6 Resolving Chasm Traps A chasm trap is a common problem in relational database schemas in which a join path returns more data than expected. 5.6.1 What is a Chasm Trap? A chasm trap is a type of join path between three tables when two "many-to-one" joins converge on a single table, and there is no context in place that separates the converging join paths. The example below shows a part of the Beach universe schema. The three tables have been separated from the rest of the schema to illustrate the chasm trap. It uses the same Club connection for data. The Service table receives the one ends of two one-to-many joins. You will get incorrect results only when all the following conditions exist: • A "many to one to many relationship" exists among three tables in the universe structure. • The query includes objects based on two tables both at the "many" end of their respective joins. • There are multiple rows returned for a single dimension. The following is an example that shows how queries that are run when all the above conditions exist return a Cartesian product. Example: A chasm trap inflates results without warning Using the schema above, a Web Intelligence user runs the following separate queries: 2011-04-14255 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 256. Returned resultsQuery The user now runs a query that includes both paid guests and future guests: The following results are returned: The number of guests that have used, and future guests who have reserved to use the Sports service has increased considerably. A Cartesian product has been returned and the results are incorrect. This can be a serious problem if undetected. The above example could lead a manager at Island Resorts to think that sporting activities at the resorts are a more attractive service to guests, than the actual figures would indicate. 5.6.2 How does a chasm trap inflate results? The chasm trap causes a query to return every possible combination of rows for one measure with every possible combination of rows for the other measure. In the example above, the following has occurred: • Number of guests transactions *Number of future guest transactions • Number of future guest transactions*Number of guests transactions The following example examines in detail how a chasm trap returns a Cartesian product: 2011-04-14256 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 257. Example: Examining the Cartesian product of a chasm trap We need to examine the rows that are returned by the queries to make the aggregated figures. In our example, we can do this by adding the dimensions Days Billed and Days Reserved to the queries to return individual transaction details. The Number of Guests report appears as follows: The Number of Future Guests report appears as follows: The two reports show the following number of transactions: • Number of Guests = 3 transactions • Number of Future Guests = 2 transactions When the two dimensions are both added to the query, the following results are returned: The query returns every possible combination of Number of Guests rows with every possible combination of Number of Future Guests rows: the Number of Guests transactions each appears twice, and the Number of Future Guests transactions each appears three times. When a sum is made on the returned data, the summed results are incorrect. Unlike loops, chasm traps are not detected automatically by the universe design tool, however, you can use Detect Contexts (Tools > Detect Contexts) to automatically detect and propose candidate contexts in your schema. Detect Contexts examines the many to one joins in the schema. It picks up the table that receives converging many to one joins and proposes contexts to separate the queries run on the table. This is the most effective way to ensure that your schema does not have a chasm trap. 2011-04-14257 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 258. You can also detect chasm traps graphically by analyzing the one-to-many join paths in your schema. If you do not run Detect Contexts, nor spot the chasm trap in the schema, the only way to see the problem is to look at the detail rows. Otherwise there is nothing to alert you to the situation. 5.6.3 Detecting a Chasm Trap You can find chasm traps by using Detect Contexts to detect and propose candidate contexts, and then examining the table where any two contexts diverge. This point where two contexts intersect is the source of a chasm trap. If you have two fact tables with many to one joins converging to a single lookup table, then you have a potential chasm trap. Tip: For information on organizing the table schema to detect join problems, refer to Detecting join problems graphically. 5.6.4 Resolving a Chasm Trap To resolve a chasm trap you need to make two separate queries and then combine the results. Depending on the type of objects defined for the fact tables, and the type of end user environment, you can use the following methods to resolve a chasm trap: • Create a context for each fact table. This solution works in all cases. • Modify the SQL parameters for the universe so you can generate separate SQL queries for each measure. This solution only works for measure objects. It does not generate separate queries for dimension or detail objects. Each of these methods is described in the following sections. 5.6.4.1 Using contexts to resolve chasm traps You can define a context for each table at the "many" end of the joins. In our example you could define a context from SERVICE to RESERVATION_LINE and from SERVICE to INVOICE_LINE. 2011-04-14258 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 259. When you run a query which includes objects from both contexts, this creates two Select statements that are synchronized to produce two separate tables in Web Intelligence, avoiding the creation of a Cartesian product. 5.6.4.2 When do you use contexts? Creating contexts will always solve a chasm trap in a universe. When you have dimension objects in one or both fact tables, you should always use a context. 5.6.4.3 Using contexts to solve a chasm trap To use contexts to resolve a chasm trap: 1. Identify the potential chasm trap by analyzing the "one-to-many-to-one" join path relations in the schema. 2. Select Tools > Detect Contexts. The Candidate Contexts box appears. 3. Select a proposed context in the Candidate Contexts list box and click the Add button to add it to the Accept Contexts list box. 4. Repeat for other listed contexts. The new contexts are listed in the Contexts pane of the List View bar. 5. Select File > Parameters. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. 6. Click the SQL tab. The SQL page appears. 7. Select the Multiple SQL statements for each Context check box. 2011-04-14259 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 260. 8. Click OK. When you run queries on the tables in the chasm trap, the query is separated for measures and dimensions defined on the affected tables. 5.6.4.4 Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure If you have only measure objects defined for both fact tables, then you can use the Universe Parameters option Multiple SQL statements for each measure. This forces the generation of separate SQL queries for each measure that appears in the Query pane. This solution does not work for dimension and detail objects. The following table describes when you can use Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure and when you should avoid its use: In these situations...You... In universes that contain only measure objects defined for both fact tables. The advantage of using multiple SQL statements is that you can avoid using contexts that you need to maintain later. Use Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure When you have dimension or detail objects de- fined for one or both of the fact tables. If a dimen- sion or detail object is included in a query based on a universe using this solution, a Cartesian product will be returned. As this solution can slow query response time and produce incorrect results, than you should consider creating contexts to resolve the chasm trap. Do not use Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure To activate Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure: 1. Select File > Parameters from the menu bar. 2011-04-14260 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 261. The Universe Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click the SQL tab. 3. Select the Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure check box in the Multiple Paths group box. 4. Click OK. 5.7 Resolving Fan Traps A fan trap is a less common problem than chasm traps in a relational database schema. It has the same effect of returning more data than expected. 5.7.1 What is a Fan Trap? A fan trap is a type of join path between three tables when a "one-to-many" join links a table which is in turn linked by another "one-to-many" join. The fanning out effect of "one-to-many" joins can cause incorrect results to be returned when a query includes objects based on both tables. A simple example of a fan trap is shown below: When you run a query that asks for the total number of car models sold by each model line, for a particular customer, an incorrect result is returned as you are performing an aggregate function on the table at the "one" end of the join, while still joining to the "many" end. Example: A fan trap inflates results without warning Using the schema above, the Web Intelligence user runs the following query: 2011-04-14261 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 262. The following results are returned: This result is correct. However, the end user adds the dimension Model ID to the query as follows: The following report is created with the returned results: The Sale Value aggregate appears twice. Once for each instance of Model_ID. When these results are aggregated in a report, the sum is incorrect. The fan trap has returned a Cartesian product. Wendy bought two cars for a total of $57,092.00, and not 114,184.00 as summed in the report. The inclusion of Model_ID in the query, caused the SaleValue to be aggregated for as many rows as Model_ID. The fan trap using dimension objects in the query is solved by using an alias and contexts. The following schema is the solution to the fan trap schema: 2011-04-14262 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 263. The original query which returned the Cartesian product for Wendy Craig, now returns the following table when run with the above solution: 5.7.2 How Do You Detect a Fan Trap? You cannot automatically detect fan traps. You need to visually examine the direction of the cardinalities displayed in the table schema. If you have two tables that are referenced by measure objects and are joined in a series of many to one joins, then you may have a potential fan trap. For a description to organize the table schema to detect join problems, see the section Detecting join problems graphically. 5.7.3 How Do You Resolve a Fan Trap? There are two ways to solve a fan trap problem. • Create an alias for the table containing the initial aggregation, then use Detect Contexts (Tools > Detect Contexts) to detect and propose a context for the alias table and a context for the original table. This is the most effective way to solve the fan trap problem. • Altering the SQL parameters for the universe. This only works for measure objects. Both of these methods are described below. 5.7.3.1 Using aliases and contexts to resolve fan traps You create an alias table for the table producing the aggregation and then detect and implement contexts to separate the query. You can do this as follows: 2011-04-14263 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 264. To use aliases and contexts to resolve a fan trap: 1. Identify the potential fan trap by analyzing the "one-to-many-to-one-to-many" join path relations in the schema. 2. Create an alias for the table that is producing the multiplied aggregation. For example, SaleValue in the previous example is an aggregate of the Sale_Total column in the Sales table. You create an alias called Sale_Total for Sale. 3. Create a join between the original table and the alias table. If you create a one-to-one join, the universe design tool does not detect the context, and you must build the context manually. In most cases you can use a one-to-many which allows automatic detection and implementation of contexts. For example you create a one-to-many join between Sale and Sale_Total. 4. Build the object that is causing the aggregation on the alias tables. For example the original SaleValue object was defined as follows: sum(SALE.SALE_TOTAL). The new definition for SaleValue is: sum(Sale_Total.SALE_TOTAL). 5. Select Tools > Detect Contexts. 2011-04-14264 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 265. The Candidate Contexts box appears. It proposes the candidate contexts for the join path for the base table and the new join path for the alias table. Note: If you have used a one-to-one join between the alias and the base table, then you need to create the context manually. 6. Click a candidate context and click Add. 7. Repeat for the other candidate context. 8. Click OK. The contexts are created in the schema. You can view them in the Contexts pane when List Mode is active (View > List Mode). The context for the join path CLIENT>SALE>SALE_MODEL appears as follows: And a second context for the CLIENT>SALE>SALE_TOTAL join path: 2011-04-14265 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 266. 9. Select File > Parameters. The Parameters dialog appears. 10. Click the SQL tab.SQL page. The SQL page appears. 11. Select the Multiple SQL Statements for Each Context check box. 12. Click OK. 13. Run queries to test the fan trap solution. 5.7.3.2 Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure If you have only measure objects defined for both tables at the many end of the serial one-to-many joins, then you can use the Universe Parameters option Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure. This forces the generation of separate SQL queries for each measure that appears in the Query pane. 2011-04-14266 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 267. You cannot use this method to generate multiple queries for dimensions. If an end user can include dimensions from any of the tables that reference the measure objects in the query, then you must use an alias and context to resolve the fan trap. See the section Using Multiple SQL Statements for Each Measure for more information and procedure to activate this option. 5.8 Detecting join problems graphically You can visually detect potential chasm and fan traps in your table schema by arranging the tables in the Structure pane so that the "many" ends of the joins are to one side of the pane, and the "one" ends to the other. The example below shows the Beach universe schema arranged with a one to many flow from left to right. 5.8.1 Potential chasm trap The potential chasm traps are shown below: 2011-04-14267 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 268. Both of these join paths have been separated using the contexts Sales and Reservations. 5.8.2 Potential fan trap A universe schema for a car sales database is shown below: 2011-04-14268 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 269. The potential fan traps involve the following tables • CUSTOMER, LOAN, and LOANLINE • CUSTOMER, SALES, and SALELINE • VARIETY, PRODUCT, and SALELINE Tip: Once you have populated your schema with the necessary tables, don't start defining objects immediately. Allow some time to move tables around so that you have the all the one-to-many joins in the same direction. The universe design tool is a graphic tool, so use the visual capabilities of the product to help you design universes. An hour or so moving tables around could save you a lot of time later in the design process. 5.9 Checking the universe As you design your universe, you should test its integrity periodically. You can verify universe integrity as follows: DescriptionCheck universe You can set universe design tool options to check the SQL syntax of universe structures at creation, universe export, or when a universe is opened. Automatically You run Check Integrity to check selected uni- verse structures. Manually 2011-04-14269 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 270. 5.9.1 Checking Universe Integrity Automatically You can set the following integrity check options in the universe design tool to parse SQL structures at creation, universe export, and universe opening: DescriptionAutomatic check option The universe design tool automatically checks the SQL definition of all objects, conditions, and joins at creation. It is applied when you click OK to validate structure creation. Automatic parse upon definition The universe design tool displays a warning each time you attempt to export an unchecked uni- verse. Send check integrity All universes are checked automatically when opened. Check universe integrity at opening 5.9.1.1 Setting automatic universe check options To set automatic universe check options: 1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialog box opens to the General page. 2. Select or clear check boxes for appropriate universe automatic check options in the Integrity group box. 3. Click OK. 2011-04-14270 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 271. 5.9.2 Checking Universe Integrity Manually You can use Check Integrity to test to verify if the design of your active universe is accurate and up-to-date. Check Integrity detects the following: • Errors in the objects, joins, conditions, and cardinalities of your universe. • Loops in join paths. • Any necessary contexts. • Changes to the target database. Before examining the elements of the universe against those of the database, the function checks whether the connection to the database is valid. If the connection is not valid, the function stops and returns an error message. 5.9.2.1 Types of errors detected by Check Integrity Check Integrity can detect: • Invalid syntax in the SQL definition of an object, condition, or join. • Loops • Isolated tables • Isolated joins • Loops within contexts • Missing or incorrect cardinalities 5.9.2.2 How does Check Integrity determine changes in a connected database? The Check Integrity function sends a request to the database for a list of tables. It then compares this list with the tables in the universe. It carries out the same action for columns. In the Structure pane, Check Integrity marks any tables or columns not matching those in the list as not available. These are tables or columns that may have been deleted or renamed in the database. See the section Refreshing the Universe Structure. 2011-04-14271 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 272. Note: The option Check Cardinalities can be slow to run with large amounts of data. If there is ambiguous or missing data, results can also be inaccurate. If your database is large, and may have incomplete data entries, then you should not select the option Check Cardinalities. If you do use this option, then you can optimize the cardinality detection by modifying the PRM file. For more information, refer to the section Optimizing automatic cardinality detection. 5.9.2.3 Verifying universe integrity with Check Integrity To verify universe integrity: 1. Select Tools > Check Integrity. Or Click the Check Integrity button. The Integrity Check dialog box appears. 2. Select check boxes for components to be verified. 3. Clear check boxes for components not to be verified. 4. Select the Quick Parsing check box to verify only the syntax of components. Or Select Thorough Parsing check box to verify both the syntax and semantics of components. 5. Click OK. A message box displays the universe check progress. 2011-04-14272 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 273. If Check Integrity encounters no errors, it displays "OK" beside each error type. 6. Click the plus sign (+) beside the error type to view the list of components in which the error occurred. You can double click an item in the list to highlight the corresponding components in the Structure pane. 7. Click the Print button to print the window contents. 2011-04-14273 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 274. 8. Click OK. Note: Before selecting the Check for Loops check box, ensure that the cardinalities of joins have already been detected. Otherwise, the function erroneously identifies loops in the joins. 5.9.3 Refreshing the Universe Structure If Check Integrity indicates that the database of your universe connection has been modified, you can use Refresh Structure to update the contents of the Structure pane. Refresh Structure can modify the universe structure to comply with changes in the database as follows: Then the tool does the followingIf Adds the columns to the corresponding tables in the universe. Columns were added to tables Displays a warning message indicating the columns and associated joins you should delete. Columns were removed from tables Displays a warning message indicating the tables and associated joins you should delete. Tables were removed from the database Displays a message that says it no longer recog- nizes the corresponding tables in the universe. You should rename these tables to match those in the database. If the names still do not match, the universe design tool returns a message stating that the renamed tables do not exist in the database. Tables were renamed in the database Displays a message informing you that no update is needed. No changes were made to the database 2011-04-14274 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 275. 5.9.3.1 Refreshing a universe To refresh the universe structure: • Select View > Refresh Structure. A message box appears informing you of a change in the database, or that no update is needed if no changes have been made. 2011-04-14275 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 276. 2011-04-14276 Resolving join problems in a schema
  • 277. Creating universes When you have created the schema and performed an integrity check and resolved loop problems, you are ready to create the universe that will be used by the reporting tools. 6.1 Overview This chapter describes how you can create the classes and objects that are used by Web Intelligence users to run queries and create reports. it also covers optimizing object definitions to enhance end user reporting, and universe optimization. The previous chapters have described how you plan a universe, create a table schema which contains the database structure of a universe: the tables, columns, and joins, and also how to resolve loops in join paths. The schema that you have created is not visible by Web Intelligence users. Once this database structure is complete, you can now build the classes and objects that users see in the "Universe pane", and will use to run queries on the databases structure to generate documents and reports. 6.2 Introduction to universe building Building a universe is the object creation phase of the universe development cycle. The objects that you create must be based on a user needs study and use a sound schema design that has been tested for join path problems. The following list indicates where the building (and test) phase appears in a typical universe development cycle (Implementation, step 2): • Preparation 1. User needs analysis 2. Planning • Implementation 1. Design and test schema 2. Build and test universe objects 3. Deploy universe using repository 2011-04-14277 Creating universes
  • 278. • Maintenance 1. Update and maintain universe based on changes in user requirements or data source 6.2.1 What is an object? In Business Objects products an object is a named component in a universe that represents a column or function in a database. Objects appear as icons in the "Universe pane". Each object represents a meaningful entity, fact, or calculation used in an end users business environment. The objects that you create in the "Universe pane" in the universe design tool are the objects that end users see and use in the reporting tools. You can also create objects for use only in the universe design tool, which you can hide in the "Universe" pane seen by Web Intelligence users. Web Intelligence users drag objects from the "Universe" pane across into the "Query" pane to run queries and create reports with the returned data. Each object maps to a column or function in a target database, and when used in the "Query" pane, infers a SELECT statement. When multiple objects are combined, a SELECT statement is run on the database including the SQL inferred by each object and applying a default WHERE clause. The diagram below shows objects in the Web Intelligence"Universe" pane and the same objects in the universe design tool"Universe" pane. Each object in the universe design tool"Universe" pane maps to a column in the universe schema, and infers a SELECT statement when used in a query. As the universe designer, you use the universe design tool to create the objects that Web Intelligence users include in the "Query" pane to run their queries. 2011-04-14278 Creating universes
  • 279. 6.2.2 What types of objects are used in a universe? You can qualify an object as being one of three types: DescriptionExamplesObject qualification Focus of analysis in a query. A dimension maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that are key to a query. Dimension Provides descriptive data about a dimension. A detail is always attached to a dimension. It maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that provide detailed information re- lated to a dimension. Detail Contains aggregate functions that map to statistics in the database. Measure When you create an object, you assign it a qualification based on the role that you want that object to have in a query. This role determines the Select statement that the object infers when used in the "Query" pane. 6.2.3 What is a class? A class is a container of objects. A class is the equivalent of a folder in the Windows environment. You create classes to house objects that have a common purpose in the universe. 2011-04-14279 Creating universes
  • 280. 6.2.4 Using classes and objects You organize classes and objects together in the universe pane to correspond to the way that Web Intelligence users are accustomed to work with the information represented by the objects. 6.3 Using the Universe pane You create the classes and objects in a universe using the "Universe pane". The "Universe pane" presents a hierarchical view of the classes and objects in the active universe. You use the "Universe pane" to view, create, edit, and organize classes and objects The "Universe pane" is shown below. Class names appear beside a folder icon, and object names beside their qualification symbols. 6.3.1 Displaying classes and objects or conditions You can use the two radio buttons at the bottom of the window to display classes and objects, or condition objects in the Universe Pane. Condition objects are predefined Where clauses that can be used within one or more Select statements. You can display two views of the universe pane: 2011-04-14280 Creating universes
  • 281. What it showsTo display the view...View All classes and objectsSelect left radio buttonClasses/Objects All classes and conditions ap- plied on objects contained within each class Select right radio buttonClasses/Conditions Related Topics • Defining restrictions for an object 6.4 Basic operations on classes, objects, and conditions You can perform the following operations in the "Universe" pane that are common to classes, objects and conditions: 6.4.1 Cut, copy, paste You can cut, copy, and paste a selected component with the usual standard commands used in a Windows environment. 6.4.2 Moving classes, objects, or conditions You can move a component to another position in the window by dragging and dropping it at the desired location. 6.4.3 Showing or hiding classes, objects and conditions 2011-04-14281 Creating universes
  • 282. You can hide one or more components in the Universe Pane. These are hidden from Web Intelligence users, but remain visible in the universe design tool. Hiding objects from end users can be useful for any of the following reasons: • Components are from linked universes and are not needed in the active universe. • Objects are used only to optimize SQL syntax and should be hidden from end users. • You are in the process of developing a component that you do not want end users to view from the "Query" pane. • You want to disable components temporarily without deleting them. 6.4.3.1 Hiding a class, object, or condition To hide a class, object, or condition: 1. Click the component in the Universe pane. 2. Select Edit > Hide Item(s) . Or Click the Show/Hide button on the "Editing" toolbar. The component name is displayed in italics in the "Universe" pane 6.4.3.2 Showing a hidden class, object, or condition The name of hidden components appears in italics. To show a hidden class, object, or condition: 1. Click the hidden component in the "Universe" pane. 2. Select Edit > Show Item(s) . The name of the component is no longer in italics. It is now visible to end users. 6.5 Defining classes 2011-04-14282 Creating universes
  • 283. A class is a container of one or more objects. Each object in a universe must be contained within a class. You use classes to group related objects. Classes make it easier for end users to find particular objects. You can create new classes and edit the properties of existing classes. Classes are represented as folders on a tree hierarchy in the Universe pane. Tip: A useful way to use classes is to group related dimension and detail objects into a class, and place measure objects in a separate class. The grouping of related objects can be further organized by using subclasses to break objects down into subsets. Subclasses are described in the section Using subclasses 6.5.1 Creating a class There are two ways to create a class in the Universe pane: • Manually defining a class. • Automatically by dragging a table from the table schema into the Universe pane. Both methods are described as follows: 6.5.1.1 Creating a class manually You can create classes manually within the Universe pane. If you have analyzed user needs and have listed and grouped the potential objects into classes, then creating classes manually from your list is the best way to ensure that your universe structure corresponds to the needs of end users. To create a class in an empty Universe pane: 1. Select Insert > Class. Or Click the Insert Class button. A class properties box appears. 2. Type a name in the Class Name text box. 3. Type a description for the class in the Description text box. 4. Click OK. The new named class folder appears in the Universe pane. Tip: If you click Apply instead of OK, the name and description for a class are applied, but the properties box stays open. If you create another class, you can type properties for the new class in the same box. 2011-04-14283 Creating universes
  • 284. This allows you to create a series of classes using a single properties box. As you avoid a new properties box appearing with the creation of each class, you can save time and unnecessary clicking. 6.5.1.2 Creating a class in the universe pane with existing classes To create a class with existing classes: 1. Click the class that you want to precede the new class in the tree view and select Insert > Class. Or Click the class that you want to precede the new class in the tree view and click the Insert Class button. A class properties box appears. 2. Type a name and description for the new class. 3. Click OK. The new named class folder appears in the Universe pane. 6.5.1.3 Creating a class automatically from the table schema You can create classes automatically by selecting a table in the table schema and dragging it into the Universe pane. The table name is the class name by default. New objects are also automatically created under the class. Each new object corresponds to a column in the table. You should edit the new class and object properties to ensure that they are appropriately named, and are relevant to end user needs. Editing object properties is described in the section Defining objects. The Objects strategy selected on the Strategies page in the Universe Parameters dialog box determines how the classes and objects are created automatically (File>Parameters>Strategies tab). This strategy can be modified. You can also create strategies to customize the class and object creation process. See the section Using external strategies to customize universe creation, and the section Selecting strategies for more information on strategies. Note: When you create class and objects automatically, you are creating the universe components directly from the database structure. The class and objects that you create should be the result of a user needs analysis, and not be directed by the columns and tables available in the database. Designing the universe from user needs is described in the section Universe design methodology. To create a class automatically from the table schema: 1. Select a table in the table schema. 2011-04-14284 Creating universes
  • 285. 2. Drag the table across to the Universe pane and drop the table at the desired position in the class hierarchy. A new class appears in the hierarchy. It contains an object for each column in the table dragged into the Universe pane. By default, the class name is the same as the table name, and each object name is the same as its corresponding column name. 6.5.2 Class properties You can define the following properties for a class: DescriptionProperty Can contain special characters. Must be unique in universe. A class name is case sensitive. You can rename a class at any time. Name Comment that describes a class. This description can be viewed by users in the Query pane. Infor- mation in this field should be expressed in the business language of the user, and be relevant to their query needs. You create a line break by pressing CTRL + Return. Description 6.5.3 Modifying a class You can modify the name and description of a class from the class properties dialog box at any time. You can access a class properties dialog box by any of the following methods: • Double click a class folder. • Right click a class folder, and select Edit > Class Properties. • Click a class folder, and select Edit > Class Properties. Note: You can perform any of the above click operations on either the class folder or the class name to access the class properties dialog box. 2011-04-14285 Creating universes
  • 286. 6.5.4 Using subclasses A subclass is a class within a class. You can use subclasses to help organize groups of objects that are related. A subclass can itself contain other subclasses or objects. 6.5.4.1 Creating a subclass To create a subclass: • Click a class folder or a class name, then select Insert > Subclass. • Right click a class folder or name, then select Insert Subclass from the contextual menu. The Universe pane below shows a subclass Sponsor listed under the class Customer. 6.6 Defining objects An object is a universe component that maps to one or more columns in one or more tables in the universe database schema. An object can also map to a function defined on one or more columns. Each object infers a Select statement for the column or function to which it maps. When an Web Intelligence user builds a query using one or more objects in the Query pane the content of the Select clause line in the Select statement is inferred using the column(s) or function represented by each object. 2011-04-14286 Creating universes
  • 287. 6.6.1 Creating an object You create objects in the Universe pane. Web Intelligence users identify an object by its name and qualification. You can create objects manually in the Universe pane, or automatically by dragging the appropriate database structure from the Structure pane to the Universe pane. 6.6.1.1 Creating an Object Manually You create an object manually by inserting an object in the Universe pane, and then defining the properties for the object. An object must belong to a class. To create an object manually 1. Right click a class in the Universe pane and select Insert Object from the contextual menu. Or Click a class and click the Insert Object tool. An object is inserted under the selected class and the Edit Properties box for the object appears. 2. Type a name in the Name box. Ensure that object names are always expressed in the end user business vocabulary. This name may be different from the actual column names that the object is associated with in the database schema. 3. Click the Properties tab and select object properties. 4. Type a Select statement in the Select box, or click the Select button to use the SQL editor. 5. Click OK. Related Topics • Using the SQL Editor • Object properties 6.6.1.2 Creating an object automatically 2011-04-14287 Creating universes
  • 288. You can create an object automatically by selecting a column in a table in the Structure pane and dragging it to the Universe pane. An object is created under the nearest class to the point where you drop the column. The default name for the object is the column name. All underscores are replaced with spaces. The default object datatype is derived from the column datatype. You can change this value by selecting a new datatype from the drop down list box in the Edit Properties sheet for the object. You should edit the new object properties to ensure that it is appropriately named, and is relevant to end user needs. Editing object properties is described in the section Defining objects. The Objects strategy selected on the Strategies page in the Universe Parameters dialog box determines how the classes and objects are created automatically (File>Parameters>Strategies tab). This strategy can be modified. You can also create strategies to customize the class and object creation process. Refer to Using external strategies to customize universe creation, and Selecting strategies for more information on using strategies. Note: When you create class and objects automatically, you are creating the universe components directly from the database structure. The classes and objects that you create should be the result of a user needs analysis, and not be directed by the columns and tables available in the database. Designing the universe from user needs is described in the section Universe design methodology. To create an object automatically: 1. Click a table column in the Structure pane. 2. Drag the column across to the Universe pane and drop the table at the desired position in the class hierarchy. The column must be dropped under an existing class. A new object appears in the hierarchy. By default, the object name is the same as the column name. You should ensure that object names are always expressed in the end user business vocabulary. This name may be different from the actual column names that the object is associated with in the database schema. 6.6.2 Object properties You define the following object properties from the Edit Properties dialog box for a selected object: 2011-04-14288 Creating universes
  • 289. PropertiesEdit Properties page • Name • Datatype • Description • Select statement • Where clause You can access the SQL editor from this page to define SELECT and WHERE syntax. Definition See Object definition for full information on avail- able object definition properties. • Object qualification • Associated list of values Properties See Properties for full information on available object properties. • Security • User rights on object • Date formats Advanced See Advanced for full information on available advanced object properties. • Key type • Select • Where • Enable Keys See Defining index awareness for information on defining index awareness for an object. • Technical information • Mapping • Lineage Source Information See Source Information for information on using this tab. You can modify object properties at any time. Each object property listed above is fully described for each Edit Properties page in the section Modifying an object. 6.6.3 Modifying an object 2011-04-14289 Creating universes
  • 290. You can define object properties at object creation, or modify them at any time. You define object properties from the Edit Properties dialog box for the object (right-click object > Object Properties). The properties you can define on each page of the Edit Properties dialog box are described as follows. 6.6.4 Object definition The Definition page is shown below: You can define the following properties from the Definition page of the Edit Properties dialog box. Required/OptionalDescriptionProperty Required Object name. It can consist of alphanumeric characters includ- ing special characters and spaces. Name is case-sensitive. Object names must be unique within a class. Objects in differ- ent classes can have the same name. Name 2011-04-14290 Creating universes
  • 291. Required/OptionalDescriptionProperty Required Object datatype. It can be one of four types: • Character • Date • Long text • Number Blobs are not supported in the current version of the universe design tool . Type Optional Comments for object. This field can be viewed from the Query pane, so you can include infor- mation about the object that may be useful to an end user. Press Ctrl+Return to move the pointer to the next line. Description Required Select statement inferred by the object. You can use the SQL Editor to create the Select statement. See the section Properties.* Select Optional Where clause of the Select statement inferred by the object. The Where clause restricts the number of rows returned in a query. You can use the SQL Editor to create the Where clause.* Where * You can insert or edit an @Prompt in the Select statement or Where clause. Right-click in the Select statement or Where clause, a shortcut menu offers either New @Prompt when there is no @Prompt in the statement, or Edit @Prompt when you click inside an existing @prompt. The "@Prompt" editor opens. 2011-04-14291 Creating universes
  • 292. Tables button When you click the Tables button a list of tables used in the schema appears. From this list you can select other columns in other tables to be included in the object definition. This allows an object to infer columns from several tables in a the Select statement. Refer to the section Applying a restriction by inferring multiple tables for more information. Parse button When you click the Parse button, the Select statement for an object is parsed. If there are syntax errors detected, a message box appears describing the error. Related Topics • Using the SQL Editor • Calculated measures in OLAP universes • The @Prompt Editor 6.6.4.1 Editing an object definition To edit an object definition: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. 2. Type or select object definitions and properties as required. 3. Click OK. 6.6.4.2 Defining an object as a dynamic hyperlink You can define the text in a cell as a hyperlink. This method is useful for dynamic hyperlinks in a report, where the text in the cells of a column becomes a hyperlink to a specific resource (dependent on the result object). Edit the object's select statement to include a hyperlink declaration, and select the object's format property Read As Hyperlink. 6.6.4.3 To define an object as a dynamic hyperlink 2011-04-14292 Creating universes
  • 293. Using this approach, the object will create a dynamic hyperlink in the resulting report. 1. Right-click on the object and select Object Properties. The "Edit Object Properties" dialog displays. 2. Type the select statement and include the appropriate hyperlink. 3. Save the new properties. 4. Right-click on the object and select Object Format. The "Object Format" pane displays. 5. Select the option Read As Hyperlink. 6. Click OK to save the format settings. 7. Use your reporting tool to create the report and test the link. When the object is used in a report, the resulting column will include hyperlinks. Example: Using a hyperlink to calendar information The following Select statement retrieves year calendar information from timeanddate.com depending on the year value in the column cell. Note that the declaration takes the four rightmost characters (the year) and removes the 'FY' (Financial Year') from the string, which is not recognized by the target URL. '<a href=http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/?year=>' +right(@Select(Reser vationsReservation Year),4) +'</a>' 6.6.5 Properties You can specify the following object qualifications and properties for a list of values from the Properties page of the Edit Properties dialog box: DescriptionProperty Defined role that object takes when used in the Query pane. You can qualify an object as being one of three types: • Dimension • Detail • Measure Refer to the section What types of objects are used in a universe? for a more detailed descrip- tion of object qualifications. Qualification 2011-04-14293 Creating universes
  • 294. DescriptionProperty When selected, associates a file containing data values with an object. Activated by default. Refer to the section Using lists of values for more infor- mation. Associate a List of Values 6.6.5.1 Specifying object qualification and list of values properties To specify qualification and list of values properties for an object: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties box for the object appears. 2. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 3. Click a qualification radio button to determine whether the object is a dimension, detail, or measure. If you want to associate a list of returned values with the object, select the Associate a List of Values check box. For information on creating and using lists of values, see the section Using lists of values. 4. Click OK. 6.6.6 Advanced The Advanced page is shown below. 2011-04-14294 Creating universes
  • 295. You can define the following properties from the Advanced page of the Edit Properties dialog box: DescriptionProperty Defines the security access level of the object.You can select a security level which restricts use of the object to users with the appropriate security level. You can assign the following security access levels: • Public • Controlled • Restricted • Confidential • Private If you assign Public then all users can see and use the object. If you assign Restricted, then only users with the user profile of Restricted or higher can see and use the object. Security Access Level When selected, the object can be used in a query.Can be used in Result When selected, the object can be used to set in a condition. Can be used in Condition 2011-04-14295 Creating universes
  • 296. DescriptionProperty When selected, returned values can be sorted.Can be used in Sort Option only available for date objects. By default, the date format for the object is defined in the Regional Settings Properties dialog box of the MS-Windows Control Panel. You can modify this to use the target database format for storing dates. For example, the date format could be US format, or European format. For information on modifying this value, see the section Defining an object format. Database Format 6.6.6.1 Defining object security and user rights To define security and user rights for an object: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties box for the object appears. 2. Click the Advanced tab. The Advanced page appears. 3. Select a security access level from the Security Access Level drop down list box. 4. Select one or more check boxes in the Can Be Used In group box. 5. Type a date format in the database Format text box, if you want to modify the default date format. 6. Click OK. 6.6.7 Defining index awareness The Keys tab allows you to define index awareness for an object. Index awareness is the ability to take advantage of the indexes on key columns to speed data retrieval. 2011-04-14296 Creating universes
  • 297. The objects that you create with the universe design tool are based on database columns that are meaningful to an end user. For example, a Customer object retrieves the field that contains the customer name. In this situation the customer table typically has a primary key (for example an integer) that is not meaningful to the end user, but which is very important for database performance. When you set up index awareness in the universe design tool you tell the tool which database columns are primary and foreign keys. This can have a dramatic effect on query performance in the following ways: • The universe design tool can take advantage of the indexes on key columns to speed data retrieval. • The universe design tool can generate SQL that filters in the most efficient way. This is particularly important in a star schema database. If you build a query that involves filtering on a value in a dimension table, the universe design tool can apply the filter directly on the fact table by using the dimension table foreign key. This eliminates unnecessary and costly joins to dimension tables. The universe design tool does not ignore duplicates with index awareness. If two customers have the same name, the universe design tool will retrieve one only unless it is aware that each customer has a separate primary key. Example: Finding customers in a list of cities In this example you build a report on the Island Resorts Marketing Universe that returns revenue by customer for customers in Houston, Dallas, San Francisco, San Diego or Los Angeles. To do this you drag the Customer and Sales Revenue objects into the Result Objects pane in the Query pane, then drag the City object to the Conditions pane and restrict the city to the list above. Without index awareness, the universe design tool generates the following SQL: SELECT Customer.last_name, sum(Invoice_Line.days * Invoice_Line.nb_guests * Service.price) FROM Customer, Invoice_Line, Service, City, Sales WHERE ( City.city_id=Customer.city_id ) AND ( Customer.cust_id=Sales.cust_id ) AND ( Sales.inv_id=Invoice_Line.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.service_id=Service.service_id ) AND ( City.city IN ('Houston', 'Dallas', 'San Francisco', 'Los Angeles', 'San Diego') ) GROUP BY Customer.last_name In this case the tool has created a join to the City table in order to restrict the cities retrieved. With index awareness, you tell the universe design tool that city_id is the primary key of the City table and that it also appears in the Customer table as a foreign key. Using this information, the tool can restrict the cities without joining to the City table. The SQL is as follows: SELECT Customer.last_name, sum(Invoice_Line.days * Invoice_Line.nb_guests * Service.price) FROM Customer, Invoice_Line, Service, Sales WHERE ( Customer.cust_id=Sales.cust_id ) 2011-04-14297 Creating universes
  • 298. AND ( Sales.inv_id=Invoice_Line.inv_id ) AND ( Invoice_Line.service_id=Service.service_id ) AND ( Customer.city_id IN (10, 11, 12, 13, 14) ) GROUP BY Customer.last_name In this case the tool is able to generate SQL that restricts the cities simply by filtering the values of the city_id foreign key. 6.6.7.1 Setting up primary key index awareness To set up primary key index awareness: 1. Right-click the object on which you want to set up index awareness and select Object Properties from the menu. The Edit Properties Of dialog box appears. 2. Click the Keys tab. 3. Click Insert. A Primary Key line is inserted as shown below in the Keys page. 4. Do the following actions in to create key awareness for the primary key: • Select Primary in the Key Type list. Click the ... button in the Select field to open the SQL editing dialog box. The SQL Editor appears. • Use the SQL Editor to build the primary key SQL SELECT clause or type it directly. For example, for the City object above, the primary key SQL is City.city_id 2011-04-14298 Creating universes
  • 299. For more information on the SQL Editor, see Using the SQL Editor. • Select the primary key data type from the drop-down list of key types. 5. If you want to add a WHERE clause, do the following: • Click within the line, under the Where column as shown below: • Click the ... button in the Where field to open the SQL editing dialog box. The SQL Editor appears. • Use the SQL Editor to build the primary key SQL WHERE clause or type it directly. There is no Where clause in the example above. • Select Number from the drop-down list of key types. 6. Select Enabled. 7. Click OK. Note: To add more than one column for primary key, you can concatenate multiple columns to define Primary key. These columns should belong to the same table and have same datatype. e.g in sample database "club.mdb" Resort table has a multi-column primary key based on Country_id and Resort_id. Therefore to define index awareness on <resort> object user can concatenate "Country_id" and "Resort_id" to define primary key: Resort.country_id & Resort.resort_id & is MS Access concatenation operator. 6.6.7.2 Setting up foreign key awareness To set up foreign key awareness: 1. Right-click the object on which you want to set up index awareness Select Object Properties from the menu. The Edit Properties Of dialog box appears. 2. Click the Keys tab. 2011-04-14299 Creating universes
  • 300. 3. Click Insert. A key line is inserted in the Keys page. 4. Do the following to create key awareness for the foreign key: • Select Foreign Key in the Key Type list. • Click the ... button in the Select field to open the SQL editing dialog box. The SQL Editor appears. • Use the SQL Editor to build the foreign key SQL SELECT clause or type it directly. • Select the foreign key data type from the drop-down list of key types. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all columns that make up the foreign key. 6. If you want to add a WHERE clause, do the following: • Click in the highlighted line, under the Where column. • Click the ... button in the Where field to open the SQL edit dialog box. The SQL Editor appears. • Use the SQL Editor to build the foreign key SQL WHERE clause, or type it directly. • Select Number from the drop-down list of key types. 7. Select Enabled. 8. Repeat the steps above for all columns in the foreign key. For the example in the Defining Index Awareness section, the Keys tab should look like this: 2011-04-14300 Creating universes
  • 301. 6.6.8 Source Information The Source Information page is used by universes generated from Data Integrator. The Sources Information tab is shown below: For universes generated from Data Integrator, Technical descriptions and formulas used to calculate target tables from source tables are displayed in this tab. This information is available to Web Intelligence users. You can specify the following types of information in the Source Information tab: • Technical description: Technical descriptions that are available in universes generated from Data Integrator. • Mapping information: The mapping applied within Data Integrator between the source tables and the target tables. The goal is not to provide the expression of the mapping, but to display it as a descriptive comment to inform the user of the source columns used in the object definition. • Data Lineage information: List of source columns involved in a target column. This information facilitates the impact analysis through Data Integrator and Web Intelligence reports. 6.6.9 Using the SQL editor to define an object You can use an SQL editor to help you define the Select statement or a Where clause for an object, and to insert MDX operators and functions for OLAP universe objects. The SQL Editor is a graphical editor that lists tables, columns, objects, operators, and functions in tree views. You can double click any listed structure to insert it into the Select or Where boxes. 2011-04-14301 Creating universes
  • 302. You have the following editing options available in the SQL Editor: DescriptionEdit options All tables and their respective columns that appear in the Structure pane. Note: This option is only available for relational universes and is not available for OLAP universes. Tables and columns All classes and their respective objects that appear in the Uni- verse pane. Classes and objects Operators available to combine SQL structures in a Select statement, or to set conditions in a Where clause. Operators • Database functions, for example number, character, and date functions. • @Functions specific to Business Objects products. Available functions are listed under the Functions entry in the parameters (.PRM) file for the target database. There is a .PRM file for each supported database. They are stored in the Data Access folder in the BusinessObjects path. You can add or modify the available functions by editing the .PRM file. Editing .PRM files is described in the Data Access Guide. Functions When selected, the SQL syntax is displayed for the objects that appear in the Select, or Where boxes. Show object SQL When clicked, parses the syntax. If the syntax is not valid, a message box appears describing the problem. Parse Displays a description of a selected object or function.Description Related Topics • About MDX functions for cube queries • Using the SQL Editor 2011-04-14302 Creating universes
  • 303. 6.6.9.1 About MDX functions for cube queries Use the MDX editor to define your cube queries. When adding a new object or a predefined filter to an OLAP universe, there is a list of supported MDX expressions corresponding to the specific data source connection. A library of available expressions is stored in the .prm connection file. When you open the Edit Properties pane for an object and opend the Edit Select pane for the query, the available expressions are displayed in the Functions pane. To insert the expression in the SELECT or WHERE statement, click in the position in the expression where you want to insert the expression and double-click on the appropriate expression. OLAP Universe MDX Dictionary - List of Functions (PRM file) When adding a new object or a predefined filter to an OLAP universe, an explicit list of MDX functions (mainly member functions) and operators is made available in the object and filter editors for the appropriate OLAP connection (SAP or MSAS) that you can use in the expression. For a description of how to set the connectivity for SAP or mySQL (sap.prm, sqlsrv_as.prm), refer to the Data Access Guide. The available functions and operators depend on the connection type of the universe. This list of functions is provided by the PRM file for each connectivity. It does not provide the whole list of supported functions, only the most frequently used functions. The following MDX operators are available for queries. • Equal • NotEqual • InList • NotInList • Greater • GreaterOrEqual • Less • LessOrEqual • Between • NotBetween • Like • NotLike The list below shows examples of some of the available MDX folder functions when editing a condition. The available functions depend on the underlying database. • Set functions (ADDCALCULATEDMEMBERS, ALLMEMBERS ...) • Statistical/Numeric functions (AGGREGATE, AVG ...) • Navigation/Member functions (ANCESTOR, ASCENDANTS...) • Metadata functions (AXIS, HIERARCHY...) 2011-04-14303 Creating universes
  • 304. 6.6.9.2 Using the SQL Editor You can use the SQL editor to insert SQL and MDX expressions in an objects definition. You can also right-click in the SQL statement to select New @Prompt to insert an @Prompt expression in the SQL or select "Edit @Prompt" to edit an existing @Prompt expression. This opens the @Prompt editor. To use the SQL Editor: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. 2. Click the >> button next to the Select or Where box. The Edit Select Statement or Edit Where Clause dialog box appears. 3. Click in the Select statement or Where clause at the position where you want to add syntax for a structure. If the box is empty, click anywhere in the box. The cursor automatically appears at the top left corner of the box. 4. Expand table nodes to display columns. 5. Double click a column to insert the column definition in the Select statement or Where clause. Tip: To select one or more values from a list of values for a selected column, right click the column and select List of Values. 6. Expand class nodes to display objects. 7. Double click an object to insert a @Select or @Where function in the Select statement or Where clause. These functions direct the current object to use the Select statement or Where clause of a selected object. For more information on using @Functions, see the section Using @Functions in the SQL of an object. 8. Double click an operator to insert the operator in the edit box. 9. Expand function nodes to display available functions. 10. Double click a function to insert the function in the edit box. 11. Click the Parse button to validate the syntax. 12. Click OK. 6.6.10 Defining an object format 2011-04-14304 Creating universes
  • 305. You can define a format for the data values of a selected object. The format applies to the related data values displayed in the cells of Web Intelligence reports. The tabs of the Object Format dialog box include settings for numbers, alignment, font, border, and shading. For example, you can display an integer in a format such as $1,000 rather than the default 1,000.00. Or you can apply a color, such as red, to critical data values. Number, Currency, Scientific and Percentage categories apply only to objects and variables with a numeric type, and the Date/Time category applies only to those with a date type. Information about formats is exported and imported with the universe. You can use the Remove Object Format command to remove any format you defined. Related Topics • About MDX functions for cube queries 6.6.10.1 Modifying an object format To modify an object format: 1. Right click an object 2. Select Object Format from the contextual menu. The Object Format sheet appears. 3. Click a format tab and select or type a format for the object. 4. Click OK. 6.6.10.2 Removing an object format You can remove a format for an object at any time. To remove an object format: • Select an object and then select File > Remove Format. Or • Right click an object and select Remove Format from the contextual menu. 2011-04-14305 Creating universes
  • 306. 6.6.11 Viewing the table used in an object definition You can view the table in the Structure pane that is used in an object definition from the Universe pane. This can be useful to quickly identify a table used by an object when object names do not easily indicate a specific table. 6.6.11.1 Viewing the table used by an object To view the table used by an object: 1. Right click an object in the Universe pane. A contextual menu appears. 2. Select View Associated table from the contextual menu. The associated table is highlighted in the Structure pane. 6.6.12 Defining a dimension A dimension is an object that is a focus of analysis in a query. A dimension maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that are key to a query. For example Country, Sales Person, Products, or Sales Line. Dimension is the default qualification at object creation. You can change the qualification to dimension at any time. To define a dimension object: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. 2. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 3. Select the Dimension radio button in the Qualification group box. 4. Click OK. 2011-04-14306 Creating universes
  • 307. 6.6.13 Defining a detail A detail provides descriptive data about a dimension. A detail is always attached to a dimension. It maps to one or more columns or functions in the database that provide detailed information related to a dimension. You define a detail object by selecting Detail as the qualification for an object, and specifying the dimension attached to the detail. To define a detail object: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. 2. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 3. Select the Detail radio button in the Qualification group box. An Associated Dimension drop down list box appears listing all the dimension objects in the universe. 4. Select a dimension from the drop-down list box. The detail describes a quality or property of this dimension. 5. Click OK. 6.6.14 Defining a measure You can define a measure object by selecting Measure as the qualification for an object. Measures are very flexible objects as they are dynamic. The returned values for a measure object vary depending on the dimension and detail objects used with it in the query. For example; a measure Sales Revenue returns different values when used with a Country object in one query, and then with Region and Country objects in a separate query. 2011-04-14307 Creating universes
  • 308. As measure objects are more complex and powerful than dimensions and details, they are discussed in more depth in the following sections. 6.6.14.1 What type of information does a measure return? A measure object returns numeric information. You create a measure by using aggregate functions. The five most common aggregate functions are the following: • Sum • Count • Average • Minimum • Maximum 6.6.14.2 How are measures different from dimensions and details? Measures differ from dimensions and details in the following ways: • Measures are dynamic • Measures can project aggregates Both these properties are described as follows: 6.6.14.3 How do measures behave dynamically? Returned values for a measure object vary depending on the dimension and detail objects used with the measure object in a query. The following example shows the same Revenue measure object used in two separate queries with different dimensions, resulting in the measure returning different values. 2011-04-14308 Creating universes
  • 309. 6.6.14.4 Measures infer a Group By clause When you run a query that includes a measure object with other types of objects, a Group By clause is automatically inferred in the Select statement. The inference of the Group By clause depends on the following SQL rule: If the Select clause line contains an aggregate, everything outside of that aggregate in the clause must also appear in the Group By clause. Based on this rule, any dimension or detail used in the same query as a measure object will always be included in an automatically inferred Group By clause. To ensure that the query returns correct results, dimension and detail objects must NOT contain aggregates. The following example shows that the Resort, Service Line, and Year dimension objects are all inferred in the Select clause and in the Group By clause. 2011-04-14309 Creating universes
  • 310. Note: If a query contains only measure objects, no Group By clause is inferred. 6.6.14.5 Setting aggregate projection for a measure When you create a measure you must specify the way the aggregate function will be projected onto a report. Returned values for a measure object are aggregated at two levels of the query process: • Query level. Data is aggregated using the inferred SELECT statement. • Microcube to block level. When data is projected from the microcube to the block in a report. This projection function of measures allows local aggregation in the microcube. Note: A microcube is a conceptual way to present the data returned by a query before it is projected onto a report. It represents the returned values held in memory by a Business Objects reporting product. The block level is the 2 dimensional report that a user creates with the returned data. A user can choose to use all, or only some of the data held in the microcube to create a report. A user can also do aggregate functions on the returned values in the microcube (local aggregation) to create new values on a report. The two levels of aggregation fit into the query process as follows: • User creates a query in Web Intelligence. • Web Intelligence infers the SQL from the query and sends a SELECT statement to the target database. • The data is returned to the microcube. This is the first aggregation level. 2011-04-14310 Creating universes
  • 311. • The microcube projects the aggregated data onto the report. Data is split out in the Query pane requiring aggregation to lower levels. This is the second aggregation level. When you initially make a query the result set of the Select statement is stored in the microcube, and all data then held in the microcube is projected into a block. As data is projected from the lowest level held in the microcube no projection aggregation is taking place. However, when you use the Query pane to project only partial data from the microcube, aggregation is required to show measure values at a higher level. For example, in the previous example, if you do not project the year data into the block, the three rows related to Year need to be reduced to one row to show the overall Sales Revenue for that resort, so a sum aggregation is used. You set projection aggregation on the "Properties" page of the "Edit Properties" sheet for a measure (right-click Object > Object Properties > Properties). Projection aggregation is different from SELECT aggregation. Related Topics • Database delegated projection function 6.6.14.5.1 Database delegated projection function In a universe, any measure can hold a projection function (Sum, Min, Max, Count, and Avg). The projection function is used to aggregate the measure locally in Web Intelligence when the number of dimensions displayed in a report is smaller than the number of dimensions in the query result set. Non-additive measures, such as ratio, average, and weight, can only be shown at the same aggregation level as the query result set. Therefore, non-additive measures generally have their projection function set to None in the universe. The projection function Database delegated allows you to delegate the aggregation of a non-additive measure to the database server. These are called smart measures in Web Intelligence. A smart measure has its projection function set to Database delegated on the properties page of the object properties. For more information about how these and other functions are used in Web Intelligence , please refer to section Calculating values with Smart Measures in the document Using Functions, Formulas and Calculations in Web Intelligence. Note: For OLAP universes based on MSAS and Essbase data sources, all measures are created in the universe with the projection function set to Database delegated by default. Note: Please be aware of the following limitation when using a smart measure based on a measure that has aggregate aware set: It is strongly recommended to ensure that the aggregate tables used in the measure definition have consistent data (the aggregate values are accurate regarding detail values) otherwise the smart measures can produce inconsistent data. For example, if a year aggregate table and a day aggregate table are used for a smart measure, the year aggregate table is consistent with the day aggregate table for complete years, but for the current year, the year table can be empty while 2011-04-14311 Creating universes
  • 312. the day table is accurate on a daily basis. In this case, a report that uses smart measures based on the current year and daily tables can give incoherent results. Example: Smart measure In this example, a query contains two dimensions: Country and Region, and three measures: Order Amount, Delivered Amount, and % of Delivered Amount. % DeliveredOrder QuantityAmount DeliveredL01 Region 99.997497,332,680497,318,880Reg1 99.998199,466,536199,463,776Reg2 99.997198,933,072198,927,552Reg3 299.992Sum: The sum for % Delivered is incorrect because it is a summation of the % Delivered column. If this measure has a projection function set to Database delegated in the universe, when the user refreshes the report, Web Intelligence connects to the database to calculate the correct value. % DeliveredOrder QuantityAmount DeliveredL01 Region 99.997497,332,680497,318,880Reg1 99.998199,466,536199,463,776Reg2 99.997198,933,072198,927,552Reg3 299.992Sum: 99.997Total: Note: The some functions such as the ratio function (Average) must be used with caution. When calculating an average from a column, the behavior of this function can be unexpected when it is not configured correctly. 2011-04-14312 Creating universes
  • 313. For example, the SQL function sum(Shop_facts.Margin)/sum(Shop.facts.Quantity_sold) can have unexpected results. When incorrectly configured, it will calculate the average for each cell and return the sum of those averages. To correct this behavior, the parametrization of the function must be performed as follows: 1. Go to the Edit Properties option for the function. 2. For the option Choose how this measure will be projected when aggregated, select the Function Db delegated from the Function dropdown list. 3. Save your changes. Related Topics • Setting aggregate projection for a measure 6.6.14.6 Creating a measure To create a measure: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. 2. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 3. Select the Measure radio button in the Qualification group box. A Function drop down list box appears listing aggregate functions. 4. Select a function. 5. Click OK. Related Topics • Setting aggregate projection for a measure • Database delegated projection function 6.6.15 Defining restrictions for an object A restriction is a condition in SQL that sets criteria to limit the data returned by a query. You define restrictions on objects to limit the data available to users. Your reasons for limiting user access to data should be based on the data requirements of the target user. A user may not need to 2011-04-14313 Creating universes
  • 314. have access to all the values returned by an object. You might also want to restrict user access to certain values for security reasons. You can define two types of restrictions in a universe: DescriptionRestriction type Restriction defined in the Where clause for an object. It cannot be accessed by users and so cannot be overridden in Web Intelligence. Forced Restriction defined in special condition objects that users can choose to use or not use in a query. A condition object is a predefined Where clause that can be inserted into the Select state- ment inferred by objects in the Query pane. Optional Note: In Web Intelligence, users can apply conditions in the Query pane. As the universe designer, you should avoid creating optional restrictions that are simple to apply at the user level. Users can create these conditions themselves when necessary. 6.6.15.1 Defining a Where clause for an object You apply a further restriction on an object by adding a condition in the Where box from the "Definition" page of the "Edit Properties" dialog box for an object. You can define the condition at object creation, or add it to the object definition at any time. In a universe, the Where clause in an SQL statement can be used in two ways to restrict the number of rows that are returned by a query. • A WHERE clause is automatically inferred in the SELECT statement for an object by joins linking tables in the schema. Joins are usually based on equality between tables. They prevent Cartesian products being created by restricting the data returned from joined tables. • You add a condition in the WHERE clause for an object. This is an additional condition to the existing WHERE clause inferred by joins. You define a WHERE clause to further restrict the data that is returned in a query, for example when you want to limit users to queries on a sub-set of the data. Example: Modifying the default (join only) Where clause for an object The report below is an unrestricted block containing data for sales people from all countries: 2011-04-14314 Creating universes
  • 315. The SQL for this query appears below. The Where clause contains only restrictions inferred by the joins between the tables Customer, City, Region, and Sales_Person. SELECT Sales_Person.sales_person, Country.country FROM Sales_Person, Country, Region, City, Customer WHERE ( City.city_id=Customer.city_id ) AND ( City.region_id=Region.region_id ) AND ( Country.country_id=Region.country_id ) AND ( Sales_Person.sales_id=Customer.sales_id ) If you want to restrict users to see only returned values specific to France, you can add a condition to the Where clause of the Country object. The following report shows sales people for France only: The SQL for the query is as follows: SELECT Sales_Person.sales_person, Country.country FROM Sales_Person, Country, Region, City, Customer WHERE ( City.city_id=Customer.city_id ) AND ( City.region_id=Region.region_id ) AND ( Country.country_id=Region.country_id ) AND ( Sales_Person.sales_id=Customer.sales_id ) AND ( Country.country = 'France' ) The WHERE clause has an additional line. This is the restriction that you have added to the WHERE clause of the Country object. Note: Apart from self restricting joins, you should not create a join in a WHERE clause. A join in a WHERE clause is not considered by Detect Contexts (automatic context detection) or aggregate aware incompatibility detection. You should ensure that all joins are visible in the "Structure" pane. This ensures that all joins are available to the universe design tool automatic detection tools. 2011-04-14315 Creating universes
  • 316. 6.6.15.2 Defining a Where clause To define a Where clause: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. 2. Type the syntax directly into the Where clause text box. Or Click the >> Button next to the Where box to open the Where clause editor. 3. Double click columns, objects, operators, or functions that appear in the SQL structures and features lists. Tip: You can select values for a Where clause as follows: Right click a column in the Tables and Columns list. Select View Values. A list of all values for the column appear. You can select one or more values to insert in the Where clause, for example when using the In operator. 4. Click OK to close the editor. The Where clause for the Country object is shown below. It restricts the values for Country to France only. 5. Click OK. 2011-04-14316 Creating universes
  • 317. 6.6.15.3 Problems using Where clauses Where clauses are a useful way to restrict data, but they must be used carefully in a universe to avoid the following problems: SolutionDescriptionProblem Create condition objects for each restriction. If you restrict data for an object by creating several objects, each inferring a Where clause for one part of the data, you can end up with multiple objects with similar names. For example, French clients, US clients, and Japanese clients. This can be confusing for users to see multi- ple objects that appear similar. Proliferation of similar objects. Create condition objects for each restriction. If you have multiple objects infer- ring Where clauses on the same data, it will be difficult for users to construct a logical default hi- erarchy to use for drill down. Difficulty creating hierarchies. • Create condition objects for each restriction. • Name each object appropri- ately. Unless your objects are very precisely named, then a restric- tion may not be obvious to the user simply from the name of the object. A user can see the Where clause by viewing the SQL for a query, but not all users will view the SQL before running a query. Confusion between object name and applied restriction. Create condition objects for each restriction, and ensure that users do a union or synchroniza- tion of the queries at the report level. If two or more similarly restricted objects are included in the same query, the conflict between the Where clauses will result in no data being returned. Conflict between Where claus- es. 2011-04-14317 Creating universes
  • 318. Creating condition objects will solve the multiple objects, hierarchy difficulties, and object name confusion problems. The conflict between Where clauses can be solved by creating condition objects and ensuring that users know that they must join the queries using a UNION or SYNCHRONIZE operator at the report level. Given the potential problems with Where clauses defined in an object definition, you should avoid using them, and where possible create condition objects which, when used correctly can avoid the problems with hard coded Where clauses. Note: Apart from self restricting joins, you should not create a join in a condition object. A join in a condition object is the equivalent to creating a join in a reusable Where clause, and so is not considered by Detect Contexts (automatic context detection) or aggregate aware incompatibility detection. You should ensure that all joins are visible in the Structure pane. This ensures that all joins are available to the automatic detection tools. 6.6.16 Defining condition objects A condition object is a predefined Where clause that can be inserted into the Select statement inferred by objects in the Query pane. Condition objects are stored in the Conditions view of the Universe pane. You access the conditions view by clicking the Conditions radio button at the right bottom of the universe pane. The condition objects for the Beach universe and the Where clause that the Young American condition infers are shown below. 2011-04-14318 Creating universes
  • 319. 6.6.16.1 Advantages and restrictions for using condition objects Using condition objects has the following advantages: • Useful for complex or frequently used conditions. • Gives users the choice of applying the condition. • No need for multiple objects. • Condition objects do not change the view of the classes and objects in the Universe pane. Note: You may need to direct users to use the condition objects view of the Universe pane. The only disadvantages for using condition objects is that you may want to force a condition on users to restrict their access to part of the data set. In this case you need to define a Where clause in the object definition. 6.6.16.2 Condition objects do not solve conflicting Where clauses Using condition objects does not solve the problem of conflicting Where clauses returning an empty data set. If a user runs a query that includes two condition objects that access the same data, the two conditions are combined with the AND operator, so the two conditions are not met, and no data is returned. This problem can be solved at the report level by users creating two queries, one for each condition object and then combining the queries. 6.6.16.3 Mandatory filters There are two types of mandatory filter: • Universe: A universe mandatory filter has no dependency on the class to which it belongs. A universe mandatory filter is included in the query independently of the objects (dimensions, measures, and details) that are included in the query. Most SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse (BW) variables are created as universe mandatory filters when generating OLAP universes on NetWeaver BW. • Class: Class mandatory filters appear only if an item of the class of the object is used in the query. A class mandatory filter is triggered when users: 2011-04-14319 Creating universes
  • 320. • Add an object (dimension, measure, or detail) to the "Result" pane of the "Query Panel" in Web Intelligence. • Add a universe pre-defined filter to the "Filter" pane of the "Query panel", even if no object that belongs to the same class has been selected in the Result pane. • Create a filter with an object (dimension, measure, or detail) that belongs to a class with a mandatory filter. A mandatory filter can have default values or be associated with a list of values. A mandatory filter is hidden and cannot be selected in the "Query Panel" in Web Intelligence. In the universe design tool, when you set a filter as mandatory in the query, then it is hidden automatically and the Show Item(s) command is disabled. If you uncheck the mandatory option, the filter is no longer hidden. The Hide Item(s) command is enabled. An end-user query can include more than one mandatory filter. By default, all mandatory filters are joined in the query with the AND operator. All sub-classes inherit the mandatory filters from the parent class. Note, however: • An object (dimension, measure, detail) that references another object with the @Select function does not inherit the class mandatory filter of the referenced object. • A WHERE clause of an object that references another object where clause with the @Where function does not inherit the class mandatory filter of the referenced object. • A pre-defined filter that references another pre-defined filter or an object where clause with the @Where function does not inherit the class mandatory filter of the referenced object. Example: Mandatory filter in an OLAP universe The following filter (shown in XML code) authenticates the code entered by a user in a prompt. <FILTER KEY="[BCOMUSI]"> <CONDITION OPERATORCONDITION="InList"> <CONSTANT TECH_NAME= "@Prompt('CO_CODE Char User MultiSingle Man Def', 'A','Company codeLov[BCOMUSI]Base', multi,primary_key)"/> </CONDITION> </FILTER> Related Topics • Mandatory filters examples • Mandatory filters and list of values 6.6.16.3.1 Mandatory filters examples The following examples show how universe mandatory filters can be used: To verify the Login entered by a user with a Login stored in a table: 1 = (Select 1 from Club.dbo.Login where Login = @Variable('BOUSER') AND Password = @Prompt('Password?','A',,mono,free) ) 2011-04-14320 Creating universes
  • 321. To limit the use of a universe to hours between 9 am and 6 pm: 1 = (select 1 where datepart(HH,getdate()) between 9 and 18) The following is an example of a class mandatory filter: Defined in a class containing Country/Region/City/Customer, limit the query to sales information for a particular period. Prompt the user for the period. Club.dbo.Customer.cust_id in (Select cust_id from Club.dbo.Sales where @Select(SalesYear) in @Prompt('Sales Periods?','A', 'SalesYear',multi,constrained)) Related Topics • Mandatory filters 6.6.16.4 Mandatory filters and list of values Mandatory filters can be associated with a list of values. To associate a list of values, you must explicitly select the list of value options in the object properties page of the object to which the filter applies. A universe mandatory filter can be associated with a cascading list of values. A class mandatory filter can be associated with a cascading list of values if at least one object in the corresponding class is part of the cascading list of values. This is true even if the cascading list of values groups objects from different classes. Recommendations Generate mandatory filters only on the top level of a cascading list of values. Do not associate a cascading list of values with a mandatory filter that contains a prompt. Web Intelligence does not support prompts in cascading lists of values. 6.6.16.5 Creating a condition object To create a condition object: 1. Click the Conditions radio button at the bottom right of the "Universe" pane. The "Conditions" view of the "Universe" pane appears. It contains a tree view of all the classes in the universe. 2. Right-click a class and select Insert Condition from the contextual menu. 2011-04-14321 Creating universes
  • 322. Or Click a class and click the Insert Condition button. An "Edit Properties" dialog box appears. A default name appears in the Name box. The Where box is empty. 3. Type a name for the condition. 4. Type the WHERE clause syntax directly into the Where clause box. Or Click the >> button next to the Where clause box to open the "Where" clause editor. 5. Double-click columns, objects, operators, or functions that appear in the "SQL structures" and "features" lists. 6. Click OK to close the editor. The definition for a condition called Young American is shown below. It restricts the returned values to American customers less than or equal to 30 years old. 7. Click Parse to verify the syntax. 8. To define the filter as a compulsory filter, select the Compulsory filter check box. By default, a compulsory filter applies to the class, and does not apply to a List of Values. 9. Select the radio button to define the compulsory filter as applying to the class or to the universe. 10. To apply the compulsory filter to a List of Values, select the Apply on List of Values check box. 11. Click OK. The new condition object appears in the "Conditions" view of the "Universe" pane. Note: To edit the condition object using the predefined filter editor, click >>. 2011-04-14322 Creating universes
  • 323. Related Topics • Mandatory filters • Mandatory filters and list of values • Predefined conditions in OLAP universes • Optional prompts in OLAP universes 6.6.16.6 Using condition objects in the same query If you have two condition objects defined for the same object, and both are used in the same query, no data is returned, as the two WHERE clauses create a false condition. Where possible you should avoid hard coding WHERE clauses in the definition of an object, but also when you use condition objects, users need to be aware of the potential problems. Users can solve the problem of returning an empty data set by joining two queries, one query for each condition object. Note: To avoid Web Intelligence users combining two condition objects in the same query, you can include in the description for a condition object 'X' that it should not be used with object 'Y'. 6.6.16.7 Why do multiple Where clauses return an empty data set? When you add a Where clause to the definition of an object, the restriction is added to the restrictions set by the joins using the AND operator. If you combine two objects in a query, both applying a restriction on the same data set, then the two Where clauses are combined in successive AND clauses. The result of such a query is that no data will satisfy both conditions, and no data is returned. 2011-04-14323 Creating universes
  • 324. For example, a user wants to know the services that are available at the Bahamas and Hawaiian Club hotel resorts. The following query is run using the condition objects for Bahamas resort and Hawaiian Resort: The SQL for this query is as follows: SELECT Service.service, Resort.resort FROM Service, Resort, Service_Line WHERE ( Resort.resort_id=Ser vice_Line.resort_id ) AND ( Service.sl_id=Service_Line.sl_id ) AND ( ( Resort.resort = 'Bahamas Beach' ) AND ( Resort.resort = 'Hawaiian Club' )) The two Where clause restrictions are combined in AND clauses at the end of the Where clause. When the query is run, the two restrictions on country cannot be met in the same query, so no data is returned. A message box appears informing you that there is no data to fetch. Creating two queries to combine restrictions Users can solve the problem of using two condition objects in the same query by running two queries, one for each Where clause, and using the UNION operator to combine the results. 6.6.17 Using self restricting joins to apply restrictions You can use self restricting joins to restrict data to one or another column in a table, based on a flag which is used to switch between the two columns. A flag is a third column whose values determine which one of the two alternate columns is used in a query. See the section Self restricting joins for more information on creating and using self restricting joins. 6.6.18 Applying a restriction by inferring multiple tables You can limit the data returned for an object to values from the table inferred by the object that also match values in another table. For example, an object called Country of Origin infers the table Country. The object Country of Origin returns the following data: 2011-04-14324 Creating universes
  • 325. If you want to use the object Country origin under a class Sales_Person, so that it only returns the countries where sales people are based, you can rename the object to Sales people countries and restrict the table Country to return only values for countries of Sales people from the Sales_Person table. The Sales people countries object has the following SQL: SELECT Country.country FROM Country, Sales_Person, Customer, City, Region WHERE ( City.city_id=Cus tomer.city_id ) AND ( City.region_id=Region.region_id ) AND ( Country.country_id=Region.country_id ) AND ( Sales_Person.sales_id=Customer.sales_id ) The Sales people countries object returns the following data: You apply the restriction by specifying that when the Country object is used in a query, the Sales_Person table must also be inferred in the From clause of the Select statement. Country under the Sales_Person class then only returns countries in which sales people are based. You apply the restriction by using the Tables button in the object definition sheet. The Country table must be joined to the Sales_Person table by intermediary joins using only equi-joins. Note: If you make any changes to the SQL for an object that has a table restriction defined in its Select statement, then the universe design tool automatically redetermines which tables are needed by the object's Select statement and Where clause. You are not notified if the table restriction is over ridden in the tables inferred by the object. 6.6.18.1 Inferring multiple tables to apply a condition To infer multiple tables that apply a condition for an object: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box for the object appears. 2. Click the Tables button. A list of tables in the universe appears. 3. Select one or more tables that you want the object to infer in addition to the current table. You can select multiple tables by holding down CTRL and clicking table names in the list. The tables Country and Sales_Person are selected below: 2011-04-14325 Creating universes
  • 326. 4. Click OK in each dialog box. 5. Run queries in Web Intelligence to test the table restriction. 6.6.18.2 When do you use each method to apply a restriction? You can use the following guidelines to set restrictions in a universe: • Avoid using Where clauses in object definitions. If you need to use a Where clause, you should be aware of the potential problems using multiple objects, and conflicting Where clauses. • Use Condition Objects when you want to assist users by providing optional pre-defined Conditions, avoiding multiple objects and changes to the classes and objects view of the Universe pane. • Use Self-Restricting Joins to apply restrictions to tables when you want the restriction to apply irrespective of where the table is used in the SQL. This method is ideal when a table uses a flag to switch between two or more domains. • Use Additional Joins when a lookup table serves more than one purpose in the universe. 6.6.19 Concatenating objects A concatenated object is a combination of two existing objects. For example, you create an object Full Name, which is a concatenation of the objects Last Name and First Name in the Customer class. 2011-04-14326 Creating universes
  • 327. 6.6.19.1 Creating a concatenated object To create a concatenated object: 1. Create an object. For example, you create a new object Full Name in the Customer class. You should also type a description for the object such as "This object is a concatenation of the customer's first and last name." 2. Double click the object. The Edit Properties dialog box appears. 3. Type the syntax for the concatenated object in the Select box. For example you type the following syntax for the Full Name object (MS Access syntax): rtrim (Customer.first_name + ' ' + Customer.last_name) Where rtrim is a function that removes the blank space at the end of a character string, and the two quotes are used to insert a space between the first and last name. 2011-04-14327 Creating universes
  • 328. Note: You can also click the Edit button to open the SQL Editor. You can use the graphic tools in the editor to help you specify the SQL syntax for the object. For more information on this editor, refer to the Designing a Schema chapter. 4. Click OK in each of the dialog boxes. When you run a query on the Full Name object, the full names are returned, listed in aphabetical order of the first name. 6.7 Defining hierarchies You create object hierarchies to allow users to perform multidimensional analysis. 6.7.1 What is multidimensional analysis? Multidimensional analysis is the analysis of dimension objects organized in meaningful hierarchies. Multidimensional analysis allows users to observe data from various viewpoints. This enables them to spot trends or exceptions in the data. A hierarchy is an ordered series of related dimensions. An example of a hierarchy is Geography, which may group dimensions such as Country, Region, and City. 2011-04-14328 Creating universes
  • 329. In Web Intelligence you can use drill up or down to perform multi dimensional analysis. 6.7.1.1 Drill A user can use drill to navigate through hierarchical levels of detail. Users can "drill up" or "drill down" on a hierarchy. For example, a manager wants to track reservation data over time. As the universe designer, you could set up a Reservation Time hierarchy to include the dimensions Reservation Year, Reservation Quarter, Reservation Month, and Reservation Date. From a higher level of aggregation for example Reservation Quarter, the manager can drill down to a more detailed level such as Reservation Month or ReservationDate. He or she could also drill up from Reservation Quarter to Reservation Year to see a more summarized view of the data. 6.7.2 How to identify a hierarchy Hierarchies can take different forms. Examples of classic hierarchies include: • Geography: Continent Country Region City • Products: Category Brand Product • Time: Year Quarter Month Week Day It is also possible for a hierarchy to be "mixed" such as the following: Geography/Products: Continent Country Category Brand Product The hierarchies implicit in the data are dependant on the nature of the data and the way it has been stored in the database. You may need to analyze the data very carefully in order to find the hierarchies in your specific system that are best suited to the analysis requirements of your user group. While there are no precise rules for determining where the hierarchies in the data lie, the one-to-many (1-N) relationships inherent in the database structure can indicate the existence of hierarchies. In the schema below, the one-to-many relationships between the tables imply a geographical hierarchy. 2011-04-14329 Creating universes
  • 330. 6.7.3 Setting up hierarchies By default, the universe design tool provides a set of default hierarchies for multidimensional analysis. These are the classes and the objects arranged in the order that they appear in the Universe pane. When you create objects, you should organize them hierarchically, to ensure that default hierarchies have a sense to users. You often need to create customized hierarchies that include objects from different classes. In these cases you need to create a new hierarchy. You can view default, and create new hierarchies from the "Hierarchies Editor". This is a graphic editor that allows you to manage the hierarchies in the universe. Note: When you define a custom hierarchy, the default hierarchies are no longer active, and are not available to the end-user. If you want to make them active you must explicitly select them in the "Hierarchies Editor" and add them to the custom hierarchy list. 6.7.3.1 Viewing hierarchies You can view hierarchies as follows: 6.7.3.1.1 To view hierarchies in the universe 1. Select Tools > Hierarchies. Or Click the Hierarchies button. The Hierarchies editor appears. The universe design tool represents hierarchies with a folder symbol, and dimensions with a cube symbol. 2011-04-14330 Creating universes
  • 331. The left pane lists all the classes that contain dimension objects in the active universe. The right pane shows all the customized hierarchies that you create. 2. Click a hierarchy node (the + sign) to see the dimensions organized hierarchically. 3. Click Cancel. 6.7.3.2 Setting up the hierarchies You create a new hierarchy by creating a new folder in the Custom Hierarchies pane, then adding the appropriate dimensions in a hierarchical order. You can delete a hierarchy or a dimension in a hierarchy by selecting the hierarchy or dimension and clicking the Remove button. 6.7.3.2.1 To create a new hierarchy 1. From the Hierarchies editor, click the New button. Or From the Hierarchies editor, select a class in the left pane and drag it over to the right pane. A folder representing the hierarchy appears in the right pane. 2. Type a name for the hierarchy. 3. Press RETURN to apply the name. 2011-04-14331 Creating universes
  • 332. 4. Select the new hierarchy. The hierarchy is highlighted. 5. Expand a default hierarchy node in the left pane. This is the hierarchy that contains dimensions that you want to add to the new custom hierarchy. 6. Click a dimension. To select a series of dimensions, hold down CTRL and click each dimension. One or more dimensions are highlighted. 7. Click the Add button. One or more dimensions appear in the right pane, under the selected hierarchy. Note: The Unused objects only check box is a useful way to view only the dimension objects that you have not yet selected for inclusion in a hierarchy. 6.7.3.3 Rearranging the order of dimensions and hierarchies You can rearrange the order in which the dimension objects appear within a hierarchy. To move an object, click it, and then click the Move Up or Move Down button. You can also re-arrange the order of hierarchies in the same way. You can also move a dimension object or a hierarchy by drag and drop. Examples of hierarchies and dimension objects are shown below: 2011-04-14332 Creating universes
  • 333. In the Hierarchies Editor above, three customized hierarchies have been set up: Time Period, Store and Products. The Products Hierarchy consists of the following dimensions: Lines, Category, SKU desc, Color and Unit Price MSRP. 6.8 Using cascading lists of values for hierarchies You can associate a default or custom hierarchy with lists of values, called Cascading lists of values. Note: A list of values (LOV) is a list that contains the data values associated with an object. Lists of values are fully described in the section Using lists of values. A cascading list of values is a sequence of lists of values associated with a hierarchy in a universe. Prompts are defined for each hierarchy level to return a list of values for the level. When a report containing a hierarchy associated with a cascading list of values is refreshed, the hierarchy is displayed, and you are prompted to choose a level, and select one or more values from the list of values, before the query is run. For example; Reservation quarter is associated with a Year hierarchy. When Reservation quarter month is used in a query, the Year hierarchy is displayed, and the user is prompted to select a year for the quarter before running the query. 2011-04-14333 Creating universes
  • 334. 6.8.1 Creating a cascading list of values You can create a cascading list of values for a default hierarchy or a custom hierarchy. A .LOV file is created for each level. When a query is run, only the LOV for a prompted hierarchy level is returned. Note: This iterative use of lists of values for a hierarchy is different from creating a hierarchy for a list of values, where all the lists of values for all levels of hierarchy are returned in the microcube. When cascading lists of values are used, no LOV is returned in the microcube until the prompt for the level is filled, and only the LOV for the level is returned. 6.8.1.1 To create a cascading list of values 1. Select Tools > Lists of Values > Create cascading lists of values. The "Create Cascading List of Values" dialog box appears. You have the following options: 2011-04-14334 Creating universes
  • 335. DescriptionCascading LOV option When one is selected, the corresponding default or custom hierarchies defined in the universe appear in the "Available" pane. See the section Setting up hierarchies for more information on these hierarchy types. Default Hierarchies Custom Hierarchies When selected, the hierarchy is displayed in a tree view in the "Query Panel". This facilitates navigation through a hierarchy. When a level is clicked, the list of values appears in a pane to the right of the "Query Panel". Hierarchical View The hierarchy level for a dimension.Object The text that appears in the prompt for the level list of values. Prompt text 2. Click the Default Hierarchies or Custom Hierarchies radio button. The corresponding list of hierarchies available in the universe appears. 3. Click a class or expand a class and select one or more objects. 4. Click the right head arrow. All the objects in the class appear in the Object list. Or The selected objects appear in the "Object" list. 2011-04-14335 Creating universes
  • 336. 5. Type a prompt text for each object. 6. If you want to change the position of an object in the "Cascading List of Values" list, click the object and use the up and down arrows to move it up or down the list. If you want to remove an object, click the object and click the left arrow. 7. Select or clear the Hierarchical View check box. 8. Click Generate LOVs. The "Create Cascading List of Values" dialog box is removed. A LOV is created for each level of the cascading lists of values. Each .LOV file is saved in the universe sub folder on the file system, for example; C:Documents and Settings<user>Application DataBusiness Ob jectsBusiness Objects 12.0Universes<CMS name>beachXI3.0. Note: For information on editing, exporting to the CMS, and creating lists of values for individual objects, see the section Using lists of values. 6.9 Using lists of values A list of values is a list that contains the data values associated with an object. A list of values can contain data from two types of data source: DescriptionList of values data source When you create an object, the universe design tool automatically associates a list of values with the object. The list of values is not created until a user, or you the designer, choose to display a list of values for the object in the Query pane. A SELECT DISTINCT query is then run against the column or columns inferred by the object. The returned data is stored in a file with a.LOV extension in the universe sub folder created under the same folder that stores the universe file.The.LOV file is then used as the source for values for the list. Database file 2011-04-14336 Creating universes
  • 337. DescriptionList of values data source Personal data, for example a text file, or an Excel file can be associated with a list of values. A list of values that is based on an external file is fixed. You cannot have a dynamic link with an external file. You must refresh the.LOV file if your external file has changed. External file 6.9.1 How is a list of values used? In Web Intelligence , a user can create a query in the "Query Pane" using the operand Show list of values to apply to an object when applying a condition. Note: A .LOV file is also created whenever any condition is applied to an object in the "Query Pane" that requires a restriction on the column values inferred by the object. The list of values for an object appears showing values available for the object, allowing the user to choose the terms for the condition. The first time a list of values is used, it is saved as a .LOV file in the universe sub folder on the file system. This allows the SELECT DISTINCT query to be run only once for an object. This folder also stores the .LOV files created in the universe design tool which are used to restrict the list of values returned for objects for which the designer wants to control access to the data. Example: Using a list of values for Country An object called Country has the following Select clause definition: COUNTRY.COUNTRY_NAME. The default list of values associated with the object contains all the distinct country names in the COUNTRY_NAME column. This list is returned when the object Country is used in a condition in a query. A user that wants to limit the values in a query to France only, can select France from the following list that shows all country values in the Country table for the condition: 2011-04-14337 Creating universes
  • 338. When France is selected from the list, the condition appears as follows in the "Conditions" pane of the "Query Pane": The query only returns values for France. 6.9.2 Defining how a list of values is used with an object When you create a dimension or detail object in the universe design tool, it is automatically assigned an associated list of values. This list does not physically exist when you create an object, but by default, the object has the ability to query the database to return a list of its values when used in the Query pane. Note: No default list of values is assigned to measure objects. When a condition is first placed on an object in the Query pane that requires a list of values to be displayed in the universe design tool, a SELECT DISTINCT statement is run against the appropriate columns inferred by the object, and the list of values is returned. 2011-04-14338 Creating universes
  • 339. A.LOV file is automatically created in the universe subfolder to hold the list values. The next time that the list of values is required for the object in the universe design tool, the values are returned from the.LOV file and not from the database. 6.9.2.1 The designer's role in controlling lists of values As the universe designer, you can define how the data is presented in the list, and define restrictions on the amount and type of data returned to the list. You can set the properties for an object to determine the following actions for a list of values: • If a list of values is associated with an object. • When the list is refreshed. • Define a query that sets conditions on the SELECT DISTINCT query that an object uses to return a list of values. You save this query in the properties of an object. • Display list values either as a simple list, or as an object hierarchy. • If the list is based on column values, or values from an external file, for example an Excel spreadsheet. You can also create a permanent list for values for an object and export this list to the repository. This.LOV file is then always used as the list of values for that object. It is not updated. 6.9.3 List of values properties and options You can define the following object properties which allow you to control how a list of values for an object is used in Web Intelligence. DescriptionProperty • When selected, allows a list of values to be associated with the object. It is selected by default. • When cleared, no list of values is associated with the object. • Selected by default for dimensions and details. Not selected for measures. Associate a List of Values Name of the .LOV file that stores the returned list data. Limited to 8 characters. List name 2011-04-14339 Creating universes
  • 340. DescriptionProperty • When selected, users can edit the list of values file in Web Intelli- gence. • When cleared, the user cannot edit the list. Note: This does not apply to personal data files such as Excel spread- sheets. These are not exported to the repository. They remain on a local machine. A user can edit a local file, or change the target list of values for another local data file. The purpose of a list of values is usually to limit the set of available values to a user. If they can edit a list, you no longer have control over the values they choose. Normally, if you are not using a per- sonal data file as a list of values source, you clear this option to ensure that users do not edit lists of values. Allow users to edit this List of Values • When selected, the list data is refreshed each time the list of values for an object is displayed in the Query pane. This can have an effect on performance each time the .LOV is refreshed. This option does not apply to Web Intelligence reports. • When cleared, the list is refreshed only once at the start of a user logon session. If the list contains values that regularly change, then you can select this option, but you should take into account the effect on perfor- mance. If the list contents are stable, then you should clear this option. Automatic refresh before use (BusinessObjects only) Select the Hierarchical Display property to display the cascading list of values as a hierarchy in Web Intelligence. Hierarchical Display • When selected, the .LOV file associated with the object is exported with the universe to the repository. • You must create the list of values that is associated with the object for it to be exported. This list is saved as a .LOV file. • When cleared, a .LOV file for the object is not exported to the repository. Select this option if you customize this list regularly. This allows your modifications to be exported and imported with the universe. Export with universe 2011-04-14340 Creating universes
  • 341. DescriptionProperty Select the Delegate search property to allow Web Intelligence users to limit the number of values returned in the list of values. When the Delegate search property is selected, Web Intelligence presents an empty list of values box to the user at query run time. The user enters a value to define search criteria to filter the list of values. Many data sources support wildcard characters to facilitate search on the database. The following wildcards are supported in Web Intelli- gence: Matches any number of characters, even zero charac- ters * Matches exactly one character? Escapes the next character allowing you to search for a wildcard character The Delegate search option has the following restrictions: • Delegate Search is not supported for cascading list of values. • Delegate Search can be activated only for list of values on objects that are type character. • Delegate Search cannot be activated when custom SQL is entered for the list of values. • Delegate Search cannot be activated when the Hierarchical Display option for list of values is used. Delegate search You can edit, display, or assign the default name to a list of values by clicking the following buttons: DescriptionOption Restores default name assigned to the .LOV file at object creation.Restore Default Allows you to edit the values displayed in the list. You can use the editor to restrict the values displayed in the list when used in the Query pane. Edit 2011-04-14341 Creating universes
  • 342. DescriptionOption Displays the list of values for the object. When you want to create a permanent list to be exported with the universe to the repository, you must click Display to create the .LOV file. You can then edit the file. Display 6.9.3.1 Defining properties and options for a List of Values To define properties and options for a list of values (.LOV) file: 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. 2. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 3. Select or clear check boxes in the list of values group box at the bottom of the page. 4. Type a name for the associated .LOV file in the List Name box. 5. Click the Edit button if you want to define restrictions on the list values 6. Use the Query pane to create a query on the list data. 7. Click the Display button to see the list of values. When you click this button, a SELECT DISTINCT query is run against the columns inferred by the object in the database. This is the same method used in the reporting products to create the .LOV file for the object. 8. Click OK. 6.9.3.2 Viewing a list of values associated with an object In the universe design tool, you can view the list of values associated with an object. When you view a list of values, a default .LOV file is automatically created in the User Docs directory to hold the returned data. By default, when you view a list of values you automatically create a .LOV file. You can view a list of values in a list format, or as an object hierarchy. To view a list of values: 2011-04-14342 Creating universes
  • 343. 1. Double click an object. The Edit Properties dialog box opens to the Definition page. 2. Click the Properties tab. The Properties page appears. 3. Click the Display button. The List of Values dialog box displays all the possible data values associated with the object. 4. Click Cancel. 6.9.3.3 Creating a list of values You create a list of values as follows: 1. View the list of values for an object. 2. Click OK. The universe design tool stores list of values (.LOV) files in a universe subfolder in the same folder that contains the universe file. The name of the subfolder is the same as the universe that contains the object used to create the .LOV. Once you have created the .LOV file, you can edit the list to restrict the data that is returned to the .LOV file, or modify how the data is presented in the list. 2011-04-14343 Creating