F1 Drainage fundamentals

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Jason Pick, Olds College
Turfgrass Management, Level I

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F1 Drainage fundamentals

  1. 1. Drainage Fundamentals <br />1<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  2. 2. Module A: Fundamentals<br />2<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  3. 3. Soil Structure And Pore Space<br />3<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  4. 4. Drainage occurs when:<br />4<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  5. 5. Pore spaces<br />5<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  6. 6. Factors affecting Water intake and retention <br />6<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  7. 7. Infiltration rate <br />7<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  8. 8. Saturation<br />8<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  9. 9. Field Capacity<br />9<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  10. 10. Water Adhesion to Soil particles<br />10<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  11. 11. Wilting point<br />11<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  12. 12. Surface Tension<br />12<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  13. 13. Gravity<br />13<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  14. 14. Capillary Fringe<br />14<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  15. 15. Capillary Fringe<br />15<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  16. 16. Capillary action<br />16<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  18. 18. Capillary Action<br />18<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  19. 19. Lateral movement of water in soils<br />19<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  21. 21. Rising water table<br />21<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  22. 22. To alleviate rising water table (springs)<br />22<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  23. 23. Piezometer<br />23<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  24. 24. Natural Deep drainage<br />24<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  25. 25. Free Water vs capillary fringe<br />25<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  26. 26. Drainage Fundamentals <br />26<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  27. 27. Perched Water table<br />27<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  28. 28. How does a perched water table work?<br />28<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  29. 29. Height of Perched table <br />29<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  30. 30. Perched Heights<br />30<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  31. 31. Perched Water Table<br />31<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  32. 32. Perched water table<br />32<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  33. 33. Capillary fringe: Air entry point<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Capillary Fringe:<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Capillary fringe<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Movement into secondary profile<br />36<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  37. 37. Saturated Free water zone<br />37<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  38. 38. Saturated Free water zone<br />38<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  39. 39. Hydraulic conductivity: USGA spec( SHC)<br />39<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  40. 40. Hydraulic conductivity: testing<br />40<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  41. 41. Hydraulic Conductivity: Soil Types<br />41<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  42. 42. Hydraulic conductivity:<br />42<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  43. 43. Tube experiment: Moisture release curve<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />43<br />
  44. 44. Hooghouts: Defined terms<br />D: <br />= drainage rate (“/hr) of saturated free water zone at midpoint<br />44<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  45. 45. Hooghouts Formula:<br />K:<br />Saturated hydraulic conductivity of top soil in inches/hr<br />45<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  46. 46. Hooghouts Formula<br />H² is equivalent to Ha X Hb<br />Ha = height of saturated free water zone,<br />Hb = height of saturated free water zone that water must flow through<br />46<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  47. 47. Hooghouts Formula<br />S² is equivalent to Sa X Sb<br />Sa = is the distance between drains<br />Sb =distance between drains where component of the area water is collected<br />47<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  48. 48. Hooghouts formula: Calculating rate of drainage at midpoint<br />Calculations to reduce height of free water BETWEEN drains<br />48<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  49. 49. Hydraulic conductivity<br />A description of various soils and conductivities<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />49<br />
  50. 50. Silt/Clay Loam<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />50<br />
  51. 51. Sandy Loam<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />51<br />
  52. 52. Hydraulic Conductivity .2”/hr(no surface drainage)<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />52<br />
  53. 53. Slow draining base(no surface drainage)<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />53<br />
  54. 54. Hydraulic conductivity .8”/hr(no surface drainage)<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />54<br />
  55. 55. Hydraulic conductivity 2”/hr(no surface drainage)<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />55<br />
  56. 56. Summary: What does this tell us?<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />56<br />
  57. 57. Summary<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />57<br />
  58. 58. Summary: Problem solving HC<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />58<br />
  59. 59. Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />59<br />
  60. 60. Designing subsoil drains<br />60<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  61. 61. Discharge area: Subsoil drains<br />Decide where to discharge the water<br />Design UP from discharge point (minimum 1:70)<br />Have uniform fall on all pipes<br />61<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  62. 62. Discharge area: Subsoil drains<br />Open drain<br />Creek<br />Be aware what will happen during flooding<br />Discharge must be above level<br />Design the drain FROM the discharge point upward<br />Uniform fall on all pipes<br />62<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  63. 63. Subsoil drain pattern:<br />Favoured design<br />30-45% angle<br />Small laterals into larger main<br />Flexible corrugated tile<br />Joints are offset from each other<br />63<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  64. 64. Determining pipe sizing<br />Manufacturers supply max flow performance<br />As pipe length increases, friction loss increases<br />Main runs with the slope<br />Laterals run across slope<br />64<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  65. 65. A fall of .5ft in 49.5 ft is 1:99<br />Efficient and simple<br />Laterals same distance apart<br />Uniform drainage for the whole area<br />65<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  66. 66. Calculating pipe required<br />66<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  67. 67. How to size pipe<br />Assume area of 1ac (43,560ft sq)<br />Uniform slope of 1:70, down 295 ft. no cross fall<br />Subsoil drains spaced at 6.6ft, topsoil at 12” HC 2”/hr<br />Rainfall event of 2”/hr<br />67<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  68. 68. Example of racetrack drainage<br />68<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  69. 69. Sizing drains<br />High traffic area with subtle drain cover<br />Off back of green<br />Realistic sizing<br />No additional labor for trimming/maintenance<br />69<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  70. 70. Principles of Subsoil Drainage <br />Migration<br />Filter material<br />Installation techniques<br />70<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  71. 71. Choosing the right filter material<br />Filter material should bemade on the basis of type or sand that will surround it<br />If the drain is in a fine soil, filter should be a coarse river sand-NOT GRAVEL!<br />71<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  72. 72. Migration of particles<br />Significant amount of fines enter the surrounding soil<br />THIS moves fines into the pipe<br />Quickly collapses the drain, often during first few waterings<br />72<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  73. 73. Particle migration into coarser gravels<br />Common mistakes:<br />Surround pipe with coarse gravel or crush<br />Pea gravel ¼ - 3/8” often specified<br />Overall, these gravels are too large!!<br />73<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  74. 74. Filter material entering pipe <br />We are too worried about filter material entering the drain pipe<br />If gravel is used, smaller particles will migrate into the large pores<br />74<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  75. 75. When to use gravel filter material<br />75<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  76. 76. Clean filter material<br />Make sure no fines in the filter material<br />Use HC of the filter material >100”/hr (sand withought fines)<br />Misconception: Sand will not enter drain pipe except from above. Surface area of slots is less that 1% of pipe surface area.<br />76<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  77. 77. Bridging factor<br />If gravel is too coarse, bridging factor will be too high<br />Using finer filter material prevents migration of particles from surrounding soil.<br />77<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  78. 78. Diameter rating<br />When installing subsoil drains, in any situation other than USGA sand, use clean washed sand. NOT pea gravel, or any gravel with a D15 less than 1mm. <br />D15 means 15% of the filler is larger than the specified size, 85% spec.<br />78<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  79. 79. Installing subsoil drains<br />Cut into the area below the soil to be drained<br />Make sure sides are vertical<br />Avoid subsoil contamination<br />Provide uniform slope<br />79<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  80. 80. Installing subsoil drains<br />Clean vertical trenches<br />2” of sand at bottom of trench<br />Even slope<br />Correct high/low points <br />Lay slits on BOTTOM of trench<br />*water enters pipe from the bottom<br />80<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  81. 81. Installing subsoil drains<br />Cover the pipe with filter sand 2” surrounding <br />Firm down/light rolling<br />Use commercial joints<br />81<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  82. 82. Geofabrics: Never wrap pipes<br />82<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  83. 83. Types of pipes<br />Flexible slotted (agricultural)<br />2-8” diameter<br />Commonly used is 4” outer diameter<br />Slot size vary<br />These pipes self-clean, depositing fines though the ridges<br />This process will not block pipes<br />83<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  84. 84. Types of drain pipes<br />84<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />
  85. 85. Common drainage mistakes<br />Incorrect backfill material<br />Incorrect pipe connectors<br />Misunderstanding of surface and subsurface drainage<br />85<br />Practical Drainage for Sportsturf, Golf, and Horticulture. Keith McIntyre, Brent Jakobsen, Ann Arbor Press, 2000<br />

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