Syllabus outline1. Washing machine equipments andprocessing conditions2. Finishing of jeans with special emphasison various types of jeans washing3. Environment pollution, eco-friendlinessin washing and finishing
WASHING MACHINE A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, orwasher) is a machine designed to wash laundry, such asclothing, towels and sheets. The term is mostly applied only to machines that usewater as the primary cleaning solution, as opposed to drycleaning or even ultrasonic cleaners. To clean clothing it is necessary to rub and flex the cloth tobreak apart solids and help the soap penetrate. At first this was done by pounding or rubbing the clothingwith rocks in a river, and later developed into thecorrugated wash board.
WASHING MACHINE – Old Process The earliest machines were often hand-operated. Initially the machines were constructed from wood, later machines made of metal,permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, to keep the water warm. Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was originally aseparate process. The wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water. To help reduce this labor, the wringer/mangle was developed, which uses tworollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of the clothing. Each piece of clothing would be fed through the wringer separately. The wringers were hand-operated, but were later became powered attachmentabove the washer tub. The extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused.
WASHING MACHINE-Modern Process The modern process of water removal by spinning come intouse, after electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source. Originally done in a separate device known as an extractor. A load of washed clothing would be transferred from the washtub to the extractor basket, and the water spun out. These extractors were often dangerous to use becauseunevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shakeviolently.
Contd….. Many efforts have been made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads. The spinning basket was mounted on a free-floating shock-absorbing frameto absorb minor imbalances. A bump switch was present to detect severe movement and stop themachine so that the load can be manually redistributed. Many modern machines are equipped with a sealed ring of liquid thatworks to counteract any imbalances. Automatic washer(washer/extractor) combines the features of these twodevices into a single machine, plus the ability to fill and drain water byitself. Washing and drying are done in the same machine, in latest automaticmachines.
TOP LOADING WASHING M/C The top-loading design or V-axis clothes washer is popular inAustralia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States and LatinAmerica. Places the clothes in a vertically-mounted perforated basket thatis contained within a water-retaining tub, with a propeller-likeagitator in the center of the bottom of the basket. Clothes are loaded through the top of the machine, which iscovered with a hinged door. During the wash cycle, the outer tub is filled with water,sufficient to suspend the clothing freely in the basket. The movement of the agitator pulls the clothing in the centertowards the agitator paddles.
TOP LOADING WASHING M/C Top-loaders are not well-suited to cleaning large objects such as pillowsor sleeping bags. It is due to the tendency for them to just float on the surface of the waterwithout circulating. The aggressive agitator action can damage delicate fabrics. Top-loading washers are mechanically more complex than front-loadingmachines. Top-loading washers do not suffer from continued maintenanceproblems. During the spin-cycle, a top-loading tub is free to move about, inside thecabinet of the machine. It uses a lip (cover) around the top of the inner basket and outer tub tokeep the spinning water and clothing from spraying-out over the edge.
FRONT-LOADING WASHING M/C The front-loading design or H-axis clothes washer, is morepopular in Europe and the Middle East. Mounts the inner basket and outer tub horizontally, andloading is through a door at the front of the machine. The door often but not always contains a window. Agitation is supplied by the back-and-forth rotation of thecylinder and by gravity.
FRONT-LOADING WASHING M/C The clothes are lifted up by paddles on the inside wall of thedrum and then dropped. This motion flexes the weave of the fabric and forces water anddetergent solution through the clothes load. As the wash-action does not require the clothing be freelysuspended in water, only sufficient water is needed to moistenthe fabric. As less water is required, front-loaders use less soap. The aggressive dropping and folding action of the tumbling caneasily produce large amounts of foam. Front-loading washers are mechanically simple compared to top-loaders.
FRONT-LOADING WASHING M/C Front-load washers suffer from their own technical problems,due to the drum lying sideways. For example, a top-loading washer keeps water inside the tubmerely through the force of gravity, pulling down on the water. While a front-loader must tightly seal the door, shut with agasket to prevent water dripping onto the floor during the wash-cycle. This access door is locked shut during the entire wash cycle, asopening the door, with the machine in use, could result in watergushing-out onto the floor. It is possible to accidentally pinch fabric between the door andthe drum, resulting in tearing and damage to the pinchedclothing during tumbling and spinning.
FRONT-LOADING WASHING M/C Many front-loading machines have electrical heating elements to heatthe wash bath to near-boiling. Front-loaders use special detergents that are designed to releasedifferent chemical ingredients at different temperatures. Front-loaders wash clothes more thoroughly, cause less wear, and useless water and energy than top-loaders. As a result of using less water, they require less detergent to be used. Or they can use the same amount of detergent with less water, whichincreases detergent concentration and increases the amount ofchemical action. They also allow a dryer to be more easily mounted directly above thewasher.
COMPARISON Top-loading machines are less prone to leakage. Front-loaders tend to operate more quietly than top-loaders, since there is less of a tendency to imbalance.
COMMERCIAL WASHING M/C A commercial washing machine is intended for more frequent and long-term usage than a consumer washing machine. As the function is more important than style, most commercial washershave a sharp-edged square appearance, often with stainless steel exteriorsto minimize rust and corrosion in a constantly moist environment. They are built with large easy-to-open service covers. Installed in long rows with a wide access passageway behind all themachines to allow maintenance without moving the heavy machine. The features of a commercial Laundromat washer are more limited than aconsumer washer. One special type of continuous-processing washer is known as the tunnelwasher which does not have separate, distinct wash or rinse cycles, butcombines them all in sequence inside a single, long ,large-diameterrotating tube.
INDUSTRIAL WASHING M/C An industrial clothes washer can be used to batch process up to 300pounds (140 kg) of textiles at once. Can be used for extremely machine-abusive washing tasks such asstone washing or fabric bleaching and dyeing. Can be mounted on heavy shock absorbers and attached to a concretefloor so that it can extract water from even the most severely out-of-balance and heavy wash loads. It may be mounted on hydraulic cylinders, permitting the entire washerto be lifted and tilted so that fabrics can be automatically dumped fromthe wash drum onto a conveyor belt, once the cycle is complete.
Manufacturer’s product Automatic washing and dehydrated machine is a ideal dry-cleanequipment which composes washing clothes, dewatering, stovingand detergent distillation. The machine is suitable for washing clothing and fabric such ascotton, wool, woolen cloth, cotton flannel, chemical fibre (exceptpolyvinyl chloride fibre, artificial leather and velvet), woolenblanket, fur coat, feather down and fur. It is a ideal washing equipment for guesthouse, laundry and dyeingshop, factory, mine, army and hostel.
This as long lasting, strong, rust free & stylish. The following are the specifics of product:1. Die processed stainless steel front.2. Stainless steel inner cylinder.3. Electrically interlocked stainless steel loading/unloading door.4. Stainless steel outer casing, dispenser, heater box and strainers.5. Galvanized and stone enamel painted structure frame andcladding.6. Doesnt require huge space.7. Electrical controls to co-ordinate automatic functions.8. Solenoid operation of water, steam and valves9. Protective devices against single phasing and motor overload.
Automatic Industrial Washing Machines The automatic Industrial Washing Machine is used for denim wash,enzyme wash, stone wash, over dying & for all special/generalpurposes. This sturdy, user friendly, simple functions, low maintenance, longlasting, rust free machine requires lesser space. In comparison to other machines, these machines require lessertime and effort.
The specifications of Industrial Washing Machine (Automatic) are: Inner perforated cylinder & outer cylinder. Electrically and mechanically interlocked SS loading & unloading doors. Stainless Steel dispenser, heater box & strainers. Stainless Steel galvanized trunnion (one of a pair of coaxial projectionsattached to opposite sides of a container, cannon, etc., to provide asupport about which it can turn in a vertical) shafts. Hot/Epoxy painted structure frame and cladding. Heavy duty motor coordinates with heavy duty gear box to create thepositive Drive. Side Loading facility helps operator unload material without wastingvaluable material. Two unloading doors save the loading and unloading time. Side loading also facilitates easy checking and matching of fabric.
Washer Extractors The washer extractor requires less space. This computer controlled washer extractor advances by itself fromwashing to high spin extraction by completing a regular wash cycle in35- 45 minutes. These high performing machines are known for their optimumefficiency and high performance.Features• Long lasting• Rust-free• Sturdy & stylish• Convenient• Safe• No foot pedals• No levers• No brake liner• No maintenance
Specifications• Direct drive• Self balancing with automatic dc injection brake• Outer and inner stainless steel• Sturdy welded construction• Facility to dismantle basket without dismantling outer casing• Electrically interlocked top lid stops the machine when opened• Three position drain connection with outer casing• Electrically controlled instrumentation and protection• Auto timing and automatic DC injection for braking• Protective devices against single• Reverse phasing• Motor overload
Drying TumblersSome of the characteristics are:• Front loading• Reversible• Automatic• Stainless steel inner cylinder• Glass wool insulated outer body duly hot painted• Electrically interlocked door• Total front & back service• No space required on sides of the machine• Steam/Thermal fluid radiator is of copper coils & aluminium fins• Fin type heaters for electric• Full S.S. heat exchanger for diesel• Self cleaning lint screen drops lint automatically after every cycle• Automatic timed• Auto reverse• Auto digital temperature control• Steam heated models
Dry cleaning machines prominentfeatures:• Front loading• Open pocket, with low spin extract P• Built in solvent filter• Automatic• Stainless steel inner cylinder and large S.S. loading - unloading door.• Outer body - hot painted• Built in solvent filter housed in the top tank receives soiled solventfrom the base tank through a powerful centrifugal pump whichpushes the soiled solvent through several fine mesh cylindrical filtersfor reuse.• Low spin extract• Separate motors for dry-clean & extract• Vibration less during extraction• Low spin extract makes articles lighter to unload• No solvent dripping
WASHING M/C MANUFACTURERS Alliance Laundry (Speed Queen) Amica Antonio Merloni under the brand names Asko, Ardo, Philco and Servis Arçelik - including the brand names Beko, Blomberg, Altus and Arctic Bendix Bosch - including the brand names Siemens, Neff, Balay, Profilo and Constructa Candy - including the brand names Hoover and Zerowatt Continental Girbau Dexter Laundry Dyson (no longer produced)
WASHING M/C MANUFACTURERS Electrolux - including the brand names AEG, Frigidaire, John Lewis, Rex, Tricity Bendix, Zanussi andZoppas Fagor - including the brand names Brandt, Thompson, Ocean and SanGiorgio Fisher & Paykel GE - including (in the United States) the brand name Hotpoint Godrej Gorenje Haier Hitachi IFB Indesit - including the brand names Hotpoint-Ariston, Creda and Scholtes LG Mabe - including the brand names Easy, Centrales, Dako, Moffat
WASHING M/C MANUFACTURERS Miele Mueller Eletrodomésticos Pellerin Milnor Ramsons Samsung Schulthess - including the brand name Merker Smeg Sony Systems- India Staber
WASHING M/C MANUFACTURERS Thor V-Zug - including the brand names Sibir and Gehrig Vestel Videocon Washex Whirlpool - including the brand names Admiral,Amana, Inglis, Kenmore, Maytag, Magic Chef, Estate,Kirkland and Roper