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Fundamentals of electric circuits hq



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  • 1. PREFACE lem is also intended to test students’ understanding of the preceding example. It will reinforce their grasp of the material before moving to the next Features section. In spite of the numerous textbooks on circuit analysis available in the market, students often find the course • In recognition of ABET’s requirement on integrat- difficult to learn. The main objective of this book is ing computer tools, the use of PSpice is encouraged to present circuit analysis in a manner that is clearer, in a student-friendly manner. Since the Windows more interesting, and easier to understand than earlier version of PSpice is becoming popular, it is used texts. This objective is achieved in the following instead of the MS-DOS version. PSpice is covered ways: early so that students can use it throughout the text. Appendix D serves as a tutorial on PSpice for • A course in circuit analysis is perhaps the first Windows. exposure students have to electrical engineering. • The operational amplifier (op amp) as a basic ele- We have included several features to help stu- ment is introduced early in the text. dents feel at home with the subject. Each chapter opens with either a historical profile of some • To ease the transition between the circuit course electrical engineering pioneers to be mentioned in and signals/systems courses, Fourier and Laplace the chapter or a career discussion on a subdisci- transforms are covered lucidly and thoroughly. pline of electrical engineering. An introduction • The last section in each chapter is devoted to appli- links the chapter with the previous chapters and cations of the concepts covered in the chapter. Each states the chapter’s objectives. The chapter ends chapter has at least one or two practical problems or with a summary of the key points and formulas. devices. This helps students apply the concepts to • All principles are presented in a lucid, logical, real-life situations. step-by-step manner. We try to avoid wordiness • Ten multiple-choice review questions are provided and superfluous detail that could hide concepts at the end of each chapter, with answers. These are and impede understanding the material. intended to cover the little “tricks” that the exam- • Important formulas are boxed as a means of ples and end-of-chapter problems may not cover. helping students sort what is essential from what They serve as a self-test device and help students is not; and to ensure that students clearly get the determine how well they have mastered the chapter. gist of the matter, key terms are defined and highlighted. Organization • Marginal notes are used as a pedagogical aid. They This book was written for a two-semester or three-semes- serve multiple uses—hints, cross-references, more ter course in linear circuit analysis. The book may exposition, warnings, reminders, common mis- also be used for a one-semester course by a proper selec- takes, and problem-solving insights. tion of chapters and sections. It is broadly divided into three parts. • Thoroughly worked examples are liberally given at the end of every section. The examples are regard- • Part 1, consisting of Chapters 1 to 8, is devoted to ed as part of the text and are explained clearly, with- dc circuits. It covers the fundamental laws and the- out asking the reader to fill in missing steps. orems, circuit techniques, passive and active ele- Thoroughly worked examples give students a good ments. understanding of the solution and the confidence to • Part 2, consisting of Chapters 9 to 14, deals with ac solve problems themselves. Some of the problems circuits. It introduces phasors, sinusoidal steady- are solved in two or three ways to facilitate an state analysis, ac power, rms values, three-phase understanding and comparison of different systems, and frequency response. approaches. • Part 3, consisting of Chapters 15 to 18, is devoted • To give students practice opportunity, each illus- to advanced techniques for network analysis. trative example is immediately followed by a It provides a solid introduction to the Laplace practice problem with the answer. The students can transform, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, follow the example step-by-step to solve the prac- and two-port network analysis. tice problem without flipping pages or searching The material in three parts is more than suffi- the end of the book for answers. The practice prob- cient for a two-semester course, so that the instructor vv v | | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents | Problem Solving Workbook Contents
  • 2. vi PREFACEmust select which chapters/sections to cover. Sections will provide access to:marked with the dagger sign (†) may be skipped, 300 test questions—for instructors onlyexplained briefly, or assigned as homework. They can Downloadable figures for overheadbe omitted without loss of continuity. Each chapter has presentations—for instructors onlyplenty of problems, grouped according to the sections Solutions manual—for instructors onlyof the related material, and so diverse that the instruc- Web links to useful sitestor can choose some as examples and assign some as Sample pages from the Problem-Solvinghomework. More difficult problems are marked with a Workbookstar (*). Comprehensive problems appear last; they are PageOut Lite—a service provided to adoptersmostly applications problems that require multiple who want to create their own Web site. Inskills from that particular chapter. just a few minutes, instructors can change The book is as self-contained as possible. At the the course syllabus into a Web site usingend of the book are some appendixes that review PageOut of linear equations, complex numbers, math- The URL for the web site is formulas, a tutorial on PSpice for Windows, Although the textbook is meant to be self-explanatoryand answers to odd-numbered problems. Answers to and act as a tutor for the student, the personal contactall the problems are in the solutions manual, which is involved in teaching is not to be forgotten. The bookavailable from the publisher. and supplements are intended to supply the instructor with all the pedagogical tools necessary to effectivelyPrerequisites present the material.As with most introductory circuit courses, the mainprerequisites are physics and calculus. Although famil-iarity with complex numbers is helpful in the later part ACKNOWLEDGMENTSof the book, it is not required. We wish to take the opportunity to thank the staff ofSupplements McGraw-Hill for their commitment and hardSolutions Manual—an Instructor’s Solutions Manual is work: Lynn Cox, Senior Editor; Scott Isenberg,available to instructors who adopt the text. It contains Senior Sponsoring Editor; Kelley Butcher, Seniorcomplete solutions to all the end-of-chapter problems. Developmental Editor; Betsy Jones, ExecutiveTransparency Masters—over 200 important figures Editor; Catherine Fields, Sponsoring Editor;are available as transparency masters for use as over- Kimberly Hooker, Project Manager; and Michelleheads. Flomenhoft, Editorial Assistant. They got numerousStudent CD-ROM—100 circuit files from the book are reviews, kept the book on track, and helped in manypresented as Electronics Workbench (EWB) files; 15–20 ways. We really appreciate their inputs. We areof these files are accessible using the free demo of Elec- greatly in debt to Richard Mickey for taking the paintronics Workbench. The students are able to experiment ofchecking and correcting the entire manuscript. Wewith the files. For those who wish to fully unlock all 100 wish to record our thanks to Steven Durbin at Floridacircuit files, EWB’s full version may be purchased from State University and Daniel Moore at Rose HulmanInteractive Image Technologies for approximately Institute of Technology for serving as accuracy$79.00. The CD-ROM also contains a selection of prob- checkers of examples, practice problems, and end-lem-solving, analysis and design tutorials, designed to of-chapter problems. We also wish to thank the fol-further support important concepts in the text. lowing reviewers for their constructive criticismsProblem-Solving Workbook—a paperback work- and helpful is for sale to students who wish to practice theirproblem solving techniques. The workbook contains a Promod Vohra, Northern Illinois Universitydiscussion of problem solving strategies and 150 addi- Moe Wasserman, Boston Universitytional problems with complete solutions provided.Online Learning Center (OLC)—the Web site for Robert J. Krueger, University of Wisconsinthe book will serve as an online learning center for stu- Milwaukeedents as a useful resource for instructors. The OLC John O’Malley, University of Florida v v | | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents | Problem Solving Workbook Contents
  • 3. PREFACE vii Aniruddha Datta, Texas A&M University Jack C. Lee, University of Texas at Austin John Bay, Virginia Tech E. L. Gerber, Drexel University Wilhelm Eggimann, Worcester Polytechnic The first author wishes to express his apprecia- Institute tion to his department chair, Dr. Dennis Irwin, for his A. B. Bonds, Vanderbilt University outstanding support. In addition, he is extremely grate- Tommy Williamson, University of Dayton ful to Suzanne Vazzano for her help with the solutions Cynthia Finelli, Kettering University manual. The second author is indebted to Dr. Cynthia John A. Fleming, Texas A&M University Hirtzel, the former dean of the college of engineering Roger Conant, University of Illinois at Temple University, and Drs.. Brian Butz, Richard at Chicago Klafter, and John Helferty, his departmental chairper- Daniel J. Moore, Rose-Hulman Institute of sons at different periods, for their encouragement while Technology working on the manuscript. The secretarial support Ralph A. Kinney, Louisiana State University provided by Michelle Ayers and Carol Dahlberg is gratefully appreciated. Special thanks are due to Ann Cecilia Townsend, North Carolina State Sadiku, Mario Valenti, Raymond Garcia, Leke and University Tolu Efuwape, and Ope Ola for helping in various Charles B. Smith, University of Mississippi ways. Finally, we owe the greatest debt to our wives, H. Roland Zapp, Michigan State University Paulette and Chris, without whose constant support and Stephen M. Phillips, Case Western University cooperation this project would have been impossible. Please address comments and corrections to the Robin N. Strickland, University of Arizona publisher. David N. Cowling, Louisiana Tech University C. K. Alexander and M. N. O. Sadiku Jean-Pierre R. Bayard, California State Universityv v | | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents | Problem Solving Workbook Contents
  • 4. A NOTE TO THE STUDENT versities. PSpice for Windows is described in Appendix D. Make an effort to learn PSpice,This may be your first course in electrical engineer- because you can check any circuit problem withing. Although electrical engineering is an exciting and PSpice and be sure you are handing in a correctchallenging discipline, the course may intimidate you. problem solution.This book was written to prevent that. A good textbook • Each chapter ends with a section on how theand a good professor are an advantage—but you are material covered in the chapter can be applied tothe one who does the learning. If you keep the follow- real-life situations. The concepts in this sectioning ideas in mind, you will do very well in this course. may be new and advanced to you. No doubt, you • This course is the foundation on which most will learn more of the details in other courses. other courses in the electrical engineering cur- We are mainly interested in gaining a general riculum rest. For this reason, put in as much familiarity with these ideas. effort as you can. Study the course regularly. • Attempt the review questions at the end of each • Problem solving is an essential part of the learn- chapter. They will help you discover some ing process. Solve as many problems as you can. “tricks” not revealed in class or in the textbook. Begin by solving the practice problem following A short review on finding determinants is cov- each example, and then proceed to the end-of- ered in Appendix A, complex numbers in Appendix B, chapter problems. The best way to learn is to and mathematical formulas in Appendix C. Answers to solve a lot of problems. An asterisk in front of a odd-numbered problems are given in Appendix E. problem indicates a challenging problem. Have fun! • Spice, a computer circuit analysis program, is C.K.A. and M.N.O.S. used throughout the textbook. PSpice, the per- sonal computer version of Spice, is the popular standard circuit analysis program at most uni- ix v v | | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents | Problem Solving Workbook Contents
  • 5. Contents Preface v 3.7 Nodal Versus Mesh Analysis 99 Acknowledgments vi 3.8 Circuit Analysis with PSpice 100 †3.9 Applications: DC Transistor Circuits 102 A Note to the Student ix 3.10 Summary 107 Review Questions 107 PART 1 DC CIRCUITS 1 Problems 109 Comprehensive Problems 117 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 3 1.1 Introduction 4 Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems 119 1.2 Systems of Units 4 4.1 Introduction 120 1.3 Charge and Current 6 4.2 Linearity Property 120 1.4 Voltage 9 4.3 Superposition 122 1.5 Power and Energy 10 4.4 Source Transformation 127 1.6 Circuit Elements 13 †1.7 4.5 Thevenin’s Theorem 131 Applications 15 4.6 Norton’s Theorem 137 1.7.1 TV Picture Tube †4.7 Derivations of Thevenin’s and Norton’s 1.7.2 Electricity Bills Theorems 140 †1.8 Problem Solving 18 4.8 Maximum Power Transfer 142 1.9 Summary 21 4.9 Verifying Circuit Theorems Review Questions 22 with PSpice 144 Problems 23 †4.10 Applications 147 Comprehensive Problems 25 4.10.1 Source Modeling Chapter 2 Basic Laws 27 4.10.2 Resistance Measurement 2.1 Introduction 28 4.11 Summary 153 2.2 Ohm’s Laws