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  1. 1. Structural Design User Guide
  2. 2. AVEVA Solutions LtdDisclaimerInformation of a technical nature, and particulars of the product and its use, is given by AVEVASolutions Ltd and its subsidiaries without warranty. AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries disclaimany and all warranties and conditions, expressed or implied, to the fullest extent permitted by law.Neither the author nor AVEVA Solutions Ltd, or any of its subsidiaries, shall be liable to any person orentity for any actions, claims, loss or damage arising from the use or possession of any information,particulars, or errors in this publication, or any incorrect use of the product, whatsoever.CopyrightCopyright and all other intellectual property rights in this manual and the associated software, and everypart of it (including source code, object code, any data contained in it, the manual and any otherdocumentation supplied with it) belongs to AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries.All other rights are reserved to AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries. The information contained inthis document is commercially sensitive, and shall not be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd Where suchpermission is granted, it expressly requires that this Disclaimer and Copyright notice is prominentlydisplayed at the beginning of every copy that is made.The manual and associated documentation may not be adapted, reproduced, or copied, in any materialor electronic form, without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd. The user may also notreverse engineer, decompile, copy, or adapt the associated software. Neither the whole, nor part of theproduct described in this publication may be incorporated into any third-party software, product,machine, or system without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd, save as permitted bylaw. Any such unauthorised action is strictly prohibited, and may give rise to civil liabilities and criminalprosecution.The AVEVA products described in this guide are to be installed and operated strictly in accordance withthe terms and conditions of the respective licence agreements, and in accordance with the relevantUser Documentation. Unauthorised or unlicensed use of the product is strictly prohibited.First published September 2007© AVEVA Solutions Ltd, and its subsidiariesAVEVA Solutions Ltd, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HB, United KingdomTrademarksAVEVA and Tribon are registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries. Unauthoriseduse of the AVEVA or Tribon trademarks is strictly forbidden.AVEVA product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Ltd or itssubsidiaries, registered in the UK, Europe and other countries (worldwide).The copyright, trade mark rights, or other intellectual property rights in any other product, its name orlogo belongs to its respective owner.
  3. 3. Structural Design User GuideStructural Design User GuideContents PageStructural DesignRead This First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1Scope of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1About the Tutorial Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1How the Guide is Organised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:2Further Training in the Use of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:3Introducing PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1Introducing the Structure of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1Strengths of PDMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1PDMS Structural Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:2Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1How PDMS Stores Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1PDMS Design Data Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2Logging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3PDMS Startup Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3Starting the Structural Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4Creating Some Administrative Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5Creating a Simple Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 i 12.0
  4. 4. Structural Design User GuideDesign-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1How PDMS Represents Structural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1Straight Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2Some Initial Setting Up Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2Setting Default Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3Setting the Default Specification for Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3Creating Sections Explicitly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:4Viewing the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7Defining What Appears in the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7Manipulating the Displayed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:10Event-Driven Graphics Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:10Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:11Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16Copying Parts of the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:17Completing the Initial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:18Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1Enhancing the Basic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1Restoring a Previously Saved Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:3Adding Standard Bracing Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:7Representing Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9Dominant Versus Subordinate Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:12Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry . . . . . . . . . . 6:13Adding Panels and Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1Starting the Panels & Plates Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1How PDMS Represents Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1Setting Default Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2Creating Simple Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:3Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 ii 12.0
  5. 5. Structural Design User GuideSplitting a Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5Moving Panel Edges to New Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7Creating Negative Extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9Using Panel Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1How Panel Fittings are Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1Creating a Panel Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1Penetrating One Item With Another. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1Checking and Outputting Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1Checking for Clashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1Obstruction Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1Extent of Clashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1Clash Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2Generating a Data Output Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4Generating a Tabulated Data Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4Querying Mass Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5Plotting the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6Adding Some Curved Steelwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1How PDMS Represents Curved Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1Creating a Semicircular Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1Creating a Runway Beam with Multiple Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:4Defining a Working Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5Creating a Curved Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5Modifying a Curved Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:6Production Features for Outfit Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:7Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:7Structural Design Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A:1Structural Catalogue Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B:1Basic Features of the Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1P-line Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1Some Standard Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3Some Standard Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:12 iii 12.0
  6. 6. Structural Design User GuideColumn Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:13Cleated Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:14End Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:15Baseplate Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:16Double Notched End Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:17Single Notched End Plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:17Some Standard Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:17Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:18Fire Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:19Lifting Lugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:19Other Relevant Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C:1PDMS Introductory Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1PDMS Reference Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1General Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:2Sample Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D:1 iv 12.0
  7. 7. Structural Design User Guide Read This First1 Read This First1.1 Scope of this Guide This guide introduces some of the facilities provided by the AVEVA Plant Design Management System (PDMS) for the design and documentation of logically interconnected structures. It explains the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and shows how you can apply these to your own design projects. The chapters of this guide take the form of a hands-on tutorial exercise combined with frequent explanation of the underlying concepts. As you work progressively through the exercise, you will gain practical experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS while learning about the powerful facilities it provides.1.1.1 Intended Audience This guide has been written for engineers familiar with structural design practices, who may or may not have prior knowledge of PDMS.1.1.2 Assumptions For you to use this guide, the sample PDMS project, Project SAM, must be correctly installed on your system, and you must have read/write access to the project databases. It is assumed that you know: • where to find PDMS on your computer system • you know how to use the Windows operating system installed at your site • you are familiar with the basic Graphical User Interface (GUI) features, as described in the AVEVA document Getting Started with PDMS. Contact your systems administrator if you need help in either of these areas.1.1.3 About the Tutorial Exercise All the steps of the exercise are numbered sequentially throughout the guide.1.1.4 Further Reading You can find a list of relevant AVEVA documentation in the appendices of this guide. 1:1 12.0
  8. 8. Structural Design User Guide Read This First1.2 How the Guide is Organised This guide is divided into three parts, including some appendices, as follows: Read This First introduces this guide and summarises its scope. Introducing PDMS gives a general overview of the main design facilities provided within the structural application. Setting Up the explains how PDMS stores its design data and shows you how to PDMS Database organise your data. Also describes the logging in procedure and Hierarchy how to create some administrative elements. A running tutorial exercise is used from this chapter on, to illustrate essential concepts. Creating a Simple guides you through the steps needed to create a simple structure Structure comprising only vertical columns and horizontal beams. Quick Way to Build demonstrates a useful facility which provides an alternative a Regular Structure method for creating a regularly configured structure rapidly. Enhancing the shows how to add diagonal bracing members, how to model Basic Structure joints between connected members, and how to modify the design by moving interconnected parts of the structure. Adding Panels and shows how to clad the structure by adding panels and plates. Plates Using Panel Fittings introduces the concept of panel fittings. Penetrating One shows how to configure those locations where one item Item With Another penetrates another. Checking and shows how to check your design for clashes, and how to Outputting Design generate reports and plots directly from the design data. Data Adding Some explains how curved sections are represented and illustrates Curved Steelwork their use. Structural Design summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to store Database your structural design data. Structural comprises a sample catalogue of structural steelwork sections. Catalogue Guide Other Relevant identifies other sources of information which supplement, and Documentation expand upon, the brief details given in this guide. Sample Plots shows some examples of typical plots of structural designs which may be created using PDMS. The guide concludes with an index, allowing you to refer back to any specific topics about whose details you need to be reminded. 1:2 12.0
  9. 9. Structural Design User Guide Read This First1.3 Further Training in the Use of PDMS This guide teaches you to about the key features of using PDMS for structural designs only. If you wish to learn more about the wide-ranging facilities of PDMS, AVEVA provides a wide range of training courses, covering all levels of expertise and all design disciplines. For details of courses, and to arrange course attendance, contact your nearest AVEVA support office. 1:3 12.0
  10. 10. Structural Design User Guide Read This First1:4 12.0
  11. 11. Structural Design User Guide Introducing PDMS2 Introducing PDMS This chapter provides: • an introduction to the structure of PDMS • the strengths of PDMS • structural design features.2.1 Introducing the Structure of PDMS PDMS comprises the following functional parts: • modules • applications. A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific types of operation. This guide covers the DESIGN module, which you use for creating the 3D design model An application is supplementary program that has been tailored to provide easy control of operations that are specific to a particular discipline. The applications you will use for structural design work in this guide are: • Beams & Columns • Panels & Plates You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS.2.2 Strengths of PDMS In PDMS, you have a powerful suite of facilities, for the design of Process Plant, the emphasis being on maximising both design consistency and design productivity: • The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of apparent intelligence that enables them to make sensible decisions about the consequential effects of many of your design choices. This allows you to implement a sequence of related decisions with a minimum of effort. • You can incorporate modifications into your design at any stage without fear of invalidating any of your prior work, because data consistency-checking is an integral part of the product. PDMS automatically manages drawing production, material take-off reports, and so on, by reading all design data directly from a common set of databases, to prevent errors from being introduced by transcribing information between different disciplines. • The applications let you check all aspects of your design as work progresses. This includes on-line interdisciplinary clash detection, so the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level. 2:1 12.0
  12. 12. Structural Design User Guide Introducing PDMS • The applications are controlled from a graphical user interface. This means that all design, drawing and reporting operations are initiated by selecting choices from menus, and by entering data into on-screen forms. For ease of use, many common actions are also represented by pictorial icons.2.3 PDMS Structural Design Features The PDMS structural applications offer the following key benefits: • The applications are designed to use specification data when selecting structural components from the Catalogue database, so that design consistency and conformity to standards are ensured. It is important, therefore, that the structural Catalogue databases are properly maintained. • You can name structural elements in accordance with a predefined set of rules, so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design process. • You can set up pointers to define the storage areas in which specific types of design element are to be held in the database hierarchy. This, especially when combined with the rule-based naming facility, minimises the amount of data which you have to enter explicitly as you build up your design model. • You can set up temporary lists of elements, so that you can carry out a design operation on all elements within the list simultaneously. This can avoid a great deal of repetitive work when you carry out commonly-repeated design modifications. • The applications incorporate a number of geometric design aids, such as 3D positioning grids, to make it easy for you to position structural elements accurately within the design model. • Where possible, the Design applications create and maintain connectivity of the structural network automatically. • Non-standard structural components, such as complex panels and floor plates, may be created by defining the required shape as a 2D profile and then extruding this to the desired thickness. • Negative primitives and shapes may be used in the structural catalogue to define complex joint geometry and end preparations for structural sections, so that weld preparations and fitting allowances can be modelled easily. • Templates may be used to define the basic structure of built-up girders and similar components, so that the detailed design of such items becomes simply a matter of entering the required dimensional and positional data. • Multiple copies of design components may be created simply by specifying the number of copies required and their relative positions and orientations. For example, a complete roof structure can be created by designing a single roof truss and then, in one operation, making as many copies as are necessary to support the length of the roof, with each truss displaced by a given distance relative to the preceding one. • Much repetitive work can be avoided in symmetrical designs by making copies of interconnected parts of the structure and reflecting them about specified axes, so that the design pattern is repeated as required. • Joint positions may be finely adjusted to ensure accurate assembly, using any standard datum line to define the precise alignment of a joint with its attached sections. • Sections and panels (wall plates, floor plates, etc.) may be divided at intersections, after the overall size and shape have been defined, without affecting any of their logical interconnections. This enables you to design the ‘macrostructure’ (for example, complete areas to be covered) first and then to subdivide this into a manageable ‘microstructure’ for fabrication purposes at a later stage (typically, to make the most efficient use of stock panel sizes). The edges of panels may be notched to fit around 2:2 12.0
  13. 13. Structural Design User Guide Introducing PDMS section profiles, and the edges of adjacent panels may be shaped such they interlock automatically.• Penetrations may be created as catalogue elements. Such a penetration, which can incorporate appropriate sleeving, kick plates, etc., may be inserted into a structural section or panel as a complete entity, with the dimensions and position of the penetration derived automatically from the dimensions of the pipe/duct/cable tray passing though it.• The applications make it easy for you to create panels and to connect them to existing panels or sections via linear joints. This facility uses intelligent pointer picking to enhance the interaction between the displayed graphics and the design creation process. You can derive panel vertices simply by picking appropriate datum lines on existing sections; connections between panels and sections are then created automatically to give a fully connected structural model. Such panels can be used either to represent floors/walls or to build up complex plated connections.• You can carry out multi-disciplinary clash checks at any stage of the design, thus avoiding spatial conflicts within the overall model which could be expensive to rectify at the construction stage. This is particularly important where different features of the design model are under the control of different designers.• At any stage of your work, you can create reports listing specified data from the current database. You can specify a standard report template, so you can derive lists of commonly-required information very quickly, or you can design a report format to suit your own particular needs. The resultant output, which can include data from any design discipline, sorted in any way you require, can be either displayed on your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing). 2:3 12.0
  14. 14. Structural Design User Guide Introducing PDMS2:4 12.0
  15. 15. Structural Design User Guide Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy3 Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy In this chapter, you will learn: • about the PDMS database hierarchy • how PDMS stores design data • how to log in to PDMS and begin the tutorial exercise • how to create some administrative elements In this chapter you will enter the structural steelwork design application and create some administrative data elements which will enable you to organise your detailed design in a logical way.3.1 How PDMS Stores Design Data All PDMS data is stored in the form of a hierarchy. In the case of a PDMS DESIGN database, the topmost data level is called the World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*), below which are the administrative sublevels Site and Zone. The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. In the case of structural design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are Structure (STRU), Framework (FRMW) and (optionally) Subframework (SBFR). The data which defines the physical design of the individual structural components is held below Subframework level, giving the following overall format: 3:1 12.0
  16. 16. Structural Design User Guide Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy3.2 PDMS Design Data Definitions All data is represented in the database as follows: • Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. • Each element has a number of associated pieces of information which, together, completely define its properties. These are known as its attributes. Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-specified name. Additional items of information about an element which could be stored as attribute settings include: • element type • element physical dimensions and technical specifications • element physical location and orientation in the design model • element connectivity Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a new element, others will be defined automatically by PDMS. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly linked below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can have only one owner. When you are modifying a database (for example, when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes), you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element (often abbreviated to CE). You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing the current element, by following the owner-member links up and down the hierarchy. In many cases, commands which you give for modifying the attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise, so you must understand this concept and always be aware of your current 3:2 12.0
  17. 17. Structural Design User Guide Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy position in the database hierarchy. The Design Explorer displays this information continuously.3.3 Logging In This is the first step of the tutorial exercise Exercise begins: 1. In the PDMS Login form give the name of the Project in which you want to work: enter SAM. 2. Give your allocated Username: enter STRUC. 3. Give your allocated Password: enter STRUC. 4. Give the part of the project Multiple Database (MDB) you want to work in: enter STRUC. 5. Give the name of the Module you wish to use: select Design. Make sure that you leave the Read Only box unchecked, so that you can modify the database as you work. When you have entered all the necessary details, the form looks as shown: Click OK.3.4 PDMS Startup Display When PDMS has loaded, your screen looks as shown: 3:3 12.0
  18. 18. Structural Design User Guide Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy As labelled above, the display comprises the following: • Title Bar - shows the current PDMS module, and its sub-application if applicable. • Main Menu Bar - the area you use to make menu selections. • Main Tool Bar - has a number of icon buttons and drop-down lists that offer shortcuts to a selection common PDMS operations and standard settings. • Design Explorer - shows your current position in the PDMS database hierarchy. To move to a different point in the database, you click on the appropriate item in the list. • 3D Graphical View - the window in which you display the design model graphically as you build it. A pop-up menu (which you access with the right-hand mouse button) enables you to control how the model is represented. This window also has its own tool bar. • Status Bar - displays information about the current status of your operations. You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time using standard window management facilities.3.5 Starting the Structural Application Exercise continues: 6. The first structural application which you will use is that for designing interconnected beams and columns. To access this application, select Design>Structures>Beams & Columns from the main menu bar. When loading is complete, the main menu bar and tool bar shows some extra options: 3:4 12.0
  19. 19. Structural Design User Guide Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy3.6 Creating Some Administrative Elements You will now create some administrative elements at the top of the DESIGN DB hierarchy, as previously explained. Exercise continues: 7. Check that you are at World level ( icon) in the Design Explorer, then select Create>Site. On the displayed Create Site form, enter the name TESTSITE in the Name text box. Press the Enter key to confirm the name; note how the system adds a / prefix automatically to conform to PDMS naming conventions. 8. Click OK to create the Site element. Your first new element appears in the Design Explorer as the current element. 9. Repeat this process, using the appropriate options from the Create menu, to create a Zone named TESTZONE, a Structure TESTSTRU, a Framework TESTFRMW and a Subframework (Sub-Frame) TESTSBFR, in that order. Your Design Explorer should now look like this (only newly created elements shown): 3:5 12.0
  20. 20. Structural Design User Guide Setting Up the PDMS Database HierarchyNote: If you or other users have accessed this database before, the list may also contain other elements.10. Click on the menu option Display>Draw List and you will see that the Structure element has been automatically added to it. The Draw List is covered in more detail later, (see Viewing the Design).In the next chapter, you will start to build up a design model by creating some structuralmembers. 3:6 12.0
  21. 21. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure4 Creating a Simple Structure In this chapter you will start to build up a structural design model by creating a simple configuration of interconnected columns and beams. Before doing so, however, it is important to understand how some of the items which make up the design are represented and accessed in the PDMS databases, as explained in the following sections.4.1 Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing To ensure design consistency and conformity with company standards, the basic definitions of all items which you may use in the structural design are held in a Catalogue database. This holds definitions of all available profiles and materials for structural columns/beams/ bracing etc., all standard types of joint, all auxiliary fittings, and so on. When you add an item to your design model, you store the position, orientation etc. for the item in the DESIGN database, but you specify the physical properties of the item by setting up a cross-reference (called a Specification Reference or SpecRef) which points to an appropriate entry in the Catalogue database.4.2 How PDMS Represents Structural Members4.2.1 Straight Sections Each individual straight structural member (column, beam, etc.) is represented in PDMS by a Section (SCTN) element. The geometry of a Section is defined by two types of attribute setting: • Its cross-section is defined by reference to a Catalogue Profile (SPRF) element (I- beam, T-section, Channel, etc.). • All other aspects of its geometry are defined by setting specific design attributes (in most cases these are set automatically by PDMS as you manipulate the model graphically). Two of the most important attributes are the Start Position (POSS) and the End Position (POSE), since the positions of these points effectively determine the length and orientation of the item. These and some other attributes of Sections will be looked at in more detail later. To provide a method for referring to individual edges and faces of a Section, each is identified by a named line running along the length of the Section. These reference lines (which are derived from the Section’s Profile definition in the catalogue) are called P-lines. As an example, some of the most commonly used p-lines for an I-shaped Profile might be positioned and named as follows: 4:1 12.0
  22. 22. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure LTOS TOS RTOS P-line (TOS) Section Profile LTBS RTBS NAL NAR End Position (POSE) NA Start Position (POSS) LBTS RBTS P-line Naming Key: NA = Neutral Axis TOS = Top of Steel BOS = Bottom of Steel LTBS = Left Top Bottom of Steel LBOS BOS RBOS and so on Note: For further details of how this and other profiles are specified see Structural Catalogue Guide.4.2.2 Nodes PDMS uses the concept of Nodes to represent basic analytical points within a structure. Nodes have two main functions: • To identify the points at which logical connections are made between adjoining Sections. • To define how applied stresses can affect individual points in the structure (for passing design data to separate stress analysis programs). Primary Nodes have their positions specified independently of other elements. Secondary Nodes are positioned along an owning Section, at a specified distance from the Section’s Start Position. If you move a Section, its Secondary Nodes move with it.4.3 Some Initial Setting Up Operations In the next part of the exercise you will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit your planned method of working. Exercise continues:4.3.1 Setting Default Storage Areas 11. First, you need to specify where the principal structural elements are to be stored in the Design database hierarchy. Select Settings>Storage Areas…. The displayed Storage Areas form allows you to specify storage areas for Primary Nodes and Sections independently. At this stage, both areas are shown as unset. 12. Both types of element will be stored directly under the Sub-Frame which you created previously. Check that the sub-frame /TESTSBFR is the current element in the Design Explorer, then click on each line in the Storage Areas list in turn. The new storage area settings are as shown: 4:2 12.0
  23. 23. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure Close the form by clicking the button. Note how the current storage area settings are shown below the main tool bar, like this: Section storage area Node storage area4.3.2 Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations 13. By default, each time you create a new Section, it will automatically be associated with a Profile from the Catalogue. Also by default, Primary Nodes will not be created automatically at unconnected section ends. For your present purposes, leave both of these default settings in force, as shown (and controlled) by the following buttons below the main tool bar:4.3.3 Setting the Default Specification for Profiles The current default profile, justification line, member line and joint line (these terms will be explained later) are shown below the main tool bar. If these have not yet been set (which is the case here), the data area looks like this: The first structural sections which you create are columns, so the default profile is set to something suitable. Exercise continues: 14. Click on the Default Profile Specification button . The resulting Section Specification (Default) form allows you to select any specification from the available catalogues. For the purpose of this exercise: • Set the Specification to British Standard • Set the Generic Type to Universal Columns. • From the displayed list of profiles applicable to BS Universal Columns, select 203x203x46kg/m: 4:3 12.0
  24. 24. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure 15. Leave the Justification list (justification determines the ‘Setting out’ position of the Section, that is the axis about which the geometry is offset), the Member line list (which determines how sections are shown in wireline views and drawings), and the Joint Line list (which determines the position of a joint relative to an attached section) all set to NA (Neutral Axis). You will see the effects of these later. 16. Click Apply to use this setting as the new default, noting that the current specification is now shown as: Dismiss the Section Specification (Default) form when you have finished with it.4.4 Creating Sections Explicitly You will first create four vertical columns, to the following design, using explicit positioning; that is, you will position the columns at given positions within the coordinate system of the site rather than by positioning them relative to existing structural sections (since you have not yet created any). 4:4 12.0
  25. 25. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 1 9000 9000 5000 U 4000 E N 5000 5000 7000 OriginNote: Keep these column designations in mind; as they will be referred to throughout the rest of the exercise.Exercise continues:17. Select Create>Sections>Straight…. You will see both a Section form and a Positioning Control toolbar, which together control how the start and end points of sections are specified. The Positioning Control toolbar is not relevant for your current purposes (you will see what it is used for later).18. On the Section form, check that the String Method is set to Single (which means that you will define independent start and end positions for each section) and that the Secondary Nodes check box is selected. Select the Confirm check box (so that you can check where each new section will be positioned before it is added to the database). The form’s settings should now look as shown:19. Click the button, which tells the system that you want to define a position by entering explicit coordinates (this is the only practical option at this stage). You will see a Define section start form. You want to position the start of the first column at the site 4:5 12.0
  26. 26. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure origin, so leave the East/North/Up coordinates at the default position (E0, N0, U0), as shown:Note: The default entry wrt World, meaning ‘with respect to the World’, defines the coordinate system within which the position is specified.20. Click OK. The Start position will be shown in the centre of the 3D View. Rather than specifying all three coordinates for the Section’s end position explicitly, its position will be defined relative to the Section’s start.21. Click the button. You will now see a Define section end form in a format which lets you enter the required data. You want to create a vertical column 5000mm high, so enter the Direction as U and the Distance as 5000, as shown:22. Click OK, then click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the creation of the Section. Check the Design Explorer: the Section will appear as SCTN 1. The Section will also be added to the Draw List, and will appear (as a very small rectangle) in the centre of the 3D View.23. Using the same procedures, create the following three Sections: • Start Position E0 N7000 U0; Length 9000 • Start Position E0 N12000 U0; Length 9000 • Start Position E0 N17000 U0; Length 4000 (Do not forget to Accept each Section on the Section form after you have defined it.) When you have created all four columns, Dismiss the Section form. Your Design Explorer should now show four Sections (SCTN 1-4), like this: 4:6 12.0
  27. 27. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure Note: Each newly created Section is placed before the current list position, so that SCTN 1 in the list was the last Section created (corresponding to Column 1 in the diagram).4.5 Viewing the Design In order to see what your design looks like as you build it up, and to enable you to identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than by navigating to them in the Design Explorer, you will now display your current design in a 3D View window and learn how to manipulate this display.4.5.1 Defining What Appears in the View Exercise continues: 24. The Draw List will contain the four Sections you have just created, as well as the owning Structure element. To view the Draw List, select the option Display>Draw List from the main menu bar. Notice how there is a ‘ticked box’ adjacent to each element. 25. To see all of your current design, click on the (Walk to Draw List) button on the View Manipulation toolbar on the left-hand side of the main Design window. All four Sections will appear within the 3D View window in cross section, as if you are ‘looking down’ on them. Notice how the view is automatically scaled so that all four Sections fit neatly within it. 26. It is often useful to display coordinate Axes. To do this, click the button on the Main toolbar or select Query>Axes…. The Define Axes form is displayed: 4:7 12.0
  28. 28. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure By default, the axes are positioned at the origin of the current element, but other positioning options are available from the form’s Select pull-down menu. Ordinal (X,Y,Z) or cardinal (North, East, Up) directions can be specified, as can the size of the axis arrow lines.27. Select the Cardinal Directions check box, change Size to 1000, then select Close>Retain Axes from the form’s pull-down menu.28. Other looking directions can be selected by positioning the mouse pointer within the 3D View window and pressing the right-hand mouse button. Do this and select Isometric>Iso 3 to set an isometric view direction. You should now see all four columns as shown:Note: The status line shows the viewing direction. See Manipulating the Displayed View for the meaning of ROTATE on the status line.29. Observe the effect of selecting different view directions (Look, Plan and Isometric from the right-hand mouse button. Revert to Isometric>Iso 3 when you have finished. 4:8 12.0
  29. 29. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure4.5.2 Manipulating the Displayed View You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. The three basic manipulation modes are: • Rotate the view • Pan the view across the display area • Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View window (it is set to ROTATE in the preceding illustration). To change the view manipulation mode, look at the Middle Button Drag options on the 3D View shortcut menu. By pressing and holding down the middle mouse button with the pointer within the 3D View, the view can manipulated in the selected way simply by moving the mouse. The options of interest are Zoom Rectangle, Zoom In/Out, Pan and Rotate. Alternatively, you can change the manipulation mode by pressing one of the function keys, or by using the View Manipulation tool bar buttons, thus: selects Zoom mode F2 or selects Pan mode F3 or selects Rotate mode F5 or (Try these selection options and observe the effect on the Middle Button Drag shortcut menu; a tick appears against the selected option.) Exercise continues: 30. Select . 31. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed model. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate; starting with a left or right movement causes the observer’s eye-point to move across the view. 32. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the mouse away from you and towards you; this time the observer’s eye-point appears to rotate up and down around the model. 33. Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Control key. Note that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased. 34. Repeat the rotation operations, but this time hold down the Shift key. Note that the word Slow appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is decreased. For an alternative way of rotating the model, first press the F9 Function key to display horizontal and vertical sliders, and then try dragging the sliders to new positions along the view borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any time, regardless of the current manipulation mode. 35. Select . 4:9 12.0
  30. 30. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure 36. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly in all directions. Note that it is the observer’s eye-point which follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse; in effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see. 37. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Control key (to increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the panning speed). 38. Select . 39. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly up and down. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in, effectively magnifying the view; moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms out, effectively reducing the view. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a camera lens); they do not change the observer’s eye-point or the view direction. 40. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Control key and then the Shift key. 41. Position the pointer near the centre of Column 1 and click (do not hold down) the middle mouse button. Notice how the view changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view. Whenever you click the middle button, whatever the current manipulation mode, you reset the centre of interest. Switch to Zoom mode (if not already selected), set the centre of interest to the top of Column 2, then zoom in for a close-up view of the top of the column. You will find this a very useful technique when making small adjustments to the design: it will be used later to see the effect of realigning sections where they are connected at a joint. 42. To restore the original view when you have finished, select . 43. Finally, observe the effect of clearing some of the ticked check boxes and changing the colours and translucency of the elements using the controls in the Draw List.4.5.3 Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically 44. Notice that the pick mode prompt at the top of the 3D View says Navigate. Position the pointer over each column in turn and click the left-hand mouse button. Notice how this navigates to the picked element, which is highlighted in a different colour in the 3D View and becomes the current element in the Design Explorer. Compare the identifier of each SCTN element in the Design Explorer with its designation in the labelled view shown in Defining What Appears in the View; SCTN 1 should correspond to Column 1, and so on.4.6 Event-Driven Graphics Mode Before beginning the next part of the exercise, it is necessary to understand a new way of using the pointer to pick points in the graphical view. Whenever the Positioning Control form (which you saw but did not use earlier) is displayed, the graphical view is switched automatically into event-driven graphics mode (you may have noticed that the pick mode prompt, immediately above the graphical view, changed while you were defining positions in Creating Sections Explicitly). This means that when you pick a point in the displayed graphics, your action is interpreted in whatever way is appropriate to your current design 4:10 12.0
  31. 31. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure operation (i.e. the current event) rather than simply as a request to navigate to a new current element. In the examples, picking in event-driven graphics mode will always be used to specify a position. The position derived from your pointer pick can be the exact point at which you have placed the pointer or, more commonly, it can be a position which is related to the picked point in a specified way. The main concept involved is that of the snap function, which automatically chooses the nearest Start, End or (optionally) Secondary Node position to the picked point, so that you do not need to be very accurate when positioning the pointer. The full range of options available for identifying positions is extensive. For example, you can specify a position at: • a given offset from the nearest snap point; • the mid-point of a picked item; • the intersection of two picked items; • a given proportion along the length of a picked item. You will use several of the available facilities in the rest of the exercise.4.7 Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking In the following part of the exercise, you will add horizontal beams to your four columns. You will identify the start and end positions for these beams by using the pointer and left-hand mouse button to pick the columns to which they are to be connected. This has the advantage that you do not need to remember which section is which in the Design Explorer; you work visually, as you would on a drawing board. The design to be built is as follows (with column heights shown as a reminder): Beam 1 Column 2 Column 3 (9000) (9000) Beam 2 Beam 4 Beam 3 Column 4 Column 1 (5000) U (4000) E N Note: Keep these beam designations in mind; as they will be referred to throughout the rest of the exercise. For demonstration purposes, you will create a single beam in the position occupied by Beams 3 and 4 and then split this into two separate beams, with automatic length and connection adjustments, in a subsequent step. Exercise continues: 45. Click on the Profile Specification button and set the default profile specification to British Standard, Universal Beams, 305x165x40kg/m. Leave the Justification, 4:11 12.0
  32. 32. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure Member Line and Joint Line set to NA for the purpose of this exercise (you will see later that this would not be your normal choice of justification setting in practice; this setting is used for demonstration purposes only). Apply and Dismiss the form.46. Select Create>Sections>Straight… to redisplay the Section form, which you used earlier, and the Positioning Control form, which this time you will use to identify positions by picking them with the pointer in the graphical view.47. Set the String Method to Single, since you will begin by specifying the start and end points independently for each section. Select the Secondary Nodes check box so that secondary nodes and joints will be created automatically at all connections between sections. Select the Confirm check box to begin with and clear it Off later when you feel it is no longer necessary. Note that the Secondary Joint (SJOI) element forms the basis of the analytical model Rather than enter explicit coordinates, you will define the Start Position as a point on one of the existing columns (namely the top of Column 3) which is picked using the pointer.48. On the Positioning Control toolbar, set the Pick Type option (left-hand drop-down list; see tool tip) to Element. This means that you are going to pick sections themselves, rather than individual plines, for identifying positions within the design model.49. The Pick Method setting (right-hand drop-down list) specifies how you want your pointer picks to be interpreted as positions (remember, you are now using the event- driven graphics mode). Set this to Snap, meaning that you want to snap to the position of the nearest Start or End of a picked section; this option will remain in force until you change it. The settings will look as shown: Notice that the pick mode prompt above the graphical view shows the current event as ‘Define section start (Snap)’. Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 3. Note that the word Start appears in the view to mark the specified start point and that the snap action has placed this at the upper end of the column.50. The pick mode prompt will have changed to ‘Define section end (Snap)’. Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 2 to define the End Position of the new beam. Note how the proposed route of the new beam is shown in the 3D View. Click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the section creation. Beam 1 will be shown with its start connected to the top of Column 3 and its end connected to the top of Column 2.51. The length of the beam is calculated automatically, with allowances for the section dimensions, but you will see that the beam’s position is too high. This is because the justification datum is set to the Neutral Axis (NA), as shown by the Profile Specification setting /BS-SPEC/305x165x40kg/m (NA/NA/NA). This will now be corrected by resetting the justification datum to the Top of Steel (TOS) pline. The result is as shown in the diagram: Node NA of Beam Node TOS of Beam 4:12 12.0
  33. 33. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple StructureExercise continues52. Switch temporarily from event-driven graphics mode to graphical navigation mode by clicking the Navigate to Element button on the main tool bar (check the pick mode prompt). Change the view direction to Look>East, move the centre of interest to the approximate mid-point of Beam 1, and zoom in to see more clearly what happens at the ends of the beam. Pick the new beam to ensure that it is the current element and select Modify>Sections>Specification…. On the Section Specification form, set the Justification to TOS, as shown:53. Select the Use as default profile check box, so that the next beams which you create will be aligned correctly without further adjustment. Apply the change and the beam should move down to the correct position. Notice that the default specification has changed: You could, alternatively, have realigned just the current beam by selecting the Modify>Sections>Justification option, but this would not have let you reset the default specification for subsequent beam creation.54. You will now create Beam 2, with its Start Position at the top of Column 4, running horizontally to connect part-way up Column 3. Reset the view, if necessary, to show all sections so far created. Return to event-driven graphics mode by Dismissing the Section form and selecting Create>Sections>Straight… again, ready to position the start of the next Section (check the pick mode prompt again). Position the Start for Beam 2 at the top of Column 4.55. To pick the End Position, you will use the snap facility with a specified offset distance along the picked Section. From the Positioning Control toolbar’s Pick Method list, select Distance and, in the adjacent Method Value field, enter 5000 (i.e. the height of Column 4): The pick mode prompt should now say ’Pick section end (Distance [5000])’. Pick anywhere in the lower half of Column 3. The End Position is calculated by snapping to the bottom of the column and then moving up (i.e., towards the pointer) by 5000mm. Accept the Section on the Section form.56. In the preceding step, you had to remember the height of Column 4 in order to set the correct snap offset distance. You will now create a beam from the top of Column 1, running horizontally to Column 3 (equivalent to Beam 3 plus Beam 4 in your design sketch), without remembering any dimensions. Position the Start of the new beam at the top of Column 1 as before (remember to reset the pick option to Snap).57. Two alternative ways of achieving the required End Position will now be compared. Make sure that Verification: Confirm check box is selected so that you can cancel the first method to try the second. 4:13 12.0
  34. 34. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure58. Method 1 Because the beam is to be horizontal, its End Position can be constrained to have the same elevation as its Start Position. To do this, the explicit positioning form is used, but now the coordinates are entered on the form by graphical picking rather than by typing them in. This step demonstrates the ease with which you can mix the different ways of defining positions (using the Section, Positioning Control and Define section end forms) to suit the current circumstances. Click the button on the Section form to display the Define section end form. The latter will initially show the coordinates of the last point picked, namely the top of Column 1. Select the Lock check box next to the Up field, as shown:Note: The Up coordinate is greyed out to show that you cannot change it. You can now pick any part of Column 3 to specify the beam’s End Position, since the elevation of the snap point will be ignored in favour of the constraint that the End Position must be at the same elevation as the Start Position; only the East and North coordinates of the pick are used. OK the Define section end form, then click Reject on the Section form to cancel the creation.59. Method 2 The Start Position will still be shown at the top of Column 1. The and buttons on the Section form both let you create a section which is perpendicular to another section. You will constrain the new beam’s End Direction to be perpendicular to Column 3. Click the Perpendicular to button , then pick Column 3. The derived End Position will be the same as for Method 1. This time Accept the section creation.60. When you have created the three beams, dismiss the section creation forms. (Note that clicking Dismiss on the Section form also removes the Positioning Control toolbar and returns the pick mode prompt to Navigate.) Zoom in close to the beam which you created last and notice how it passes straight through Column 2. You will now split this beam into two separate sections to form Beam 3 and Beam 4.61. Select Modify>Sections>Split…. Set the controls on the Split Steel form as shown: 4:14 12.0
  35. 35. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple StructureNote: The lengths of Beams 3 and 4 are to be adjusted automatically where they meet at Column 2 (Connections at split set to Trimmed).62. Click Split. When prompted to ‘identify item to be split on’ (see the status line), pick the element which corresponds to the split point, in this case Column 2. Cancel the next prompt (since you are splitting the beam in one place only) by pressing the Esc key. When prompted to ‘identify section to be split’, pick any part of the beam which is to be split to form Beams 3 and 4. Esc the next prompt (since you are splitting one section only). Notice how the proposed split point is identified in the graphical view. Confirm the splitting and then dismiss the Split Steel form.There are two methods for splitting sections:Modify > Sections > Split, as indicated above.Modify > Sections > Splice.The Splice method allows sections to be connected End to End. To do this the PrimaryNode toggle setting on the main toolbar must be switched Off. If switched On, PrimaryNodes are created instead. 4:15 12.0
  36. 36. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure You have now completed the creation of the substructure illustrated at the start of this part of the exercise, namely (looking East): B eam 1 C olum n 2 C olum n 3 B eam 2 B eam 4 B eam 3 C olum n 4 C olum n 1 U E N If you look at the Design Explorer, you will see that each column (SCTN) element now owns one or more Secondary Nodes (SNODs; marked in the above diagram) at the locations of the ends of the beams. Each Secondary Node owns one or two Secondary Joints (SJOIs) with connection references to the attached beams. This provides the logical connectivity between the sections.4.8 Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists The next design operation will be to create multiple copies of the current substructure, with a specified spacing distance between them. In order to demonstrate another useful facility, you will put all members of the Sub-Frame (Sections, Secondary Nodes and Joints) into a List - a temporary collection of elements which lets you carry out operations on the list as a whole. Each list definition is valid only for the duration of the current PDMS session (although you can save such definitions in a binary file for reloading into a future session). Exercise continues: 63. Select Utilities>Lists from the main menu or click the button on the main tool bar. You will see a Lists/Collections form for controlling the existence and contents of all lists for the current session. If any lists existed, you would be able to select the one which you wanted to modify from the list available from the option button. Since you have not yet used this facility, this will simply say ‘No List’. 64. From the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>List…. In the Description box on the Create List form, enter TESTLIST. 65. Ensure that your current element is the Sub-Frame by clicking on it in the Design Explorer and then, from the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>CE Members. All elements owned by the Sub-Frame will now be shown as items within TESTLIST, like this: 4:16 12.0
  37. 37. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure Select Control>Close to dismiss the Lists/Collections form when you have finished with it. Note: The new list automatically becomes the current list:4.9 Copying Parts of the Design Model Rather than create many more columns and beams individually, you are now going to copy the ones you have already created and reposition the copies: Existing Subframe U N Origin E 6000 6000 6000 As explained in the preceding part of this exercise, the list containing all members of the Sub-Frame will be copied rather than the Sub-Frame itself. 4:17 12.0
  38. 38. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure Exercise continues: 66. Select Create>Copy>Offset…. A Copy with Offset form displays which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object), where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy (to), how many copies you want, and how each copy is to be positioned relative to its preceding neighbour (Offset). 67. Set the Object to be copied to List; since only one list exists, its name (TESTLIST) is shown without further selection. Set the to option to Rel. (Relative). This creates the new element copies in the same part of the database hierarchy as the original elements; that is, as members of the Sub- Frame. 68. Set the Number of Copies to 3. 69. Note that the Offset must be specified in terms of the local X,Y,Z coordinates of the geometric primitives making up the structural items, rather than the E,N,U coordinates used to position items within the overall design model. In our case, by default, X=E, Y=N and Z=U. Note that the axes are shown automatically in the displayed 3D View as a guide. Set the X Offset to 6000, leaving Y and Z set to 0. The form settings should now look as shown: 70. Click Apply to create the three offset copies and, when prompted, confirm that you want to retain the copies (assuming that they look correct in the graphical view). Dismiss the Copy with Offset form when you have finished. 71. Click and select Isometric>Iso3 from the 3D View shortcut menu so that you can see the whole of the current design. 72. Study the Design Explorer to see what elements have now been created and where they fit into the hierarchy. Note that the Sub-Frame now owns 32 Sections, comprising 16 columns and 16 beams, together with all of the necessary Secondary Nodes and Joints needed to define their interconnections.4.10 Completing the Initial Design The final design model which you want to achieve in this part of the exercise has beams running in an East-West direction to give the structure stability, as shown in the following diagram: 4:18 12.0
  39. 39. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple Structure A B C D U N Origin EIn creating these beams, you will include some variations of the ways so far used to definethe start and end positions of the beams.Exercise continues:73. Start by creating the three most southerly beams (show in black on the diagram). Do this by creating a single beam and then splitting it into three lengths to fit between the columns (use the technique described previously featuring the Split Steel form).74. Next, you will create the three beams directly to the north of those which you have just created (shown cross-hatched on the diagram). This will be done in a sequence of operations in which the start of each section (after the first) will be situated automatically at the end of the preceding section. Set the String Method to Continuous on the Section form to begin creating a chained configuration of sections. By default, the start of the next section is assumed to be at the end of the previous section (as shown in the 3D View); click the Redefine Start button to override this.75. On the Positioning Control toolbar, set Pick Method to Intersect to show that you will identify positions at the intersection points of pairs of existing sections. To create the first beam, pick first Column 3 and then Beam 2 (whose intersection is at the Start Position of the first required beam, labelled A in the diagram), then use the same method to pick the intersection which identifies the end of this beam (B in the diagram). If Confirm is selected, click Accept to create the beam (otherwise your next picks will simply redefine the end of this section). It is important to stress the behaviour of not picking the attached member first as the sequence of picking the intersections determines the ownership of the SNOD/SJOI and therefore the connectivity model76. The start of the next beam will be positioned automatically at B (as shown in the 3D View). Use the same procedure to pick points C and D to create the next two beams. Click the Redefine Start button on the Section form to define a new start for another section or sequence of sections.77. Complete the design using a combination of the techniques which you have learned, plus any other options that you want to experiment with. Switch Confirm to Off to speed up the process as you gain confidence. If you make a mistake in the middle of defining a section, click Redefine Start to go back a stage.Note: you will probably need to use the Middle Button Drag view manipulation options available from the 3D View shortcut menu in order to be able to have a clear view of the correct Sections prior to clicking on them. Dismiss the Section form when you are satisfied with your results. 4:19 12.0
  40. 40. Structural Design User Guide Creating a Simple StructureNote: If you simply copy beams, either singly or as a composite list, the copies will be positioned but will not be connected automatically.78. To update the database so as to store the most recent changes to the design model which you have created, select Design>Save Work from the main menu bar or click the button. 4:20 12.0
  41. 41. Structural Design User Guide Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure5 Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure If a significant part of the model that you want to design comprises a regular array of beams and columns, a special facility is provided to speed up the creation of all the necessary elements to define the fully connected structure. Even if your model is not completely regular in layout, you might find it quicker to use this facility first and then to modify the design as necessary, rather than build up the design section-by-section as you have done so far. In this chapter you will build a new structure using this method, so that you can judge whether or not it is relevant to your own types of design work. Exercise continues: 79. You will store your new model under a separate Structure element in the hierarchy, so that it can easily be distinguished from the design model which was created in the earlier parts of the exercise. Navigate to Zone level and below this create a new Structure, Framework and Subframework, giving them different names from those specified in the previous design model (for example, /REGSTRU, /REGFRMW and / REGSBFR, respectively). 80. Check that automatic Profile allocation is On and Primary Node creation is Off, as in Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations. (As you will see soon, storage areas and specifications need not be set yet.) 81. Select Create>Sections>Specials…. The resulting Section Creation form lists all available methods: the options available depend on how your system has been set up, but they should include the following: 82. To initiate the use of any available method, you click on it in the list. In this case, select Regular Structure, then Dismiss the form. You will see a Regular Structure form which gives you complete control of the whole design process. In the following steps, this form is looked at in three distinct parts. 83. The areas labelled Column Data and Beam Data allows you to set the storage areas, profile specifications and justification p-lines independently for the two types of section. Set these as follows (replacing /REGSBFR by whatever name you gave the Subframework). 5:1 12.0
  42. 42. Structural Design User Guide Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure • To enter each Storage area name, navigate to the Subframe and type CE. The name of the current element will be entered automatically. • To enter the Profile specifications, click the Profile button to display the Section Specification form and pick the required specification and pline settings.84. The Grid Origin area allows you to define how your structure is to be positioned spatially. Enter the following settings: The Datum setting defines the element whose reference axes will determine the origin and orientation of the structure. The Underside of Base-Plate setting allows you to set the lowest point of your structure (underside of baseplate) relative to the datum axes. This lets you define the elevations of the structural members relative to a plane which does not correspond to the base of the overall structure. This has been set to 1000, so that the bottoms of the columns will be truncated at an elevation of 1000mm. (The effect of this will be seen when the completed model is viewed.)85. The East Spacings and North Spacings lists specify the relative spacing between adjacent columns in the given directions. The Elevation list specifies the absolute elevations of the beams representing the floor levels. Type in the following values: These settings will create 16 columns on a 4x4 rectangular grid, with a uniform inter- column spacing of 3000mm in the East direction and 5000mm in the North direction. The columns will be 4000mm high, to accommodate two floors at elevations of 3000mm and 5000mm relative to the datum plane, but with the bottoms of the columns 5:2 12.0
  43. 43. Structural Design User Guide Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure truncated so that they do not extend below the 1000mm elevation specified by the baseplate setting.86. Select the Trim sections to Plines check box, so that the beams will have their lengths calculated to fit between the columns to which they are connected.87. With view limits set for zone and view direction set to Iso 3, click the Preview button to display a ‘stick’ representation of the specified structure. It should have the following configuration: 5000 3000 1000 5000 5000 3000 3000 5000 3000 Z/U Shaded area is Y/N datum plane X/E Origin Check and, if necessary, correct the settings, then click Apply to create the structure. The sections will first have the specified profiles applied to give them their 3D geometry, then they will be trimmed to length and connected. This process involves a lot of calculation, and might therefore take a minute or two to complete; progress will be shown in the status bar.88. The structure is now modified by removing beams as follows: * * * * * * * * Select Delete>Identified and then pick the 14 beams which are to be removed. Escape the prompt when you have finished picking and confirm the deletion.89. Finally, you will reduce the heights of the eight outermost columns (marked * in the preceding diagram). Rather than modify each one separately, create a new list (select 5:3 12.0
  44. 44. Structural Design User Guide Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure Utilities>Lists…, as in Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists) and use the Add>Identified option on the Lists/Collections form to add the columns into the list by picking them with the pointer. (If you make a mistake, click on the column again to deselect it; press Esc when you have finished.)90. Select Position>Extend>By…. When prompted to ‘Identify Section’, pick any of the columns and then, on the resulting Extend Section - Explicit form, select your new list as the item to be modified.91. The Extend option list requires you to specify which end of the item is to be moved. You need to adjust the upper end of each column, but is this its Start or its End? To check this, make any one of the columns the current element and select Settings> Graphics>Mark Section. The Start and End will be tagged in the graphical view. Set the Extend button appropriately.92. Select the Maintain Section’s Node Positions check box so that the positions of secondary nodes will not be affected by the length adjustments. (This is only really relevant if you move the Start positions. You are leaving the nodes in place here simply to demonstrate another facility in the next step.) Set the Extension by to a Distance of -2000, since you want to reduce the length of each item in the list by 2000mm. Apply the settings, then Dismiss the form. The result should be as shown:93. You will notice that the secondary nodes which were at the tops of the deleted columns are still present, even though they no longer serve any useful purpose. To delete these, navigate to the Subframe and select Delete>Tidy Nodes…. A Tidy Nodes form is displayed telling you that 8 redundant nodes have been identified. Select the Mark Nodes for Deletion check box to tag these nodes in the graphical view, then click OK to delete them.94. Now, for practice, extend the bottoms of all sixteen columns downwards by 1000mm, so that they rest on the origin plane (shown shaded in the first illustration of this chapter).95. Update the DESIGN database to save your work (by selecting Design>Save Work). 5:4 12.0
  45. 45. Structural Design User Guide Enhancing the Basic Structure6 Enhancing the Basic Structure In this chapter, you will revert to your original structure and add some bracing members. You will then select some joints from the catalogue. Finally, you will modify the structure by moving part of it to a new position and then restoring the correct geometry between its members semi-automatically.6.1 Restoring a Previously Saved Setup Exercise continues: 96. In order to continue developing the first structural model which you created, navigate to TESTSTRU in the Design Explorer and select it as the current element to restore the graphical view.6.2 Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry When you create a section connected to an existing section, the end points of the new section are usually positioned automatically by reference to the currently defined Pline Rule. If this rule has not been set up properly, the geometry at the point of connection may be inappropriate. For example, in plan view, the connection between a column and an incoming beam may look like this: or rather than the intended configuration: or To correct this, you can trim the length of the incoming section to an explicitly picked pline of the owning section. Before you develop your model further, you will correct any errors of this type which might currently exist (otherwise you could have problems connecting your bracing correctly). 6:1 12.0

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