Migration is related to levels of development and wealth .
As areas begin to prosper, they attract migrants. At the same time, existing inhabitants acquire the means to move further afield.
In well developed, affluent areas, the desire to move is reduced by the simple fact that prospects are unlikely to be better elsewhere.
Illegal migrants (1)
Illegal immigration into Europe is focused on the ‘porous southern border’ (see map on next slide).
The Canaries, Malta, Ceuta and Melilla are key illegal entry points.
Much of the migration from Africa is ‘pushed’ by conflict and poverty and ‘pulled’ by Europe’s wealth.
Illegal migrants (2) Migrant routes from Africa to Europe
‘ Migration hotspots’ attract large numbers of migrants. Some attract economic migrants , others refugees .
Hotspot Reasons USA Illegal and legal economic migration from Mexico Business migration from EU and Asia Family repatriation from Asia Europe ‘ Porous southern border’ illegal migration from Africa Post-accession migration from eastern Europe Family repatriation from former colonies Middle east Low wage labour migration from south Asia Near east War and conflict Other Between former Soviet Republics Conflicts in Africa
The EU Schengen Agreement (1)
The background to recent eastern European migration begins with the EU Schengen Agreement of 1985 .
The agreement enshrined the principle that all people living within the EU are its citizens and should be allowed to move freely within it.
As a consequence, it abolished border controls between all those countries which signed the agreement (the UK did not).
The EU Schengen Agreement (2) EU countries in the Schengen Agreement
EU A8 and A2 countries
The EU was enlarged in 2004 when eight former eastern bloc countries joined ( the ‘Accession 8’ or A8 countries ): Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, Czech Republic , Slovakia and Hungary.
These eight were joined by two more former eastern bloc countries in 2007 (the A2 countries ): Romania and Bulgaria.
Most countries already within the EU chose not to allow the free movement of the new EU citizens into their territories. The exceptions were the UK, Ireland and Sweden .
EU economic push and pull
EU 27 GDP per capita (PPP international $2006)
Eastern European migration to the UK (1)
migrants around 30 years old with vocational training or secondary education and some work experience
young migrants, just finished vocational training or secondary education: 80% of all A8 migrants to the UK are 18–34 years old; 18–24-year-olds form the largest age group (43% of total migrants)
young and unmarried migrants with a tertiary education keen to brush up their language skills and attain some working experience abroad
highly-educated specialists with work experience
Eastern European migrants who have moved to the UK have done so mainly for work. They include:
Eastern European migration to the UK (2)
The vast majority of the 800,000 to 1 million migrants who have come to the UK since 2004 are from Poland .
There are also significant numbers from Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia.
These migrants represent 4–5% of the labour force of their source countries (2007).
Eastern European migration to the UK (3)
In the past, immigration has tended to concentrate in urban areas.
The distribution of A8 migrants is highly unusual.
Many have settled in rural areas and work on farms and in food processing.
The UK’s A8 rural hotspots are: Boston, Peterborough, Fenland, Herefordshire and Dungannon.
In 2007 10% of the people living in some rural areas were immigrants.
Many of these areas had previously experienced emigration.
Eastern European migration to the UK (4) UK distribution of eastern European migrants, 2006
Source country: costs and benefits (1)
Temporary immigrants send about 25% of their earnings home as remittances.
Immigrants who plan to settle in the UK send only about 8% home.
For Poland, this income amounted to around €6.4 billion in 2006, or 2.5% of Polish gross national income (GNI).
Average earnings in the UK for the Poles are only about £6 per hour.
There is also a growing problem with worker exploitation as unscrupulous gangs prey on A8 workers.
A significant brain drain is also occurring.
For some A8 countries, the loss of its more able workforce is significant.
Source country: costs and benefits (2)
Unemployment in Poland has fallen, from 18% in 2004, to 14% in 2006 and 10% in 2007.
However, ageing and population decline are real threats if migrants do not return home.
By 2050 it is likely that the 65+ age group in Poland will increase from 11% to 27% while the 19–44 years working age percentage wiill fall from 38% to 27%.
Total population is projected to fall from 38 million today to 32–33 million by 2050.
Host country: costs and benefits
Fills skills gaps (e.g. factory workers). In some places, such gaps were threatening whole industries (e.g fish processing in Scotland).
Despite EU immigration, unemployment in the UK has remained low at around 5%.
However, in some instances growing tensions have been reported.
Additional strain on services, especially health and education, is an issue.
Overcrowding and housing shortages may become problems.
Downward pressure on wages for the lowest paid is another issue.
Net migration trends in the UK
Immigration to the UK, particularly of economic migrants, has risen since the early 1990s.
Since 1993 the migration balance has been positive. Net immigration is now in the order of 200,000 per annum.
This is a high level by historic standards. For much of the twentieth century, the UK was a country of net emigration.
Emigration has also risen, but has been overtaken by the volume of immigration.
Asylum-seeker numbers have fallen sharply since 2002.
Sunseeker emigration from the UK (1)
Most immigrants to the UK are relatively young.
Emigrants from the UK tend to be older; 60% are over 45.
There are now significant permanent British populations in several other EU countries (see table).
Why should Spain be by far the most popular destination?
UK migrants in the EU 38,000 Portugal 60,000 Cyprus 290,000 Ireland 115,000 Germany 200,000 France 760,000 Spain Residents from UK Country
Sunseeker emigration from the UK (2)
Many emigrants to Spain choose to live in ‘urbanisacions.’
These are purpose-built villa developments.
Construction of the Urbanisacion La Marina, near Alicante, began in 1985.
It has the largest proportion of non-Spanish residents of any municipality in Spain. Around 8,000 of the 10,000 residents are foreign, and about half of them are from the UK.
Emigration: costs and benefits (1) Costs Benefits Source country Family breakup, as grandparents move away Loss of potential childminders Loss of a highly experienced workforce, especially if they retire early The ‘grey pound’ is spent overseas In part, emigration balances increased immigration, reducing net migration rates Fewer older people to take care of; some health and care problems are effectively exported Relieves pressure to build new homes, and therefore to build on greenfield sites
Emigration: costs and benefits (2) Costs Benefits Host country Immigrant ‘ghettos’ are created, with little social and cultural integration Resentment as immigrants seek to enter local politics House prices become too high for local people Healthcare costs are borne by the host country Physical infrastructure systems may be strained Increased spending in the local economy; some retirees are highly affluent Job creation in construction, retail and other services Areas that were largely unproductive scrubland become valuable building sites
Managing migration (1)
Managing migration can be difficult.
There may be a need for immigrants, but they also bring costs.
It is very hard to prevent emigration.
The UK is replacing the present system of more than 80 different types of work permits with a simpler, five-tier points system based on the Australian model (see next slide).
It is hoped this will balance the need for skilled workers with the costs of providing additional services.
Since 2002 the UK has taken a tougher line with asylum seekers in order to reduce public concerns.
Managing migration (2)
The UK five-tier points system:
Tier 1: Highly skilled This tier includes entrepreneurs, top scientists and business people. No job offer will be required.
Tier 2: Skilled with job offer People with qualifications/work-related experience; job offer in a ‘shortage area’ such as nursing.
Tier 3: Low skilled Workers from the expanded European Union, who do not need prior permission to arrive.
Tier 4: Students Those paying for tuition in the UK.