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I Need Help To Prepare

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  • 1. Explore the types and levels of challenge posed by varying forms of tectonic activity. Research contrasting locations to draw out the range of tectonic activity and the different impacts produced on communities . January 2010
  • 2. Explore the types and levels of challenge posed by varying forms of tectonic activity. Concepts Processes Theories Models 1.1 Range of hazards associated with Volcanoes and Earthquakes Volcanism Earth Movement Plate tectonics The Dregg Disaster model 1.2 Event profile 3.1 Why people live in hazard zones Occupancy Disaster risk equation 3.2 Range of hazards Plate Boundaries Constructive, destructive, conservative 3.3 Impacts – range of scales and locations 3.4 Trends - frequency and impact Park’s Hazard response model 4.1 Varying approaches to coping with hazards 4.2 Specific strategies
  • 3. Research contrasting locations to draw out the range of tectonic activity and the different impacts produced on communities. hints at the type of supporting evidence needed, for example a range of areas / types/ strategies, and means a focus on the geographical places, case studies and examples illustrating these. CASE STUDIES must be in contrasting areas and on a range of hazards: Know your 6 case studies to include 2 volcanic eruptions (1 LEDC 1 MEDC), 2 Earthquakes (1 MEDC, 1 LEDC) and 2 Tsunamis (1 LEDC 1 MEDC) with a BIG focus on IMPACTS. Identify contrasts in impacts on different types of communities i.e. urban/rural, MEDC/LEDC, levels of education, communities' perception of the hazards. IMPACTS should be not all negative - there are some positive impacts as well go back to "Why do people live in hazardous areas". (3.1) Go to Slide 10
  • 4. Explore the types and levels of challenge posed by varying forms of tectonic activity . 3.1 The reasons why people live in tectonically active areas and how this might relate to the level of economic development. 1.1 Tectonic hazards and disasters and what makes tectonic activity hazardous. There is a range of tectonic hazards associated with both volcanoes (lava, pyroclastics, ash, lahars, etc) and earthquakes (ground shaking, displacement, liquefaction, tsunamis, etc). 1.2 Event profile of hazards, including frequency, magnitude, duration and areal extent. 3.2 The range of hazards associated with different types of tectonic activity. 3.3 The specific impacts of a range of tectonic hazards at a range of scales and at locations in countries at different stages of development. 3.4 T rends in frequency and impact over time. Research contrasting locations to draw out the range of tectonic activity and the different impacts produced on communities. 4.1 The varying approaches of individuals and governments to coping with tectonic hazards in countries at different stages of development. 4.2 Specific strategies involved in adjustment: modifying loss burden, modifying the event and modifying human vulnerability; and the range of approaches and strategies used in locations at different stages of development. N.B. 1.1 is a hyperlink
  • 5. 1.1 Tectonic hazards and disasters and what makes tectonic activity hazardous. There is a range of tectonic hazards associated with both volcanoes (lava, pyroclastics, ash, lahars, etc) and earthquakes (ground shaking, displacement, liquefaction, tsunamis, etc).
    • Tectonic activity can produce a very large range of hazard events
    • Not all of these events are ‘disasters’
    • A natural hazard event becomes a disaster when the event causes a significant impact on a vulnerable population.
    Refer to the table in you have already made Return to slide 4 Volcano Earthquake Hazard Example Hazard Example Lava Mauna Loa Tsunami Banda Aceh
  • 6. 1.2 Event profile of hazards, including frequency, magnitude, duration and areal extent.
    • Not all tectonic hazards are the same
    • Event profiles are a common way of comparing different hazards
    • In this example the 2004 Asian Tsunami and ongoing eruption of Kilauea on Hawaii are compared
    • Hazard profiles can be drawn for any event.
    The nature of the hazard creates the level of challenge Refer to the event profiles you have drawn for your 6 detailed case studies. Draw event profiles so you can compare and contrast your examples
  • 7. 3.1 The reasons why people live in tectonically active areas and how this might relate to the level of economic development. Benefits of living in an tectonic Area – plus side of Volcanoes
            • Hazards x Vulnerability
            • __________
    • Risk Equation = Capacity
    • The risk of disaster grows as global hazards and people’s vulnerability increases, while their capacity to cope decreases.
    Vulnerability Factors Wealth of the Individual; technical ability of the country; level of education; Age of person; Location (Rural Urban) (MDC / LDC) ; degree of exposure; migration of the poor to a hazard zone; Speed of onset; effectiveness of warning
    • Are more people at RISK ?
    • Population Growth 2. Land pressure 3. Urbanisation
    • 4. Economic Growth more damage 5. Increase in reported disasters due to development of mass media and communications.
  • 8. 3.2 The range of hazards associated with different types of tectonic activity.
  • 9. 3.2 The range of hazards associated with different types of tectonic activity. What factors determine the varied physical nature of the hazard Type of magma (viscosity) Depth of Focus Type of Plate Boundary Explosiveness of eruption Material ejected Proximity to population centres Frequency Risk Perception Quality and accuracy of Prediction and Forecast Type of Fault
  • 10. Every hazard event is different, and therefore the specific impacts of disaster vary When researching case studies , it is important to be able to identify specific impacts and be able to explain these Some impacts are tangible and can be given a financial value. Others are intangible , such as the destruction of a temple or artwork. Many losses are direct and immediate such as property damage, but others are indirect – these come later and are harder to quantify, such as stress and psychological damage. Impacts are often considered as human (death, injury, illness), economic (property loss, loss of income, cost of relief effort) and physical (changes to landscape and topography). 3.3 The specific impacts of a range of tectonic hazards at a range of scales and at locations in countries at different stages of development. Degree of Impact is affected by 1. Duration of hazard 2 . Scale of Hazard 3. Frequency of Hazard and 4. Magnitude of hazard. Impacts can vary geographically There are significant differences between LEDC and MEDC countries. Generally, LEDC hazards are social in nature (Larger number of deaths) MEDC hazards are economic in nature. Go to Slide 11 Physical Social Economic
  • 11. 3.3 The specific impacts of a range of tectonic hazards at a range of scales and at locations in countries at different stages of development. Go to Slide 12
  • 12.
    • Explaining the impact of Natural hazards
    • The human context in which hazards occur is as important and often more important than the geophysical causes of the event.
    • Factors influencing the human impact of natural hazards include:
    • Population Density in the area affected
    • Prior experiences of hazards in the area
    • Traditional methods of coping with hazards
    • The degree of accuracy in predicting the hazard
    • The effects of any hazard warning, preparation and / or evacuation procedures
    • The speed and effectiveness of local, national and international emergency and long term relief services
    • The overall level of economic development ( LEDC MEDC)
    • Perception of those involved
  • 13. 3.4 Trends in frequency and impact over time. http://www.em-dat.net/documents/Publication/publication_2004_emdat.pdf There is a decreasing number of deaths due to hazards The number/frequency of reported natural disasters has increased Since 1980, the average annual economic cost of hazards has risen from less than $20 bn to more than $160 bn. Why ? Better understanding of natural disasters Better preparedness Better technology
  • 14. 4.1 The varying approaches of individuals and governments to coping with tectonic hazards in countries at different stages of development. People cope with natural hazards in very different ways The chosen ways are often related to wealth and access to technology Humans do have a capacity to ignore or seriously underestimate risk, even when it seems obvious to others Often it may seem obvious that people should move out of harms way, but in reality this may be impossible.
  • 15. 4.2 Specific strategies involved in adjustment: modifying loss burden, modifying the event and modifying human vulnerability; and the range of approaches and strategies used in locations at different stages of development. Go to Slide 15 Modify the event ( hazard mitigation ) Modify human vulnerability Modify the loss Tsunami Coastal defences and engineering
    • Warming and prediction systems
    • Coastal zone management and landuse planning
    • Provision of emergency kits
    Loss modification involves immediate rescue efforts, followed by relief efforts which focus on food, shelter, water and sanitation. Insurance can help recovery. Long term reconstruction is needed. Earthquakes Not possible
    • Ground shaking and liquefaction risk mapping
    • Aseismic buildings
    • Earthquake education and drills
    • Prediction not possible
    Volcanoes Lava diversion
    • Monitoring, prediction warning and evacuation systems
    • Hazard mapping e.g. lahar risk
    • Education
    • Shelters
  • 16. Modify Loss burden Modify hazard event Modify Human Vulnerability Hazard Type and Example Accept Loss Aid Insurance Environmental Control Hazard Resistance Community Preparedness Forecasting and Warning Land Use Planning Design Retrofitting VOLCANO LEDC VOLCANO MEDC EARTHQUAKE LEDC EARTHQUAKE MEDC
  • 17. Possible titles
    • Discuss the challenges posed for communities by different tectonic hazards. (70)
    • Examine the impacts caused by tectonic activity and explore the reasons why these vary. (70)
    • "The severity of a hazard is determined by the economic situation in which it occurs". How far do you agree? (70)
    • Explain why the same type of hazard may have different impacts (70)
    • Discuss the factors which affect the social, economic and demographic impact of hazards
    • To what extent is the human response to hazard affected by variations in the economic resources available?
    • The frequency and magnitude of natural hazards are the main factors that explain the spatial variation in their impact. Discuss.
    • How true is it to say that natural hazard events cause damage in MEDCs and deaths in LEDCs?
    • Discuss the relationship between the nature of tectonic hazards and the human response to them.
  • 18.