Greater reliance on power, water, communication systems
Over-reliance on technological fix
Warning and emergency-response systems
Government disaster-assistance programmes
Vulnerability compared $73 million in damage, including 1,200 buildings damaged Economic losses about $10 billion; up to 90,000 people displaced; 18,000 buildings destroyed Property damage 0 deaths/several hundred minor injuries At least 25,000 deaths/around 30,000 injured Deaths/ injuries Hawaii, USA October 2006 6.7 Richter scale earthquake Bam, Iran December 2003 6.6 Richter scale earthquake
In Bam 90% of buildings were mud (adobe) brick built, with no structural frame. In Hawaii, most buildings could resist the ground shaking with only minor damage.
In Bam, many emergency service buildings and vehicles were damaged by the earthquake.
Average incomes in Hawaii are $30,000 per year compared to $3,900 in Iran. Bam is in one of Iran’s poorer, more isolated regions.
Global warming is described as a chronic hazard because it is continually present.
Other context hazards, eg. an asteroid strike or super-volcanic eruption, are described as rare because they are ‘one offs’.
Global warming is potentially a global hazard because its impacts could be very widespread, e.g causing whole climate zones to shift .
Global warming could cause increases in the frequency and magnitude of hydro-meteorological hazards (see next slide).
It could also increase vulnerability to tectonic hazards by reducing food supply and water availability.
It might be argued that global warming is unjust, as approximately 80% of pollution is caused by the developed world but it is likely to be the more vulnerable developing world which is most at risk as climates change.
As a global problem, it requires a global solution which is by its very nature, complex.
Global warming: a context hazard (2) Possible impacts of global warming on hydro-meteorological hazards These could become more frequent, and more intense over areas such as the UK. Depressions These may become more intense, and possibly more frequent. New areas could become affected. Hurricanes Mountain areas could experience more variable weather patterns, reducing predictive ability. Avalanches Already vulnerable areas such as the Sahel could experience increased drought. Drought Changing rainfall patterns could increase risk in some areas; floods may become more common. Floods