Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks
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Keynote IFIP/ACM Latin America Networking Conference 2012, Medellin, Colombia

Keynote IFIP/ACM Latin America Networking Conference 2012, Medellin, Colombia

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Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Presentation Transcript

  • IFIP/ACM LANC 20127th Latin America Networking ConferenceInformation-Centric Networking inWireless/Mobile NetworksTorsten Braun, Universität Bern, Switzerlandbraun@iam.unibe.ch, cds.unibe.ch
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Overview > Future Internet > Information-Centric Networking (ICN) — ICN Approaches, e.g., CCN and PSI — Service-Centric Networking — ICN and Cloud Computing > ICN in Wireless / Mobile Networks — Mobility — Delay/Disruption-Tolerant and Opportunistic Networks — Network Coding and Energy Efficiency > Conclusions Medellin, October 5, 2012 2
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Future Internet > The current Internet is based on principles of the 1960s with the main purpose to interconnect large computers. > Today, Internet users are mainly interested in retrieving content and accessing services with increasing demand for mobility&security > Increasing bandwidth demand due to — (personalized) multimedia data streams — Cloud computing and storage, visualization on (mobile / high-resolution) end systems — Huge amounts of data from measurements and scientific experiments — Internet of Things, Internet of Services, … > New approaches, e.g., Information-Centric Networking, need more research, development, testing etc. Medellin, October 5, 2012 3
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Motivation for Information-Centric Networking > Today’s network traffic is dominated by information retrieval rather than point-to-point communication between machines or humans. > Circuit communication model is not considered as appropriate any more. > Future communication architecture should focus on information objects instead of nodes. > Today, wires and memories solve complimentary aspects of the same problem: — Wires move information in space. — Memories move information in time. > Future communications architecture should unify both issues. > Flash crowds are difficult to avoid in IP-based networks. Medellin, October 5, 2012 4
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Traditional Web Retrieval / Web Services search engine / service registry user’s end system web server / web service DNS server Medellin, October 5, 2012 5
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Key Principles and Functions of ICN > Naming of content rather than hosts/interfaces — Content independent of devices that store it — Naming is location independent (mobility support !) > Receivers (subscribers) request content. > Senders (publishers) advertise and deliver content. > Receivers and senders do not have to be aware of each other and are decoupled in time. > Functions needed — Name resolution to match subscriptions and publications — Routing and path formation — Forwarding content from publisher to subscriber [Pentikousis, K.; Chemouil, P.; Nichols, K.; Pavlou, G.; Massey, D.; "Information-centric networking [Guest editorial]", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.50, no.7, pp.22-25, July 2012 Medellin, October 5, 2012 6
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Content Distribution with ICN /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/20120405 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Medellin, October 5, 2012 7
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Naming Approaches > Human-readable, hierarchical names — supports aggregation — needs coordination — Example: CCN > Flat (self-certifying) names — Often based on hashing content name and/or owner’s public key — Aggregation more difficult but more flexible. — Examples: PSI, NetInf Medellin, October 5, 2012 8
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Name Resolution and Data Transport > Decoupled — Name resolution and data transport are independent of each other, cf. DNS, with possibly different nodes for resolution and data transport — allows different, possibly already existing transport mechanisms, also multi-path — Examples: PSI, NetInf > Coupled — Nodes for both name resolution and data transport with inverse data path compared to search path — rather disruptive technology — Local routing procedures advantageous in case of short link disruptions — Examples: CCN, NetInf Medellin, October 5, 2012 9
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Content-Centric Networking (CCN) > Combination of content lookup and message routing > Idea: describe the user’s interests in the message header, but not where to get it. > Messages (using XML encoding) — Interest: content name, selector — Data: content name, signature (info), data > Hierarchical content names — Example: /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/20120405 > Related Projects — NDN = Named Data Networking, www.named-data.net — CCNx = Open Source Core Software Project for Content-Centric Networking, www.ccnx.org Van Jacobson, Diana K. Smetters, James D. Thornton, Michael F. Plass, Nicholas H. Briggs, and Rebecca L. Braynard: Networking named content, 5th international conference on Emerging networking experiments and technologies (CoNEXT 09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1-12. Medellin, October 5, 2012 10
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks IP Model FIB FIB: Forwarding Information Base Medellin, October 5, 2012 11
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Interest Message Processing in CCN 1. Longest prefix match on content name in Content Store: returning data and discarding Interest 2. Pending Interest Table match: adding request to PIT and discarding Interest 3. Forwarding Information Base match: forwarding of Interest towards data — FIB population by announcements of content availability Medellin, October 5, 2012 12
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Match in Content Store CS FIB Name Data PIT Name CS: Content Store FIB: Forwarding Information Base PIT: Pending Interest Table Medellin, October 5, 2012 13
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Match in Forwarding Information Base CS FIB PIT Name Medellin, October 5, 2012 14
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Match in Pending Interest Table Name CS FIB PIT x Medellin, October 5, 2012 15
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks CCN Naming > Hierarchical naming allowing aggregation > Examples — /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/20120405 — /unibe.ch/N10/R306/Projector > Support for simple operations — %C1.org.ccnx.frobnicate~1~37 — command in the namespace org.ccnx — operation is frobnicate, which takes 1 and 37 as arguments Medellin, October 5, 2012 16
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks IP / CCN Hour-Glass Models WWW, email, VoiP browser, chat HTTP, SMTP, RTP file, stream TCP, UDP security content chunks IP Strategy Ethernet, WiFi TCP, P2P, Broadcast Fiber, radio, copper Fiber, radio, copper Medellin, October 5, 2012 17
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks CCN Routing > Longest Prefix Match Routing (as in IP) > FIB entries should be populated proactively for known content. > Alternatively, searching for content, e.g., using flooding Medellin, October 5, 2012 18
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks CCN Transport > Stateless operation with receiver control > Reliability by local retransmissions in strategy layer > Hop-by-hop flow control > Sequence numbers in names Medellin, October 5, 2012 19
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks CCN Security > Signing of names and data in each packet > Denial-of-Service attacks are difficult: Multiple Interests → only 1 data packet per Interest Medellin, October 5, 2012 20
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks CCN Evaluation > Advantages — Automatic content distribution — < 1 round-trip-time — Minimization of latency — Minimization of bandwidth — Local congestion control — Built-in security > Challenges — Routing protocols — Hierarchical naming — Source mobility Medellin, October 5, 2012 21
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Publish-Subscribe Internet (PSI) Naming > Information items = files, streams, services > Each information item has its own name. > Names are unique (SID,RID) pairs — Rendezvous Identifier (RID) SId1 SId2 – Fixed-length, (flat) bit string – produced by application SId1 SId1 SId2 specific function, e.g., hashing — Scope Identifier (SID) RId3 RId4 RId1 RId2 RId3 – Containers for information SId3 items – Basis for access control RId1 RId2 RId3 > Scope hierarchy with information belonging to different scopes. > www.fp7-pursuit.eu Medellin, October 5, 2012 22
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks PSI Network Primitives > Subscribe — used to express interest in information items — Users can subscribe to information items or scopes. (SID/RID) must be known. > Publish — used to announce information items — sent if information items have been requested Medellin, October 5, 2012 23
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks PSI Operation > Information producer publishes information item to rendezvous system consisting of rendezvous points. > Rendezvous points are responsible for certain scopes. > Information consumer subscribes to information item. > Rendezvous system matches announcements and subscriptions and triggers delivery from information producer to information consumer, e.g. using OpenFlow > Various caching strategies: on-path, off-path, replication publication path establishment subscription Medellin, October 5, 2012 24
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Service-Centric Networking (SCN) > ICN/CCN is content-centric and encodes a few operations on content as extensions of names. > Proposal: Service-Centric Networking — Extension of content-centric networking to support services, possibly operating on content. — Description of a service using content naming scheme, e.g., /google.com/file-service — Service request (response) in Interest (Data) message > Services — Infrastructure services, e.g., cloud computing services — Client-oriented services, e.g., web services — Continuous content retrieval and streaming services, e.g., A/V conferencing, streaming — Event services, e.g., exceeding sensor data thresholds or stock data — In-network services, e.g., aggregation and filtering of sensor data Braun, T.; Hilt, V.; Hofmann, M.; Rimac, I.; Steiner, M.; Varvello, M.: Service-Centric Networking, 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), pp.1-6, Kyoto, 5-9 June 2011 Medellin, October 5, 2012 25
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Service-Centric Network SCN network SCN router Service request/response Medellin, October 5, 2012 26
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Advantages of SCN > No service lookup and service registry > Caching of service data > Extended caching of multimedia data (transcoding) > Location-based services > Optimized service selection Medellin, October 5, 2012 27
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Uniform Naming for Services (Functions) and Content (Data) > Services perform (data) processing and are represented by functions to be invoked. Content stores for data. > Service-centric networking should support both data and functions. > Object-orientated programming paradigm integrates both functions and data into objects. Method calls among objects to invoke functions. > Proposal: Object names for both services (functions) and content (data), e.g., — /youtube.com/rendering — /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/20120405 > Advantages of object-oriented approach — Uniform naming — Services can be implemented as a set of cooperating objects Medellin, October 5, 2012 28
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks SCN Object Types function1 read read function2 content content function1 data data function3 function2 1: Content Object 2: Service Object 3: Content/Service Object Medellin, October 5, 2012 29
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Example: Video Rendering render client read write read write read write video- video- video- file1 file2 file3 Medellin, October 5, 2012 30
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Example: Real-time Audio Conferencing Sent audio Echo Trans- Mixing data cancellation coding Received audio data Medellin, October 5, 2012 31
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks SCN Prototype Evaluation publisher 4 ccndp time [s] 5 200 150 client1 1/8 3 6 100 user ccnd 1 1 2/7 CCN router 50 17/20 11/12 186 31 4 18/19 conversion 0 client2 ccndr service & 1-8 9-16 17-20 10 13/14 user 9 ccnd 15 repository 2 16 2 1-8: Client 1 retrieves bit map image (40 MB) 9-16: Client 2 retrieves JPEG image 17-20: Client 1 retrieves JPEG image Medellin, October 5, 2012 32
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks ICN and Cloud Computing > ICN might be used to — find/call cloud services (computation, storage) — deploy cloud services — support caching of cloud data Medellin, October 5, 2012 33
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Upcoming EU FP7 Integrated Project: Mobile Cloud Network > Integration of — Radio Access Network — Mobile Core Network — Data Centre (computing, storage, applications) into (decentralized) cloud computing infrastructure (management!) > Advantages: elasticity, costs, performance, e.g., by exploitation of user location for service provisioning → Follow Me Cloud Medellin, October 5, 2012 34
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks MobileCloudNetwork Architecture Medellin, October 5, 2012 35
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Benefits of ICN in Wireless/Mobile Networks > Broadcast property of wireless medium → single Interest to many neighbor nodes > No beaconing required to learn about neighbor nodes > Reduced delay and network load due to possible caching > Request/Response based routing in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) could be replaced by Interest/Data exchange, cf. Directed Diffusion > Support of short mobile nodes’ encounters > ICN architectures inherently support receiver mobility ! Medellin, October 5, 2012 36
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Source Mobility > Problem — Finding a source’s location at the beginning of and when source is moving during communication. > Solutions — Routing-based approaches – (Proactive) updating of routing tables in case of moving sources → issues on scalability and convergence — Indirection – (Home) agent forwards all Content Requests to mobile source, cf. Mobile IP. – This requires location-based identifiers, cf. location/identity separation. — Resolution – Receiver requests location-based identifier for a content name specified in a Content Request. – Approach adds resolution phase and requires resolution entities in visited networks. > Conclusions and Suggestions — Both content names and locators might be needed to efficiently support ICN source mobility. — Flexible use of content names / locators — Possibly late binding of content names and locators Vasilios Siris:, Torsten Braun: Content-Centric Networking Architectures for Moving Objects, COST Action IC0906, STSM Report, 2012, http://cost-winemo.org/ Medellin, October 5, 2012 37
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks CCN in Delay/Disruption-Tolerant (DTN) and Opportunistic Networks Name Origin of Data Interest /feeds.sf.tv/podcast/10vor10 me - /youtube.com/movies/ mydaughter - DesperateHousewives Encounter … … … /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/ me, os.mpg OperatingSystems mystudent … … … Possible message exchange at encounter 1. Exchange of interests, possibly with priority of own / friends’ interests 2. Exchange of relevant data Medellin, October 5, 2012 38
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Content-Centric Networks and DTN/Opportunistic Networks > Content-Centric Networks and Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Networks seem to be a good match. — No needs for beacons and neighbour lists — Exploitation of wireless broadcast media — Efficient exchange of Interests and Data > Publish / Subscribe approaches might be less beneficial here. Medellin, October 5, 2012 39
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Network Coding and CCN > Regular case: — 4 Interests + 4 Data messages Data A > Network Coding: — 3 Interests + 3 Data Interest B messages Interest A B > Problem: Naming Data B > Proposal: Encapsulation Data A B Alexander Striffeler: Interest A Network Coding in mobile CCN, Bachelor Thesis at Universität Bern Medellin, October 5, 2012 40
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Network Coding of CCN Data Messages Medellin, October 5, 2012 41
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Energy Efficiency and CCN > ICN can reduce packet transmissions on links > This comes at the expense of additional memory needed in caches. > Assumptions for power usage — DRAM: 3 W/GB — Hard disk: 0.02 W/GB — SSD: 0.01 W/GB — Energy for transmission: 15 W/Gbps = 15 Joules/Gigabit > Analytical evaluation in example scenarios, options — no CCN support at all — CCN support in CCN router Tuan Anh Trinh, Torsten Braun: Energy Efficiency in Information-Centric Networking, COST Action IC0804, STSM Report, 2012, http://www.irit.fr/cost804/ Medellin, October 5, 2012 42
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Example Scenario Medellin, October 5, 2012 43
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Energy Efficiency and CCN > Required energy for serving K requests from original content source: Eread_from_source = K * N * link_energy * datasize. > Required energy for serving request from cache: Eread_from_cache = K * M * link_energy * datasize + lifetime_in_cache * storage_power * datasize > ICN can help to decrease energy costs, if Eread_from_cache < Eread_from_source → (N - M) * link_energy / storage_power > lifetime_in_cache / K — lifetime_in_cache: lifetime a content object is usually stored in the cache — storage_power: power required to store a certain amount of data — link_energy: energy to transport a certain amount of data across a link > lifetime_in_cache / K = inter_access_time (avg. time between two content accesses) > access frequency f = 1/inter_access_time → f > storage_power / ((N-M) * link_energy) > Example — Link energy = 15 Joules / Gigabit = 120 Joules / GB — Storage power = 3 W/GB for storage in DRAM — M = 1, N = 11 — ICN only reduces energy consumption if f > (3 W / GB) / ((11-1) * (120 Joules / GB)) = 1 / 400 s Medellin, October 5, 2012 44
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Conclusions > Information-Centric Networking attracts huge research interest. > ICN has potential to — save bandwidth — reduce delay — save energy — support receiver mobility — operate efficiently in wireless networks — support DTN and opportunistic networks > Challenges — storage in routers — routing strategies — source mobility — more general services Medellin, October 5, 2012 45
  • Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Thank You for Your Attention ! > braun@iam.unibe.ch > http://cds.unibe.ch > http://www.slideshare.net/torstenbraun Medellin, October 5, 2012 46