IEEE 3rd Latin-American Conference onCommunications – LATINCOM 2011Development and Evaluation ofEnergy-Efficient and Adapt...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Ov...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Wi...
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Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Wi...
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Wireless Sensor Network Testbed
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Wi...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Ge...
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Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Te...
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Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Te...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       TA...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       TA...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       TA...
Software-Based Estimation ofEnergy Consumption
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       So...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Ha...
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MaxMAC: Maximally Traffic-Adaptive andEnergy-Efficient WSN MAC Protocol
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       MA...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Wi...
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Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Ma...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Ma...
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Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Ex...
Adaptive Forward Error Correction
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Er...
Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       Im...
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Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks       En...
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Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

  1. 1. IEEE 3rd Latin-American Conference onCommunications – LATINCOM 2011Development and Evaluation ofEnergy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocolsfor Wireless Sensor NetworksTorsten Braun, Universität Bern, Switzerlandbraun@iam.unibe.ch, rvs.unibe.chjoint work with many other persons, see publications
  2. 2. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Overview > Introduction — Wireless Sensor Network Applications and Application Requirements — Design, Implementation, Evaluation of WSN Protocols > Experimentation Platform for WSN Research — Wireless Sensor Network Testbed — Software-Based Estimation of Energy Consumption > WSN Research Experiments — Traffic-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient WSN MAC Protocol — Adaptive Forward Error Control in WSNs > Conclusions > Outlook: Mobility Support Belém, October 24, 2011 2
  3. 3. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Sensor Network Applications > REDE (REde de sensores sem fio para Detectar Enchentes) project (USP São Carlos, http://sp-river.blogspot.com) > Outdoor deployment of wireless sensor network to measure water depth and pollution in creeks of the city of São Carlos SP > SunSPOT motes and hydrostatic level and conductivity sensors. Jó Ueyama, Daniel Roy Hughes, Nelson Matthys, Wouter Horré, Wouter Joosen, Christophe Huygens, Sam Michiels: An Event-based Component Model for Wireless Sensor Networks: a Case Study for River Monitoring, XXVIII Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores e Sistemas Distribuídos Belém, October 24, 2011 3
  4. 4. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Sensor Network Applications > Environmental monitoring (A4-Mesh, a4-mesh.unibe.ch) Thomas Staub, Benjamin Nyffenegger, Desislava Dimitrova, Torsten Braun: Operational Support of Wireless Mesh Networks Deployed for Extending Network Connectivity, 1st International Workshop on Opportunistic Sensing and Processing in Mobile Wireless Sensor and Cellular networks (MobiSense), Bilbao, May 2011 Belém, October 24, 2011 4
  5. 5. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks A4-Mesh Impressions Belém, October 24, 2011 5
  6. 6. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Sensor Network Applications > Monitoring and control of buildings using sensor nodes and artificial neural networks Markus Wälchli, Torsten Braun: Building Intrusion Detection with a Wireless Sensor Network, ICST AdHocNets, Niagara Falls, 2009 Belém, October 24, 2011 6
  7. 7. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Application Requirements > Energy-efficient operation > Low delays > Reliability > Adaptivity to varying link characteristics and traffic load Belém, October 24, 2011 7
  8. 8. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Network Protocols > Simulations are only meaningful with accurate calibration of parameters, e.g., energy consumption, transmission characteristics, traffic models. > Experiments in testbeds give insights about protocol behaviour in more realistic scenarios and system-related issues, but face several problems — Experiment control — Scalability — Reproducability — Energy measurements — Mobility Belém, October 24, 2011 8
  9. 9. Wireless Sensor Network Testbed
  10. 10. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Sensor Network Testbed (WISEBED) > Recently finished FP7 Future Internet research project > wisebed.eu > Pan-European federation of 9 WSN testbeds Testbed Testbed Testbed > approx. 1000 deployed nodes > Each partner runs own testbed with different hardware. Testbed > Use of individual testbed or interconnected testbeds Testbed Testbed Belém, October 24, 2011 10
  11. 11. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks General Testbed Infrastructure > Portal WSN Testbed — Gateway between Internet and WSN part of Internet WISEBED — Used for WSN management > Wireless Sensor Network — Sensor nodes communicate with each other. Portal — Backbone used to communicate with DB portal. WSN Backbone Testbed > Internet part of WISEBED — connects all WISEBED testbeds Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Belém, October 24, 2011 11
  12. 12. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed @ Universität Bern Mesh Node Internet USB Ethernet LAN wireless Portal (running TARWIS management system) Sensor Node Belém, October 24, 2011 12
  13. 13. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed @ Universität Bern> Approx. 50 TelosB/MSB430 nodes connected to portal via Ethernet with temperature, humidity, light sensors Belém, October 24, 2011 13
  14. 14. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks TARWIS System Architecture Belém, October 24, 2011 14
  15. 15. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed / Sensor Node Reservation > Reservation system maintains per-site reservation database. > User Interfaces — Web-based user interface — iPhone application Belém, October 24, 2011 15
  16. 16. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks TARWIS Experiment Configuration Belém, October 24, 2011 16
  17. 17. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks TARWIS Experiment Monitoring Belém, October 24, 2011 17
  18. 18. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks TARIWS-Generated Experiment Trace Belém, October 24, 2011 18
  19. 19. Software-Based Estimation ofEnergy Consumption
  20. 20. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Software-Based Estimation of Energy Consumption > Problem: Equipment of sensor nodes with measurement hardware is — very expensive. — difficult in out-door environments / real-world deployments. — not sufficient to support energy awareness. – Energy awareness: Application / system adapts operation in order to meet energy consumption constraints. > Solution: Software-based energy measurement (calibration of software-based model using measurement hardware) Belém, October 24, 2011 20
  21. 21. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Hardware-Based Energy Measurements > Measurement of current draw and voltage using Sensor Network Management Devices (SNMD) from KIT Belém, October 24, 2011 21
  22. 22. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Simple 3-State-Model A. Dunkels, F. Osterlind, N. Tsiftes, Z. He: Software-based On-line Energy Estimation for Sensor Nodes. IEEE EmNets, 2007 Belém, October 24, 2011 22
  23. 23. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Measured vs. Estimated Energy ConsumptionApproach: Measurement of current draw in different states and energy estimation by Belém, October 24, 2011 23
  24. 24. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 3-State-Model with State Transitions Revised estimation: Belém, October 24, 2011 24
  25. 25. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Estimation Accuracy OLS: Ordinary Least Squares Regression AnalysisOn the Accuracy of Software-based Energy Estimation Techniques. Philipp Hurni, Torsten Braun, Benjamin Nyffenegger,Anton Hergenroeder: 8th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN), Bonn, Germany, February 2011. Belém, October 24, 2011 25
  26. 26. MaxMAC: Maximally Traffic-Adaptive andEnergy-Efficient WSN MAC Protocol
  27. 27. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 1. Scheduled Protocols — Multiplexing and Allocation of channels, e.g., time multiplexing, requires accurate time synchronization 2. Contention-based Protocols — Channel sharing and allocation on-demand, often: periodic wake-ups — Problems: collisions and delays — Sender must ensure that receiver is awake during transmission – Transmissions of long preambles/beacons (B-MAC, X-MAC, WiseMAC) – Weakly synchronized wakeups (S-MAC, T-MAC) – Receiver signals wakeup (RI-MAC) — Load adaptation – Adaptation of wakeup time dependent on activation events or load (T-MAC, X-MAC) Wake-up interval Belém, October 24, 2011 27
  28. 28. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks WiseMAC > Very energy-efficient MAC protocol, but adaptivity to traffic variation is very limited. > Unsynchronized nodes wakeup for a short time > Tpreamble = min {4θL,T} — θ: clock drift, L: time since last update, T: duration of a cycle — Max. clock drift: 2θL, sender must start preamble transmission 2θL prior to wakeup and transmit it until 2θL after wakeup. > „Piggybacking― of wakeup times Enz et al.: WiseNET: An Ultralow-Power Wireless Sensor Network Solution, IEEE Computer, Vol. 37, No. 8; August 2004 Belém, October 24, 2011 28
  29. 29. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks MaxMAC: a Maximally Traffic-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient WSN MAC Protocol > is based on sampling of preambles, cf. WiseMAC > integrates destination address into preamble to reduce overhearing > Additional wakeups for higher rates of received packets (measurement by sliding window) — Periodic reports in acknowledgements from receiver to sender — State transitions if thresholds T1,T2,TCSMA are exceeded. packet rate ≥ T1 packet rate ≥ T2 packet rate ≥ TCSMA S1 S2 Base CSMA 2* 4* state duty duty RECV cycle cycle packet rate < T1 packet rate < T2 packet rate < TCSMA Lease expired Lease expired Lease expired Belém, October 24, 2011 29
  30. 30. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks MaxMAC CSMA Philipp Hurni and Torsten Braun. MaxMAC: a maximally traffic-adaptive MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. 7th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN), Coimbra, Portugal, February 2010. Belém, October 24, 2011 30
  31. 31. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks MaxMAC Implementation on MSB430 > Threshold parameters: T1 = 1, T2 = 2, TCSMA = 3 packets / s > Base duty cycle: 0.6 % (3 ms) for a base interval of 500 ms > Frame size: 40 bytes including header > Lease times: 3 s > Bit rate: 19.2 kbps > Implementation of packet burst mode Belém, October 24, 2011 31
  32. 32. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Implementation Experiences Implementation of MaxMAC on MSB430 using Scatterweb operating system raised several problems: > Inaccurate execution of timers, e.g., because of active event processing at timer expiration → somewhat earlier scheduling of timers > Overhearing avoidance has not been supported by node hardware. Belém, October 24, 2011 32
  33. 33. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Experiments with Intruder Scenario I WiseMAC MaxMAC CSMA Belém, October 24, 2011 33
  34. 34. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Experiments with Intruder Scenario II Belém, October 24, 2011 34
  35. 35. Adaptive Forward Error Correction
  36. 36. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Error Control in Wireless Sensor Networks > Wireless channels in sensor networks have varying bit error rates, sometimes up to 20 %. > Options — Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) – Retransmission adds delay. – Original transmission was useless, but consumed bandwidth and energy. — Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Relatively small delay (due to encoding and decoding) compared to ARQ for error correction – En-/decoding can be costly (several 100 ms for decoding). – Too strong codes consume computing resources and bandwidth. – Too weak codes might not be able to correct errors. > Proposed Approach: Adaptive FEC Belém, October 24, 2011 36
  37. 37. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Implementation of FEC Library > Repetition Code > Hamming Code > Double Error Correction Triple Error Detection (DECTED) > Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquengham (BCH) Belém, October 24, 2011 37
  38. 38. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Adaptive FEC > Stateful Adaptive FEC (SA) — Selection of current code dependent on success of previous transmission (next higher / lower level) — Quick adaptation > Stateful History Adaptive (SHA) — History of last transmissions (here: 5) — For successful/failed transmissions: storage of next lower/higher level — Selection of level with majority in history — Reacts less quickly than SA-FEC Philipp Hurni, Sebastian Barhlomé, > Stateful Sender Receiver Adaptive (SSRA) Torsten Braun: — Consideration of number of corrected bit errors Link-Quality Aware Run-Time Adaptive Forward Error Correction by receiver (to be reported in acknowledgement) Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks, submitted (63,36) Belém, October 24, 2011 38
  39. 39. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Energy Consumption by FEC and ARQ > Additional power consumption by FEC > In case of no FEC, MSB430 node can enter lower power mode with Idefault > Energy for encoding/decoding 32 bytes (30/100 ms): 0.95 mJ > Energy for retransmission Belém, October 24, 2011 39
  40. 40. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Wisebed Experiments > Different link characteristics → Deployment of a single FEC scheme would not be most efficient. Belém, October 24, 2011 40
  41. 41. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Static vs. Adaptive FEC > Better error correction performance of adaptive FEC schemes than for static ones. > Adaptive FEC advantages — Lower processing and energy costs — Lower bandwidth and lower interference in multi-hop scenarios — Higher packet delivery rate — Adapt automatically to different link characteristics Belém, October 24, 2011 41
  42. 42. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Conclusions > Contributions — Design and experimental evaluation of energy-efficient, reliable, and adaptive protocols > Experiences: Development and use of WSN testbed resulted in — More efficient use of hardware resources — Testbed experiments as easy as simulations — Repeatability and larger number of experiments (statistical significance) — Reproducability of experiments and results > Outlook — Several experiences (testbeds, protocols) to be applied in other areas, e.g. wireless mesh and ad-hoc networks — Mobility support in wireless sensor / mesh network testbeds Belém, October 24, 2011 42
  43. 43. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Sensor Networks and UAVs in Agriculture Field not to be sprayedSensor-UAV-link UAV-UAV-link Fausto Guzzo da Costa, Torsten Braun, Jó Ueyama, Gustavo Pessin, Fernando Santos:Arquitetura baseada chemicals em veículos aéreos não tripulados e redes de sensores sem fio para Field to be sprayed aplicações agrícolas, VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Agroinformatica, Belém, October 24, 2011 SBIAGRO 2011, Bento Gonçalves 43
  44. 44. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks VirtualMesh: Wireless and Mobile Network EmulationThomas Staub, Reto Gantenbein, Torsten Braun:VirtualMesh: an emulation framework for wirelessmesh and ad hoc networks in OMNeT++,SIMULATION: Transaction of the Society forModelling and Simulation International, Vol. 87,No. 1-2, January 1, 2011 Belém, October 24, 2011 44
  45. 45. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Mobility Support in Wisebed by VirtualMesh Torsten Braun, Geoff Coulson, Thomas Staub: Towards Virtual Mobility Support in a Federated Testbed for Wireless Sensor Networks, 6th Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (WMAN 2011), Kiel, Germany, March 10 - 11, 2011 Belém, October 24, 2011 45
  46. 46. Torsten Braun: Development and Evaluation of Energy-Efficient and Adaptive Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Thanks for your attention ! > Contact: braun@iam.unibe.ch > More information: rvs.unibe.ch Belém, October 24, 2011 46
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