HEARING LOSS <br />NANCY<br />AND<br />VICTORIA<br />
What defines a hearing impairment?<br />According to the IDEA, a hearing impairment is a hearing loss so severe that it impacts a student’s ability to process linguistic information and academic performance, requiring special education and related services<br />
Some basic facts <br />Students who are deaf may have some residual hearing, but generally are not able to use it for processing speech<br />Many students use VISUALS to commnicate<br />Students who are hard-of-hearing generally respond to speech using residual hearing and hearing aids<br />Hearing loss may be congenital (present at birth) or adventitious (acquired)<br />A conductive hearing loss means there is a difficulty transmitting sound vibrations to the ear, while a sensorineural hearing loss refers to damage to the auditory nerve. Mixed hearing loss includes both<br />Hearing loss may be unilateral (present in one ear)or bilateral (present in both ears)<br />
Effects of Hearing Loss: <br />Effects determined by the level: slight (27-40dB), mild (41-55 dB), moderate (56-70 dB), severe (71-90 dB), profound (91 dB)<br />Language development is affected (time frame)<br />Intellectual development not affected, but educational achievement may be (testing biases)<br />Social development is at risk if students cannot readily communicate with those at school and at home<br />Students with severe to profound hearing loss often experience delays in academic achievement<br />
Educational Approaches:<br />ORAL APPROACH- advocates the use of speech and speech reading (read lips), and the amplification and use of residual hearing<br />MANUAL APPROACH- uses signs and finger spelling to communicate thoughts and ideas<br />AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE- distinct language with own grammar and syntax. Widely used in the US. <br />There also several combinations of the above approaches<br />Ex: the Bilingual-Bicultural Approach teaches ASL as a first language and English as a second. <br />
Assistive Technology<br />Hearing aids to amplify sounds <br />FM Radio- the hearing aid receiver is connected to a teacher’s microphone, amplifying only the teacher’s voice<br />TDD- telephone devices for the deaf are phones with screens that display words<br />Closed captioning on the TV<br />Cochlear implants can help restore hearing for sensorineural hearing loss<br />
Music Education for Students with a Hearing Loss <br />Students with hearing losses are musical, but the degree of interest in music varies among these students. Students should participate in music activities that include:<br />1. Listening to music<br />2. Singing<br />3. Playing Instruments <br />4. Moving to music <br />5. Creating music <br />6. Reading music <br />
(Continued)<br />Other objectives: Knowledge about masterpieces of music, elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and expression.<br />Orff and Kodaly approaches are particularly useful because of their visual and movement components. Students are at a disadvantage if they are taught music solely through music. Therefore learning through performing, reading, writing music and active participation is best for students with a hearing loss. <br />Every student deserves the right to participate in musical arts, and hearing loss students do find music to be an important part of their life.<br />
Adaptive Strategies <br />Music therapists or teachers can make these appropriate adaptations in teaching music to those who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. <br />These are some of the adjustments based on research on music and individuals with hearing loss: <br />1. Rhythmic abilities are stronger than pitch related abilities. <br />2. Tactile perception can compensate for auditory deficits. <br />3. Visual cues, such as tapping the beat, are particularly helpful for students. <br />4. Pitch discrimination skills can be trained and developed. <br />5. Pitch discriminations skills can be made more easily in lower frequency ranges. <br />6. The vocal range of students with hearing losses is often lower and limited. <br /> <br />
(continued)<br />7. Students can benefit both musically and academically from participation in musical activities. <br />8. Sustaining instruments may provide more useful aural feedback than percussive instruments. <br />9. Students may perform more accurately by reading standard music notation than by relying on the ear to imitate or learn by rote.<br /> 10. Students with hearing losses can improve their vocal intonation, both in singing and in speaking, by participating in vocal activity. <br />11. Music Instruction can assist in the development of a number of nonmusical behaviors such as speech production, listening, language, social, and academic skills.<br />
Interpreting Songs into Sign<br />Putting songs into sign language is a popular activity for deaf and hard-of-hearing students as well as typical hearing students. <br />It is a useful means of sharing cultural values and performing popular music.<br /> Signing should not be “finger play.” Careful attention should be given to the art of interpreting songs, and they should be meticulously executed like the singing of the songs.<br /> Important guidelines: <br />1. Signs used for song interpretation can reflect volume, pitch, rhythm, and mood by a variety of uses of body language, facial expression, space, and manner of execution. <br />2. Musical signing should transmit emotion as vividly as the audible song. <br />3. When groups are performing in sign, special attention should be given to ensemble work. Signs should be synchronized: all hands moving in unison, all signs executed the same way, all signs made in the same amount of space.<br />4. Signs, like voices, should blend. No signer should stand out from the group. <br />
Music Therapy for Students with Hearing Loss<br />Deafness is no longer viewed as a medical condition, a deficit in need of treatment. The only true handicap is being cut off from the usual means of acquiring and transmitting language. <br />The loss of hearing has many implications for the development of communication skills.<br /> Music therapy remains a viable educational intervention and the goals for them are: linguistic, behavioral, academic, motor skills, social interaction skills, and self-concept. <br />With the focused training of English literacy as the critical skill in deaf education, music therapy serves as a motivating and engaging method for achieving linguistic objectives. <br />The linguistic objectives for deaf children are: developing aural-oral English literacy and learning English as a second language through American Sign Language.<br />
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