THE ROLE AND USE OF
MILITARY HISTORY
Integrate Historical Awareness and
Critical Thinking Skills Derived from
Military History Methodologies into
the Training ...
What is Military
History?

The record of all activities of all armed
forces (including armies, navies, and
air forces) in ...
WHY DO YOU STUDY MILITARY
HISTORY?
HOW DO YOU STUDY
MILITARY HISTORY?
VERY CAREFULLY AND
METHODICALLY
Activities Included in the
Study of Military History
• Battles & Campaigns

• Logistics

• Strategy & Tactics

• Military ...
STUDY CAUSE AND
EFFECT
TO DIRECT AND CONTROL
FUTURE EVENTS
STUDY: IN WIDTH
OBSERVE EVENTS OVER A
LONG PERIOD OF TIME TO
OBSERVE CHANGE
STUDY: IN DEPTH
STUDY IN ENOUGH DETAIL TO
GET BEHIND ANY
GENERALIZATIONS
Using Military History
• Learn from past
experience
• Understand military
concepts
• Study lives of soldiers
in the past
•...
STUDY: IN CONTEXT
ARMIES REFLECT BOTH THEIR
ERA AND THEIR SOCIETY
“I am convinced that much
more emphasis should be
placed on history. The
purpose of history is to
learn how human beings
r...
“Nothing is done in war,
except by calculation. Every
enterprise should be
conducted according to a
system. Chance alone c...
“A man’s greatest pleasure is to defeat
his enemies, to drive them before him,
to take from them that which they
possessed...
HISTORY SHARPENS
JUDGMENT
Critical Thinking SkillsBased on Study of
Operational Military History
HISTORY IMPROVES
PERCEPTION
Critical Thinking SkillsBased on Study of Institutional
Military History
HISTORY BROADENS
PERSPECTIVES
Critical Thinking SkillsBased on Study of
Biographical Military History
Misusing Military History
• History provides understanding, not proof.
• History provides insight, not analogy.
METHODOLOGIES
• The Ten Threads of Continuity.

• Battle Analysis.
TEN THREADS OF
CONTINUITY
19TH CENTURY
1800----1850-----1899
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Military Theory & Doctrine -----+------------------------------------------>
Mi...
Military Theory & Doctrine
• Ideas about War.
• Doctrine = Generally accepted body of practices
that govern Organization, ...
Military Doctrine
• PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE
CONCEPT OR IDEA AND THE ACTUAL
APPLICATION OF THE IDEA
Military Professionalism
• Attitude or state of mind.
• Military professional is an expert in the
management of violence.
...
Military Professionalism

–
–
–

Military Professionals share a body of specialized
knowledge.
The study of Military Histo...
Generalship
• Art of command high levels.
• Functions include Forming, Organizing,
Equipping, and Training armies and/or m...
Strategy
• Preparation for and the waging of war.
• Dynamic in nature and has evolved with the
complexities of weapon tech...
Tactics
• The Preparation and actual conduct of Combat
on the battlefield.
• The employment of units in combat , the order...
Logistics & Administration
• Supply, Transportation, Evacuation and
Hospitalization, Service and Personnel
Management.
• R...
Technology
• The Application of science to war.
• Accounts for new weapons and the entire range
of new equipment.
• The In...
Political Factors
• Characteristic elements or actions of
governments that affect warfare.
• Provide the forces and trends...
Social Factors
• Human relationships that affect warfare are
social factors.
• Includes concepts, such as, popular attitud...
Economic Factors
• Elements that affect warfare, such as,
Production, Distribution, and Consumption of the
resources of th...
Interrelationship of Factors
• Political, Social and Economic Factors are all
interrelated.
• They are so complex that stu...
OUR ONLY VERIFIED DATA ON
COMBAT COMES FROM HISTORY.
TIDY SOLUTIONS TO
BATTLE ON COMPUTER
PRINTOUTS IS A
DELUSION- HISTORICALLY
ALL WARS WERE VERY
UNTIDY.
MILITARY HISTORY
PROVIDES THE ARMY’S
INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY.
MILITARY HISTORY
PROVIDES A GUIDE TO
HOW TROOPS BEHAVE IN
BATTLE.
THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR
PROVIDE A SENSE OF
DIRECTION.
MILITARY HISTORY
REVEALS THE PATTERNS,
TRENDS & RELATIONSHIPS
NECESSARY FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF
DOCTRINE.
DOCTRINE PROVIDES THE
BRIDGE BETWEEN THE
CONCEPT OR THEORY AND
THE APPLICATION OF
THAT THEORY.
THE ROLE OF MILITARY
HISTORY IS TO PROVIDE A
METHOD TO LOOK BACK
IN ORDER TO LOOK
AHEAD.
BATTLE
ANALYSIS
TASK
Integrate Historical Awareness and
Critical Thinking Skills Derived from
Military History Methodologies into
the Trai...
BATTLE ANALYSIS
Role and Use of Military History

LTG George S. Patton, Jr.:
“To be a successful soldier,
you must know history.”
Role and Use

Using Military History
• Learn from past
experience
• Understand military
concepts
• Study lives of soldiers...
Basic Battle Analysis

Military History and the
Conduct of Battle
Basic Battle Analysis

What is Battle Analysis?
A method used by the U.S. Army to
provide a systematic approach to the
stu...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis Steps
• Define the subject.
• Set the stage.
• Describe the action.
• Draw lessons ...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 1 -- Define the Subject
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 1--Define the Subject
(what, where, when, who)
• Pick a subject appropriate t...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 1--Define the Subject
(determine sources)
• Quantity and type of sources (boo...
BATTLE ANALYSIS
METHODOLOGY
STEP I
EVALUATE THE HISTORICAL RESOURCES
• Determine the research sources

•

Evaluate the res...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 2 -- Set the Stage
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 2--Set the Stage-Strategic Factors
•
•
•
•

Type of conflict.
Objectives of t...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 2--Set the Stage-Operational Setting
• Context
• Objectives
• Additional fact...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 2--Set the Stage-Tactical Situation
•
•
•
•

Alternatives
Area of Operations
...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 2--Set the Stage-Compare Forces
•Size & composition

•Intelligence

•Technolo...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 3--Describe the Action
•
•
•
•
•

State missions of opposing forces
Describe ...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights
• Why did events turn out the way they did?
• What...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights-Cause & Effect
• Who won? Who lost?
• What were th...
Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:
Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights-Military Lessons
• Principles of War
• Tenets of A...
Principles of War
•
•
•
•
•

Objective
Offensive
Mass
Economy of Force
Maneuver

•
•
•
•

Unity of Command
Surprise
Securi...
Dynamics of Combat Power
•
•
•
•
•

MANEUVER
FIREPOWER
PROTECTION
LEADERSHIP
INFORMATION
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The Role and Use of Military History

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The Role and Use of Military History

  1. 1. THE ROLE AND USE OF MILITARY HISTORY
  2. 2. Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the Training and Education of Self And Subordinate Leaders
  3. 3. What is Military History? The record of all activities of all armed forces (including armies, navies, and air forces) in war and peace.
  4. 4. WHY DO YOU STUDY MILITARY HISTORY?
  5. 5. HOW DO YOU STUDY MILITARY HISTORY? VERY CAREFULLY AND METHODICALLY
  6. 6. Activities Included in the Study of Military History • Battles & Campaigns • Logistics • Strategy & Tactics • Military & Society • Doctrine & Training • Weapons & • Organizations Technology • Military Leaders
  7. 7. STUDY CAUSE AND EFFECT TO DIRECT AND CONTROL FUTURE EVENTS
  8. 8. STUDY: IN WIDTH OBSERVE EVENTS OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME TO OBSERVE CHANGE
  9. 9. STUDY: IN DEPTH STUDY IN ENOUGH DETAIL TO GET BEHIND ANY GENERALIZATIONS
  10. 10. Using Military History • Learn from past experience • Understand military concepts • Study lives of soldiers in the past • Understand doctrinal evolution • Broaden knowledge of military subjects • Understand leadership issues • Learn about strategy & tactics
  11. 11. STUDY: IN CONTEXT ARMIES REFLECT BOTH THEIR ERA AND THEIR SOCIETY
  12. 12. “I am convinced that much more emphasis should be placed on history. The purpose of history is to learn how human beings react when exposed to the danger of wounds or death...” General George S. Patton, Jr.
  13. 13. “Nothing is done in war, except by calculation. Every enterprise should be conducted according to a system. Chance alone can never bring success.” Napoleon
  14. 14. “A man’s greatest pleasure is to defeat his enemies, to drive them before him, to take from them that which they possessed, to see those whom they cherished in tears, to ride their horses, to hold their wives. I forbid you to show mercy to my enemies. Leave nothing but uninhabited ruins, neither a cat nor a dog.” Genghis Khan
  15. 15. HISTORY SHARPENS JUDGMENT Critical Thinking SkillsBased on Study of Operational Military History
  16. 16. HISTORY IMPROVES PERCEPTION Critical Thinking SkillsBased on Study of Institutional Military History
  17. 17. HISTORY BROADENS PERSPECTIVES Critical Thinking SkillsBased on Study of Biographical Military History
  18. 18. Misusing Military History • History provides understanding, not proof. • History provides insight, not analogy.
  19. 19. METHODOLOGIES • The Ten Threads of Continuity. • Battle Analysis.
  20. 20. TEN THREADS OF CONTINUITY 19TH CENTURY
  21. 21. 1800----1850-----1899 • • • • • • • • • • Military Theory & Doctrine -----+------------------------------------------> Military Professionalism----------+------------------------------------------> Generalship-------------------------+------------------------------------------> Strategy------------------------------+------------------------------------------> Tactics-------------------------------+------------------------------------------> Logistics-----------------------------+------------------------------------------> Technology--------------------------+-----------------------------------------> Political Factors---------------------+-----------------------------------------> Social Factors------------------------+-----------------------------------------> Economic Factors-------------------+----------------------------------------->
  22. 22. Military Theory & Doctrine • Ideas about War. • Doctrine = Generally accepted body of practices that govern Organization, Training, and Fighting. • Military Theorists: Those who THINK deeply about war and INFLUENCE others. They SEEK solutions, CREATE frameworks & ADVANCE new concepts.
  23. 23. Military Doctrine • PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OR IDEA AND THE ACTUAL APPLICATION OF THE IDEA
  24. 24. Military Professionalism • Attitude or state of mind. • Military professional is an expert in the management of violence. • Functions of the professional army include organizing, equipping, training, planning and directing forces, in and out of combat.
  25. 25. Military Professionalism – – – Military Professionals share a body of specialized knowledge. The study of Military History is essential to Military Professionalism. Defined in Samuel Huntington’s The Soldier and the State. • • • Expertise: Responsibility: Corporateness :
  26. 26. Generalship • Art of command high levels. • Functions include Forming, Organizing, Equipping, and Training armies and/or major portions of them. • Involves the detailed Strategical, Tactical and Logistical planning to insure success of the mission. Entails Leadership and Management.
  27. 27. Strategy • Preparation for and the waging of war. • Dynamic in nature and has evolved with the complexities of weapon technology. • Grand Strategy: Coalition level • National Strategy: Similar to Grand • Military Strategy: Derived from National.
  28. 28. Tactics • The Preparation and actual conduct of Combat on the battlefield. • The employment of units in combat , the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other to utilize their full potential. • Close connection with Technology, Logistics and Strategy.
  29. 29. Logistics & Administration • Supply, Transportation, Evacuation and Hospitalization, Service and Personnel Management. • Relationship between the state’s Economic capacity and its capability for supporting military forces. • In the last century has developed into one of the dominant factors of warfare.
  30. 30. Technology • The Application of science to war. • Accounts for new weapons and the entire range of new equipment. • The Industrial Revolution caused whole chains of technological advances in the fields of weapons, transportation, communication, construction and medicine.
  31. 31. Political Factors • Characteristic elements or actions of governments that affect warfare. • Provide the forces and trends that shape warfare and the goals for which wars are fought. • Difficult to distinguish the military objective from the political goal. Often political goals drive military goals.
  32. 32. Social Factors • Human relationships that affect warfare are social factors. • Includes concepts, such as, popular attitudes, revolution, militarism, psychological warfare, amd combat psychology. • Combatants have aimed at inflicting Total War on a nation’s people.
  33. 33. Economic Factors • Elements that affect warfare, such as, Production, Distribution, and Consumption of the resources of the state. • Economic warfare possible through blockade. • Different types of economies affect warfare.
  34. 34. Interrelationship of Factors • Political, Social and Economic Factors are all interrelated. • They are so complex that studying each one separately is impossible. • These forces provide the foundation of national power.
  35. 35. OUR ONLY VERIFIED DATA ON COMBAT COMES FROM HISTORY.
  36. 36. TIDY SOLUTIONS TO BATTLE ON COMPUTER PRINTOUTS IS A DELUSION- HISTORICALLY ALL WARS WERE VERY UNTIDY.
  37. 37. MILITARY HISTORY PROVIDES THE ARMY’S INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY.
  38. 38. MILITARY HISTORY PROVIDES A GUIDE TO HOW TROOPS BEHAVE IN BATTLE.
  39. 39. THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR PROVIDE A SENSE OF DIRECTION.
  40. 40. MILITARY HISTORY REVEALS THE PATTERNS, TRENDS & RELATIONSHIPS NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE.
  41. 41. DOCTRINE PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OR THEORY AND THE APPLICATION OF THAT THEORY.
  42. 42. THE ROLE OF MILITARY HISTORY IS TO PROVIDE A METHOD TO LOOK BACK IN ORDER TO LOOK AHEAD.
  43. 43. BATTLE ANALYSIS
  44. 44. TASK Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the Training and Education of Self and Subordinate Leaders. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE Apply knowledge of military history and battle analysis to the professional development of self and subordinate leaders.
  45. 45. BATTLE ANALYSIS
  46. 46. Role and Use of Military History LTG George S. Patton, Jr.: “To be a successful soldier, you must know history.”
  47. 47. Role and Use Using Military History • Learn from past experience • Understand military concepts • Study lives of soldiers in the past • Understand doctrinal evolution • Broaden knowledge of military subjects • Understand leadership issues • Learn about strategy & tactics
  48. 48. Basic Battle Analysis Military History and the Conduct of Battle
  49. 49. Basic Battle Analysis What is Battle Analysis? A method used by the U.S. Army to provide a systematic approach to the study of battles, campaigns, and other operations.
  50. 50. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis Steps • Define the subject. • Set the stage. • Describe the action. • Draw lessons and insights.
  51. 51. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 1 -- Define the Subject
  52. 52. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 1--Define the Subject (what, where, when, who) • Pick a subject appropriate to the level of operations of interest. • Select a topic related to the types of lessons desired.
  53. 53. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 1--Define the Subject (determine sources) • Quantity and type of sources (books, articles, and other). • Quality of sources (content, bias, and intent).
  54. 54. BATTLE ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY STEP I EVALUATE THE HISTORICAL RESOURCES • Determine the research sources • Evaluate the research sources
  55. 55. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2 -- Set the Stage
  56. 56. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-Strategic Factors • • • • Type of conflict. Objectives of the principal antagonists. Military systems. Previous experience of forces.
  57. 57. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-Operational Setting • Context • Objectives • Additional factors (alliances, tactics, doctrine, and personalities)
  58. 58. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-Tactical Situation • • • • Alternatives Area of Operations Weather Terrain
  59. 59. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-Compare Forces •Size & composition •Intelligence •Technology •Doctrine & training •Logistics •Condition & morale •C3 •Leadership
  60. 60. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 3--Describe the Action • • • • • State missions of opposing forces Describe initial disposition of forces Describe opening moves Detail major phases State outcome
  61. 61. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights • Why did events turn out the way they did? • What is relevant about this study to current operations?
  62. 62. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights-Cause & Effect • Who won? Who lost? • What were the constants that affected the outcome?
  63. 63. Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights-Military Lessons • Principles of War • Tenets of Airland Operations • Battlefield Operating Systems
  64. 64. Principles of War • • • • • Objective Offensive Mass Economy of Force Maneuver • • • • Unity of Command Surprise Security Simplicity
  65. 65. Dynamics of Combat Power • • • • • MANEUVER FIREPOWER PROTECTION LEADERSHIP INFORMATION
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