Highlights of the

nd
42

TOP500 List

SC13, Denver, CO
#

Site

1

2

3

41st

Computer

Country

National University of
Defense Technology

NUDT

Tianhe-2
NUDT TH-IVB-FEP,

Chi...
100

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

199...
Performance Development
1 Eflop/s
1E+09

250 PFlop/s

100 Pflop/s
10000000

33.9 PFlop/s

10 Pflop/s
10000000

1 Pflop/s
1...
Projected Performance Development

1E+11
1E+10
1 Eflop/s
1E+09
100 Pflop/s
000000
10 Pflop/s
000000
1 Pflop/s
000000
100 T...
Accelerators
70
60
50
40

Clearspeed
IBM Cell

30

ATI Radeon

20

Nvidia Kepler
Nvidia Fermi

10

2013

2012

2011

2010
...
2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

Fraction of Total TOP500 Performance

Performance Share of Accelerators
40...
Projected Performance Development

1E+11
1E+10
11E+09
Eflop/s
100 Pflop/s
10000000
10 Pflop/s
10000000
1000000
1 Pflop/s
1...
Rank at which
Half of total Performance is accumulated
100
90
80
70
60

50
40
30
20
10
2012

2010

2008

2006

2004

2002
...
Gini Coefficient
• A measure of statistical dispersion intended to
represent inequality
– Area A above the Lorenz curve
(c...
Gini Coefficient of the TOP500
Gini
70
65
60
55
50

45
40
35
2012

2010

2008

2006

2004

2002

2000

1998

1996

1994

3...
Gini Coefficient of the TOP50
Research/Academic/Classified Systems
Gini
70
65
60
55
50

45
40
35
2012

2010

2008

2006

2...
Gini Coefficient of the TOP50
Research and Industry Systems
70

Research

60

Industry

50
40
30
20

10

2012

2010

2008
...
Performance Development of TOP50
Research and Industry Systems
1 Eflop/s
1E+09

100 Pflop/s

10000000

10 Pflop/s

1000000...
Performance Development of “Bottom-50”
Research and Industry Systems
1 Eflop/s

10000000

100 Pflop/s

10000000
10 Pflop/s...
Countries / System Share
United States
China

Canada
2%

India
2%

Japan

Others
12%

United Kingdom
France
United States
...
Performance of Countries
US
EU

10,000

Japan
1,000

China

100
10
1

2012

2010

2008

2006

2004

2002

0
2000

Total Pe...
Vendors / System Share
Hitachi NEC Others
4
33
4
1% 6%
NUDT 1%
4
Dell
1%
8
Fujitsu
2%
8
2%
Cray Inc.
SGI
48
Bull
17
9%
14
...
Vendors (TOP50) / System Share
IBM
Cray Inc

Bull
3
6%

Others
9
18%

SGI
IBM
19
38%

NUDT

Bull
Others

NUDT
3
6%
Fujitsu...
Linpack Efficiency
120%

Linpack Efficiency

100%
80%
60%

40%
20%
0%
0

100

200

300

400

500
Power Consumption
8
TOP10

7

3.0 x in 5 y

Power [MW]

6
5
4

TOP50

3

2.6 x in 5 y

2
TOP500

1
0
2008

2009

2010

201...
Power Efficiency
Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW]

2,000

TOP10

1,800
1,600
1,400

1,200
TOP50

1,000
800
600

TOP500

400
200
0...
Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW]

Power Efficiency
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

TOP10
TOP50

TOP500
Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW]

Power Efficiency
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

TOP10

TOP50

TOP500
Tsubame KFC

Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW]

Power Efficiency

NVIDIA K20x
AMD
FirePro

4,000
3,500

Max-Efficiency

3,000

Mic...
Most Power Efficient Architectures
Rmax/
Power

Computer
Tsubame KFC, NEC, Xeon 6C 2.1GHz, Infiniband FDR, NVIDIA K20x

3,...
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Top500 November 2013

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Slides from the TOP500 BOF session during SC13 in Denver, Co.

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  • Tianhee-1A #1 Nov 10
  • Nov09 N500 growth starts lagging – dropped from 200%to 150% per year
  • Nov09 N500 growth starts lagging – dropped from 200%to 150% per year
  • Gini: 0 = perfect equality (All system are the same size); 1 = total inequality (one system has all Rmax)
  • Gini: 0 = perfect equality (All system are the same size); 1 = total inequality (one system has all Rmax)
  • Gini: 0 = perfect equality (All system are the same size); 1 = total inequality (one system has all Rmax)
  • Both curves are identical and show ”knee” in 2008;The low end of both populations started to lag
  • Fujitsu, Dell, and Dawning have 2 each
  • Light blue diamonds: GigE systemsDark Blue Circles: 10G systemsRed Squares: Infinband and custom interconnectsGolden Triangle: All Accelerator systems
  • 38% and 26% per year
  • Top500 November 2013

    1. 1. Highlights of the nd 42 TOP500 List SC13, Denver, CO
    2. 2. # Site 1 2 3 41st Computer Country National University of Defense Technology NUDT Tianhe-2 NUDT TH-IVB-FEP, China Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cray Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory RIKEN Advanced Institute 4 for Computational Science 5 6 7 8 9 10 List: The TOP10 Manufacturer Argonne National Laboratory Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) Texas Advanced Computing Center/UT Rmax Power [Pflops] [MW] 3,120,000 33.9 17.8 USA 560,640 17.6 8.21 USA 1,572,864 17.2 7.89 795,024 10.5 12.7 Xeon 12C 2.2GHz, IntelXeon Phi Titan Cray XK7, Opteron 16C 2.2GHz, Gemini, NVIDIA K20x IBM Sequoia BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.6GHz, Custom Fujitsu IBM K Computer SPARC64 VIIIfx 2.0GHz, Tofu Interconnect Mira BlueGene/Q, Japan USA 786,432 8.59 3.95 Switzerland 115,984 6.27 2.33 USA 462,462 5.17 4.51 Germany 458,752 5.01 2.30 USA 393,216 4.29 1.97 Germany 147,456 2.90 3.52 Power BQC 16C 1.6GHz, Custom Cray Piz Daint Cray XC30, Xeon E5 8C 2.6GHz, Aries, NVIDIA K20x Dell Stampede PowerEdge C8220, Xeon E5 8C 2.7GHz, Intel Xeon Phi Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) IBM Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory IBM Leibniz Rechenzentrum Cores JuQUEEN BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.6GHz, Custom Vulcan BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.6GHz, Custom IBM SuperMUC iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon E5 8C 2.7GHz, Infiniband FDR
    3. 3. 100 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 Replacement Rate 350 300 250 200 150 137 50 0
    4. 4. Performance Development 1 Eflop/s 1E+09 250 PFlop/s 100 Pflop/s 10000000 33.9 PFlop/s 10 Pflop/s 10000000 1 Pflop/s 1000000 118 TFlop/s SUM 100 Tflop/s 100000 10 Tflop/s 10000 N=1 1 1000 Tflop/s 1.17 TFlop/s 100 Gflop/s 100 10 Gflop/s 10 59.7 GFlop/s N=500 1 Gflop/s 1 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 400 MFlop/s 1996 0.1 1994 100 Mflop/s
    5. 5. Projected Performance Development 1E+11 1E+10 1 Eflop/s 1E+09 100 Pflop/s 000000 10 Pflop/s 000000 1 Pflop/s 000000 100 Tflop/s 100000 10 Tflop/s 10000 1 Tflop/s 1000 100 Gflop/s 100 10 Gflop/s 10 1 Gflop/s 1 100 Mflop/s 0.1 SUM N=1 2020 2014 2008 2002 1996 N=500
    6. 6. Accelerators 70 60 50 40 Clearspeed IBM Cell 30 ATI Radeon 20 Nvidia Kepler Nvidia Fermi 10 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 0 2006 Systems Intel Xeon Phi
    7. 7. 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Fraction of Total TOP500 Performance Performance Share of Accelerators 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%
    8. 8. Projected Performance Development 1E+11 1E+10 11E+09 Eflop/s 100 Pflop/s 10000000 10 Pflop/s 10000000 1000000 1 Pflop/s 100000 100 Tflop/s 10000 10 Tflop/s 1000 1 Tflop/s 100 100 Gflop/s 10 10 Gflop/s 1 1 Gflop/s 0.1 100 Mflop/s SUM N=1 2020 2014 2008 2002 1996 N=500
    9. 9. Rank at which Half of total Performance is accumulated 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 0
    10. 10. Gini Coefficient • A measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent inequality – Area A above the Lorenz curve (cummulative distribution) – Gini = A/(A+B) – 0: All members have the same – 1: One member has everything
    11. 11. Gini Coefficient of the TOP500 Gini 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 30
    12. 12. Gini Coefficient of the TOP50 Research/Academic/Classified Systems Gini 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 30
    13. 13. Gini Coefficient of the TOP50 Research and Industry Systems 70 Research 60 Industry 50 40 30 20 10 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 0
    14. 14. Performance Development of TOP50 Research and Industry Systems 1 Eflop/s 1E+09 100 Pflop/s 10000000 10 Pflop/s 10000000 1 Pflop/s 1000000 100 Tflop/s 100000 10 Tflop/s 10000 1 Tflop/s 1000 100 Gflop/s 10100 Gflop/s 10 1 Gflop/s 100 Mflop/s 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1
    15. 15. Performance Development of “Bottom-50” Research and Industry Systems 1 Eflop/s 10000000 100 Pflop/s 10000000 10 Pflop/s 1000000 1 Pflop/s 100 Tflop/s 100000 10 Tflop/s 10000 1 Tflop/s 1000 100 Gflop/s 10100 Gflop/s 1 Gflop/s 10 100 Mflop/s 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1
    16. 16. Countries / System Share United States China Canada 2% India 2% Japan Others 12% United Kingdom France United States 53% Germany 4% France 4% Germany India Canada Others United Kingdom 5% Japan 6% China 12%
    17. 17. Performance of Countries US EU 10,000 Japan 1,000 China 100 10 1 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 0 2000 Total Performance [Tflop/s] 100,000
    18. 18. Vendors / System Share Hitachi NEC Others 4 33 4 1% 6% NUDT 1% 4 Dell 1% 8 Fujitsu 2% 8 2% Cray Inc. SGI 48 Bull 17 9% 14 3% 3% IBM HP IBM 164 33% Cray Inc. SGI Bull Fujitsu Dell NUDT Hitachi HP 196 39% NEC Others
    19. 19. Vendors (TOP50) / System Share IBM Cray Inc Bull 3 6% Others 9 18% SGI IBM 19 38% NUDT Bull Others NUDT 3 6% Fujitsu 3 6% SGI 3 6% Fujitsu Cray Inc 10 20%
    20. 20. Linpack Efficiency 120% Linpack Efficiency 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0 100 200 300 400 500
    21. 21. Power Consumption 8 TOP10 7 3.0 x in 5 y Power [MW] 6 5 4 TOP50 3 2.6 x in 5 y 2 TOP500 1 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2.7 x in 5 y
    22. 22. Power Efficiency Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW] 2,000 TOP10 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 TOP50 1,000 800 600 TOP500 400 200 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
    23. 23. Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW] Power Efficiency 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 TOP10 TOP50 TOP500
    24. 24. Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW] Power Efficiency 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 TOP10 TOP50 TOP500
    25. 25. Tsubame KFC Linpack/Power [Gflops/kW] Power Efficiency NVIDIA K20x AMD FirePro 4,000 3,500 Max-Efficiency 3,000 Mic BlueGene/Q 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Cell TOP10 TOP50 TOP500
    26. 26. Most Power Efficient Architectures Rmax/ Power Computer Tsubame KFC, NEC, Xeon 6C 2.1GHz, Infiniband FDR, NVIDIA K20x 3,418 HA-PACS TCA, Cray Cluster, Xeon 10C 2.8GHz, QDX, NVIDIA K20x 2,980 SANAM, Adtech, ASUS, Xeon 8C 2.0GHz, Infiniband FDR, AMD FirePro 2,973 iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon 8C 2.6GHz, Infiniband FDR14, NVIDIA K20x 2,702 Piz Daint, Cray XC30, Xeon 8C 2.6GHz, Aries, NVIDIA K20x 2,697 BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.60 GHz, Custom 2,300 HPCC, Cluster Platform SL250s, Xeon 8C 2.4GHz, FDR, NVIDIA K20m 2,243 Titan, Cray XK7, Opteron 16C 2.2GHz, Gemini, NVIDIA K20x 2,143 [Mflops/Watt]

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