Notice that FASD is not listed with other special needs that are diagnosed and eligible for services in school systems
These are the cardinal facial features of FAS. In order to better quantify the findings, reference is made to the lip philtrum guides of Astley & Clarren. Lip and philtrum measurements of 4 and 5, adjusted for race and ethnicity, meet the diagnostic criteria. Astley SJ, Clarren SK. J Pediatrics 1996; 129:33-41.
FASD Dr. Cheryl Wissick College of Education University of South CarolinaMember: SC FASD Collaborative
What do you know•Pre-survey • Do no label with name but make up a 4 digit code to be used again at end•Brainstorming • What do you already know about students with special needs?
Objectives•To learn characteristics of students with FASD•To become familiar with teaching techniques for FASD•To learn how to prevent FASD•Who has FASD? Visit SAFA (http://www.thearc.org/page.aspx?pid=3591)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder•What causes FASD?•Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is not a diagnostic category, but rather an umbrella term describing the effects that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.•Alcohol causes more long-term damage than other drugs of abuse.
Person First language•FASD is what a person has not what a person is.•Teenager with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders•Student with a learning disability•Man with red hat•Can you think of one?
Quick Facts•FASD is 100% preventable•FASD is 0% curable & lasts a lifetime•Prevalence of FASD is about 1:100•Many children and adults with FASD are not diagnosed and do not receive services but end up homeless, in mental institutions or prisons.
Characteristics•Specific central nervous system abnormalities•Growth deficits•Facial CharacteristicsIf all 3 are present, then no confirmation ofmaternal drinking is necessary
Central Nervous System-1 of 3•Functional -Performance substantially below expectations based on age, schooling • cognitive or developmental deficits • executive function deficits • problems with attention or hyperactivity • social skill deficits•Neurological problems•Structural – small head circumference
Facial Abnormalities of FAS-all 3 required Smooth philtrum no groove above lip Thin vermillion thin upper lip Small palpebral fissures small eyelid openings Photo courtesy of Teresa Kellerman
FASD•If not a diagnosis then what…•Leading cause of Intellectual Disability - - - IQ below 70•BUT only about 25% of all with FASD have ID•IQ range from 20 to 110 or higher•What might be the diagnosis? • LD, EBD, ADHD, OD,
Classroom Challenges•Students who do not always respond to Research & Evidence based strategies•Students do not respond to typical or long term rewards and consequences•Students who appear to be unmotivated and unresponsive
Brain disorder creates gapsChart of age level functioning
Use Strengths Based Approach•What do they do well?•What do they like to do?•What are their best qualities?•What are your funniest experiences with them?•Identify strengths in family, teachers, community, school•Always focus on the individual first
“Typical” strengths• Friendly • Determined• Likeable • Have points of insight• Verbal • Good with younger• Helpful children or elderly• Caring• Hard Worker
UDL* Model•Paradigm shift: Move from viewing the individual as failing to viewing the program as not providing what the individuals need. (Dubovsky)•Identify Barriers to learning and then list possible solutions to those barriers. * Universal Design for Learning
Barriers to LearningAttention•Coming to attention•Filtering out other distractions•Staying on task for long periods•Shifting attention
Barriers to learningVerbal Reception•Verbal expressive ability is much more advanced than verbal receptive skills or ability to produce written products.•Can’t process several directions at once•Say they know what they need to do but they cannot show they can do it
Barriers to Learning Working memory •Problems with Storage and retrieval •Cannot keep track of multiple plans •Cannot remember what they were supposed to do when (whether its an hour, day or week after being told) •Difficulty with number concepts: time, money, measurement
Barrier to learningAbstract Concepts•Slow Processing rate•Difficulty with prediction•Difficulty making links or forming associations•Problems making generalizations•Literal thinking
Barrier to BehaviorDo not learn by experiencingconsequences of their behavior.•Act oppositional.•Keep breaking the rules.•Problems with lying or filling in the truth.•Only respond to immediate rewards and consequences.
Barrier to BehaviorSocial Interactions•Try to “go along with the crowd”•Difficulty making & maintaining friends.•Cannot filter what they are thinking•Perceptions of situations are different from others
Overall Strategies•Simplify the individual’s environment•Use of a lot of repetition, more than what we think based on their intellect & verbal behavior.•Provide one direction or rule at a time.•De-stress situations, as it creates cortisol in their brain. Don’t bring a match to a fireworks factory.
Take home information•Modify approaches to meet needs based on brain damage•Simplify the environment and add structure.•Listen when they tell you that they cannot do something but they are trying, as they do learn differently
So now you know…•Why would someone drink while pregnant?•55% of women aged 18-44 drink and CAN become pregnant•Most women drink BEFORE they know they are pregnant•Great-Aunt Margaret Marie drank while she was pregnant and Uncle Harry is just fine
How much is too much alcohol•What is a standard drink: • 12 oz. of beer • 5 oz. of wine • 4 oz. sherry • 1 ½ oz. of liquor • 12 oz wine spritzer•NO alcohol in any form is safe during pregnancy.
Prevalence of Any Alcohol Use among Women Aged 18-44 Years – United States, 1991-2005•High-risk drinking among women has not declined in the past decade Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1991-2005, United States 60 50 Prevalence (%) 40 30 20 10 0 Not pregnant Pregnant
Take home message•No amount of alcohol,•No type of alcohol,•No time of pregnancy to consume alcohol is known to be safe during pregnancy.
FASD Reminders•Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is 100% preventable•Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is 0% curable•If you are pregnant, don’t drink•If you drink, don’t get pregnant
Resources•National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome http://www.nofas.org•FAS Center for Excellence http://www.fascenter.samhsa.gov•FAS Community Resource Center http://www.come-over.to/FAS•SC FASD Collaborative http://scfasd.weebly.com/
Help spread the word with the FASD KnotCan you follow the picture directions tomake an FASD knot?