Soils may be formed in place from rockor formed in weathered rock andminerals that have been transportedfrom where the original rock occurred.
HorizonsMost soils possess soilhorizons- distinctivehorizontal layers thatdiffer in physicalcomposition, chemicalcomposition, or organiccontent or structure.
Soil Characteristics(Color] The color of a soil reveals details about itscomposition and fertility.(Texture] Soil textures based on particle size.(Structure] Soil structure describes the arrangement of soilparticles. Which you can see it in the “clumpiness” of soil.(pH] a soil’s acidity or alkalinity affects its ability tosupport plant growth.
Soil DegradationThe soil characteristics needed for plantgrowth or other ecosystem services. Also,soil degradation results in major ecosystemchanges.
Soil DesertificationIt’s a loss of more than 10% of productivity due toerosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing,drought, salt buildup, climate change, depletion ofwater sources, and other factors.
Soil Pollution Irrigation and pesticide use can improve soil productivity in the short term, but they can pollute soil in the long term.• Irrigation – using source other than precipitation to water crops.• Salinization – the buildup of salts in the surface layers of soil.• Pesticides – a chemical used to kill organisms that attack or compete with plants that humans value.
Soil Conservation Practices: Soil Conservation is maintaining good soil health, by various practices. The aim of soil conversation is to prevent soil erosion, soil’s overuse and prevent soil contamination from chemicals. There are many ways to conserve soil, some are suited to those areas where farming is done, and some are according to the soil needs. Examples :• Intercropping• Crop Rotation• Shelterbelts• Conservation Tillage• Terracing• Contour Farming