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Duesterberg

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  • Multicultural education: According to Troyna (1987) multicultural education was specifically focused on promoting tolerance and understanding of other cultures, on the part of white students and teachers. Multicultural education focused primarily on altering the perceptions and attitudes of white students and teachers in order to create a less racist society.  
  • Antiracist education argued that racism was mostly a function of institutionalized systems.  Antiracist education held that capitalism, the school system, and other institutions maintained racism by limiting opportunities, on an institutional level, for racial minorities and providing white people greater access to resources, jobs and other opportunities.  As a result, antiracist education advocated for large scale political action to confront and eliminate racism. 
  • Post-structural perspective on race: According to post-structuralism, racism (or any other inequality that exists in society) is not solely a function of individual attitudes, nor is it solely a function of institutional structures, but rather can be understood by examining the interaction of the self with the social world.  This interaction is primarily examined through the ways in which individuals communicate with each other.  Post-structuralism confronts racism and inequality through analyzing how power impacts communication on a local and individual level, and uses this analysis of power within individual communication to create new discourses and practices on a larger societal level, which challenge prevailing ideas about race, which further empower racial minorities by creating new societal truths which legitimize the views of these groups. 
  • Post-structural perspective on race: According to post-structuralism, racism (or any other inequality that exists in society) is not solely a function of individual attitudes, nor is it solely a function of institutional structures, but rather can be understood by examining the interaction of the self with the social world.  This interaction is primarily examined through the ways in which individuals communicate with each other.  Post-structuralism confronts racism and inequality through analyzing how power impacts communication on a local and individual level, and uses this analysis of power within individual communication to create new discourses and practices on a larger societal level, which challenge prevailing ideas about race, which further empower racial minorities by creating new societal truths which legitimize the views of these groups. 
  • Despite these criticism, Duesterberg argues that "a post-structural analysis of and resistance to discursive practices and power relations can be useful and productive for antiracist pedagogy." (Duesterberg, 1999, p. 755)  Duesterberg, in this paper, conducts a post-structural analysis of his work with student teachers to examine the student teachers concept of race and the ways in which these teachers concept of race influenced their understanding, and experience of, the parent-teacher conference. 
  • Concept of race: Ideological perspective: According to this perspective race and racism is a social construction.  Race, according to this perspective, is created and maintained by society and societal practices. In the early part of this century, ideological race was liberal understand meant to challenge the long-standing biologically based notions of race that supported and sustained slavery, genocide, and other forms of exclusionary practices. Early civil rights movement likewise focused on ideological conceptions of race; and reform efforts targeted both the elimination of discriminatory legal and institutional practices and the eventual elimination of race as a significant category of social organization.
  • Concept of race: Ideological perspective: According to this perspective race and racism is a social construction.  Race, according to this perspective, is created and maintained by society and societal practices. In the early part of this century, ideological race was liberal understand meant to challenge the long-standing biologically based notions of race that supported and sustained slavery, genocide, and other forms of exclusionary practices. Early civil rights movement likewise focused on ideological conceptions of race; and reform efforts targeted both the elimination of discriminatory legal and institutional practices and the eventual elimination of race as a significant category of social organization.
  • Weaknesses of this perspective: This perspective ignores the diversity within any particular racial group by focusing on cultural solidarity and uniformity.  This perspective fails to account for the intersectionality of race, class, sexual orientation and gender that informs and influences individual identity. 
  • Race as performance: By this perspective, race is created through performance, in other words race is created through the actions and interactions of individuals.  These performances are influenced by historical understanding and conceptions of race. 

Duesterberg Duesterberg Presentation Transcript

  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    “Requiring that student teachers be committed to teaching every child in their classrooms demands that preservice teachers think through how they understand themselves and others…”
    ~ Teachers College Record, 1999
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Multicultural Education
    “White students and teachers [were directly targeted] as the flawed protagonists in their racial relations with minorities…”
    ~ McCarthy, 1993
    Focused on:
    • Promoting tolerance and understanding of other cultures on the part of white students and teachers.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    • Altering the perceptions and attitudes of white students and teachers.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Multicultural Education
    “White students and teachers [were directly targeted] as the flawed protagonists in their racial relations with minorities…”
    ~ McCarthy, 1993
    What do you think could be a problem with this position?
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Multicultural education’s focus on the individual failed to recognize that attitudes about race are maintained through social institutions (like schools).
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Antiracist Education
    “[Racism is] a function of ‘the institutional arrangements in a capitalist system’ that privilege white racial groups in this country…”
    ~ Kailin, 1994
    Argued that:
    • Racism was mostly a function of institutionalized systems.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    • The priority should be a collective action and strategy for change in explicitly political terms rather than attitudinal terms.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Antiracist Education
    “[Racism is] a function of ‘the institutional arrangements in a capitalist system’ that privilege white racial groups in this country…”
    ~ Kailin, 1994
    What do you think could be a problem with this position?
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    The antiracist approach never provides individuals guidance on how to confront racism as an individual.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • “…Discourses, for Foucault, are words and statements that form a conceptual grid, as a set of rules, limits and logic that determine truth and provide the boundaries through which individuals see to claim identification so that they will be perceived as legitimate members of a group.”
    ~ Duesterberg, 1999
    Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Discourse
    Discourse analysis is not concerned with who is speaking as much as the “power relations” that determine the rules of what is said, who can say it and when it can be said.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    WHAT THE HECK DOES
    THAT MEAN??
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • “…Discourses, for Foucault, are words and statements that form a conceptual grid, as a set of rules, limits and logic that determine truth and provide the boundaries through which individuals see to claim identification so that they will be perceived as legitimate members of a group.”
    ~ Duesterberg
    Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Discourse
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Discourse Analysis looks at why that power was used the way it was.
    Truth, morality and and meaning are all taught through discourse.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Post-structuralism
    “…the individual is not theorized as independent, unified, and autonomous, but rather is embedded in the socially and culturally constructed.”
    ~ Foucault, 1979
    • Racism is not solely a function of individual attitudes.
    • Racism is not solely a function of institutional structures.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    • Racism can be understood by examining the interaction of the self with the social world.
    • How do we communicate with each other?
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Post-structuralism
    “…the individual is not theorized as independent, unified, and autonomous, but rather is embedded in the socially and culturally constructed.”
    ~ Foucault, 1979
    What do you think could be a problem with this position?
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    By focusing largely on an analysis of language and communication, post-structuralism will fail to challenge the institutional structures which encourage and maintain racist views and discourses
     
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Post-structuralism
    “…I need to provide a space in the classroom in which resistance is possible and, at the same time, the subject of critique.”
    ~ Duesterberg, 1999
    Despite this criticism, Duesterberg argues that “a post-structural analysis of a resistance to discursive practices and power relations can be useful and productive for antiracist pedagogy.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Concept of Race
    “someday my four little children will be judged, not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character”
    ~ Martin Luther King, 1963
    Ideological Perspective
    According to this perspective, race and racism are social constructions.
    Race, according to this perspective, is created and maintained by society and societal practices.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Historical roots: a liberal understanding meant to challenge the long-standing biologically based notions of race that supported and sustained slavery, genocide and other forms of exclusionary practices.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Concept of Race
    “someday my four little children will be judged, not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character”
    ~ Martin Luther King, 1963
    What do you think could be a problem with this position?
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    It ignores the fact that race continues to be a way in which society organizes itself.
    It assumes that people can choose how they will identify themselves in relation to race.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Concept of Race
    “…race continues to produce divisions along the entrenched dichotomy of whit/other, which then signals other divisions: oppressor/oppressed, reason/passion, restraint/violence, mind/body.”
    ~ Young/ 1990; Goldberg, 1993;
    Said, 1993
    As an Objective Position
    Holds that race is fixed and objective.
    Clearly defined boundaries that determine group membership
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Concept of Race
    “…race continues to produce divisions along the entrenched dichotomy of whit/other, which then signals other divisions: oppressor/oppressed, reason/passion, restraint/violence, mind/body.”
    ~ Young/ 1990; Goldberg, 1993;
    Said, 1993
    What do you think could be a problem with this position?
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    This perspective ignores the diversity within any particular racial group by focusing on cultural solidarity and uniformity. It fails to account for the intersectionality of race, class, sexual orientation and gender that informs and influences individual identity.
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan
  • Theorizing Race
    in the Context of
    Learning to Teach
    Theorizing Race in the Context of Learning to Teach
    Concept of Race
    “Individual students and teachers must do the hard work of understanding and recognizing multiple discourses of race or gender and the consequences the performances these discourses compel.”
    ~ Duesterberg, 1999
    As Performance
    Race is created through the actions and interactions of individuals. These performances are influenced by historical understanding and conceptions of race.
    Written ByLuann M. Duesterberg
    Presented BySara Plowman, Carrie O’Donnell, Faye Kwan