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Duesterberg
 

Duesterberg

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  • Multicultural education: According to Troyna (1987) multicultural education was specifically focused on promoting tolerance and understanding of other cultures, on the part of white students and teachers. Multicultural education focused primarily on altering the perceptions and attitudes of white students and teachers in order to create a less racist society.  
  • Antiracist education argued that racism was mostly a function of institutionalized systems.  Antiracist education held that capitalism, the school system, and other institutions maintained racism by limiting opportunities, on an institutional level, for racial minorities and providing white people greater access to resources, jobs and other opportunities.  As a result, antiracist education advocated for large scale political action to confront and eliminate racism. 
  • Post-structural perspective on race: According to post-structuralism, racism (or any other inequality that exists in society) is not solely a function of individual attitudes, nor is it solely a function of institutional structures, but rather can be understood by examining the interaction of the self with the social world.  This interaction is primarily examined through the ways in which individuals communicate with each other.  Post-structuralism confronts racism and inequality through analyzing how power impacts communication on a local and individual level, and uses this analysis of power within individual communication to create new discourses and practices on a larger societal level, which challenge prevailing ideas about race, which further empower racial minorities by creating new societal truths which legitimize the views of these groups. 
  • Post-structural perspective on race: According to post-structuralism, racism (or any other inequality that exists in society) is not solely a function of individual attitudes, nor is it solely a function of institutional structures, but rather can be understood by examining the interaction of the self with the social world.  This interaction is primarily examined through the ways in which individuals communicate with each other.  Post-structuralism confronts racism and inequality through analyzing how power impacts communication on a local and individual level, and uses this analysis of power within individual communication to create new discourses and practices on a larger societal level, which challenge prevailing ideas about race, which further empower racial minorities by creating new societal truths which legitimize the views of these groups. 
  • Despite these criticism, Duesterberg argues that "a post-structural analysis of and resistance to discursive practices and power relations can be useful and productive for antiracist pedagogy." (Duesterberg, 1999, p. 755)  Duesterberg, in this paper, conducts a post-structural analysis of his work with student teachers to examine the student teachers concept of race and the ways in which these teachers concept of race influenced their understanding, and experience of, the parent-teacher conference. 
  • Concept of race: Ideological perspective: According to this perspective race and racism is a social construction.  Race, according to this perspective, is created and maintained by society and societal practices. In the early part of this century, ideological race was liberal understand meant to challenge the long-standing biologically based notions of race that supported and sustained slavery, genocide, and other forms of exclusionary practices. Early civil rights movement likewise focused on ideological conceptions of race; and reform efforts targeted both the elimination of discriminatory legal and institutional practices and the eventual elimination of race as a significant category of social organization.
  • Concept of race: Ideological perspective: According to this perspective race and racism is a social construction.  Race, according to this perspective, is created and maintained by society and societal practices. In the early part of this century, ideological race was liberal understand meant to challenge the long-standing biologically based notions of race that supported and sustained slavery, genocide, and other forms of exclusionary practices. Early civil rights movement likewise focused on ideological conceptions of race; and reform efforts targeted both the elimination of discriminatory legal and institutional practices and the eventual elimination of race as a significant category of social organization.
  • Weaknesses of this perspective: This perspective ignores the diversity within any particular racial group by focusing on cultural solidarity and uniformity.  This perspective fails to account for the intersectionality of race, class, sexual orientation and gender that informs and influences individual identity. 
  • Race as performance: By this perspective, race is created through performance, in other words race is created through the actions and interactions of individuals.  These performances are influenced by historical understanding and conceptions of race. 

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