The
Prophets
       1
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                            2
Why do we have
  the Bible?
Why do we have
  the Bible?

            So that we can
              know God
Why do we have
  the Bible?

            So that we can
              know God


     … and know how
    to respond to God
GOD


      us
GOD


them         us
GOD


them         us
GOD


them         us
How do you feel about the prophets in the
Old Testament?




                                            6
How do you feel about the prophets in the
Old Testament?

What do you find difficult about them?

Why is it important to stu...
difficulties with
 the prophets

                   7
They have a queer way of talking, like people
who, instead of proceeding in an orderly
manner, ramble off from one thing t...
They have a queer way of talking, like people
who, instead of proceeding in an orderly
manner, ramble off from one thing t...
to g
           s in
          r d
     r t
    a s ie n
       r a
  b r
  n d e
u
10
Culture              Language


          Religion

History              Geography

                                 10
Core Themes

              11
What are the main themes which run
throughout the whole Bible?




                                     12
salvation history

                    13
. . . the Lord God banished them from the
Garden of Eden . . .
                                   Genesis 3:23




       ...
He will strike your head, and you will strike his
heel.
                                  Genesis 3:15




               ...
For God so loved the world that he gave his
one and only Son, that whoever believes in
him shall not perish but have etern...
I saw a vast crowd, too great to count, from
every nation and tribe and people and
language, standing in front of the thro...
covenant
‘I will be your God and you will be my people’




                                                 19
I will make you into a great nation. I will
  bless you and make you famous, and you will
  be a blessing to others. I wil...
Now if you will obey me and keep my
covenant, you will be my own special treasure
from among all the peoples on the earth;...
Don’t you realise that the Lord, the God of
Israel, made a lasting covenant with David,
giving him and his descendants the...
‘This is my blood, which confirms the covenant
between God and his people. It is poured out
as a sacrifice for many.’
      ...
kingdom

          24
God’s
people
God’s
  people




God’s place
God’s             rule

         God’s
        people




    God’s place
God’s             rule
God’s             blessing
         God’s
        people




    God’s place
Four stages in the OT
Adam
and Eve
Adam
and Eve




Eden
God’s words
          Relationship
 Adam
and Eve




Eden
Under God’s curse




Excluded
Moses


        29
There has never been another prophet in
Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to
face.
                          Deut...
Israel
Israel




Canaan
God’s law
          Covenant

 Israel




Canaan
What other nation is so great as to have such
righteous decrees and laws as this body of
laws I am setting before you toda...
CANAAN
Jericho

CANAAN
Jericho

CANAAN
Reuben
Gad

Reuben
Manasseh
   (half)

Gad

Reuben
Manasseh
           (half)

        Gad

Judah   Reuben
Manasseh
               (half)

            Gad

    Judah   Reuben
Simeon
Manasseh
                          (half)

                       Gad
Benjamin
               Judah   Reuben
           Si...
Manasseh
                          (half)
                Ephraim
                       Gad
Benjamin
               Judah...
Manasseh
                          (half)
                Ephraim
            Dan        Gad
Benjamin
               Judah...
Manasseh   Manasseh
                (half)     (half)
                Ephraim
            Dan        Gad
Benjamin
        ...
Issachar

              Manasseh   Manasseh
                (half)     (half)
                Ephraim
            Dan     ...
Zebullun              Issachar

              Manasseh   Manasseh
                (half)     (half)
                Ephrai...
er
                    Ash
   Zebullun                Issachar

              Manasseh   Manasseh
                (half)  ...
li
                        hta
                         er
                     Ash
                    Nap
   Zebullun   ...
li
                                      ARAM




                        hta
                         er
                ...
Covenant blessings




                     35
Covenant blessings

• Life




                     35
Covenant blessings

• Life
• Health




                     35
Covenant blessings

• Life
• Health
• Abundance




                     35
Covenant blessings

• Life        • Prosperity
• Health
• Abundance




                             35
Covenant blessings

• Life        • Prosperity
• Health      • Security
• Abundance




                             35
Covenant blessings

• Life        • Prosperity
• Health      • Security
• Abundance   • Respect




                      ...
Covenant curses




                  36
Covenant curses

• Disease




                    36
Covenant curses

• Disease
• Drought




                    36
Covenant curses

• Disease
• Drought
• Dearth




                    36
Covenant curses

• Disease
• Drought
• Dearth
• Danger



                    36
Covenant curses

• Disease
• Drought
• Dearth
• Danger
• Death

                    36
Covenant curses

• Disease   • Defeat
• Drought
• Dearth
• Danger
• Death

                       36
Covenant curses

• Disease   • Defeat
• Drought   • Destruction
• Dearth
• Danger
• Death

                            36
Covenant curses

• Disease   • Defeat
• Drought   • Destruction
• Dearth    • Deportation
• Danger
• Death

              ...
Covenant curses

• Disease   • Defeat
• Drought   • Destruction
• Dearth    • Deportation
• Danger    • Destitution
• Deat...
Covenant curses

• Disease   • Defeat
• Drought   • Destruction
• Dearth    • Deportation
• Danger    • Destitution
• Deat...
God’s law
                Covenant

    Israel




Canaan/Israel
God’s law
                Covenant




Canaan/Israel
The enemy
  within
            38
39
39
39
39
39
40
Read Deuteronomy 18:9–22

What are the people of God to avoid?

Why? What is the purpose of these pagan
practices?

What i...
When the Lord your God eliminates the
nations from the place where you are headed
and you dispossess them, you will settle...
You must not worship the Lord your God the
way they do! For everything that is abhorrent
to him, everything he hates, they...
When you enter the land the Lord your God
is giving you, you must not learn the abhorrent
practices of those nations. Ther...
Whoever does these things is abhorrent to
the Lord and because of these detestable
things the Lord your God is about to dr...
The Lord your God will raise up for you a
prophet like me from among you – from your
fellow Israelites; you must listen to...
A downward spiral
(Judges 2:6 – 16:31)

                       46
47
Turning
from God




            47
Turning
from God

            Oppression




                         47
Turning
from God

            Oppression



            Crying
            to God
                         47
Turning
      from God

                  Oppression



Rescuer           Crying
(Judge)           to God
                ...
Turning
        from God

Peace               Oppression



  Rescuer           Crying
  (Judge)           to God
        ...
Turning
        from God

Peace               Oppression



  Rescuer           Crying
  (Judge)           to God
        ...
The state of the nation
The state of the nation
JOSHUA:        JUDGES:
The state of the nation
 JOSHUA:            JUDGES:
• Israel united   • Factions/rivalry
The state of the nation
 JOSHUA:           JUDGES:
• Israel united   • Factions/rivalry
• Concerned for   • Self-interest ...
The state of the nation
 JOSHUA:              JUDGES:
• Israel united      • Factions/rivalry
• Concerned for      • Self-...
49
• Failure to deal with pagan nations




                                       49
• Failure to deal with pagan nations
• Failure to live by God’s standards




                                       49
• Failure to deal with pagan nations
• Failure to live by God’s standards
• Failure to have God at the centre of life and
...
In those days Israel had no king; everyone did as
he saw fit.
                    Judges 17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25




      ...
Saul
Saul
• 1 Samuel 9–31
Saul
• 1 Samuel 9–31
• Reigned 1050–1010 (approx.)
Saul
• 1 Samuel 9–31
• Reigned 1050–1010 (approx.)
• Rejected because he rejected the word of the
  Lord (1 Samuel 15:23 )
David
David
• ‘The Lord has sought out a man after his own
  heart’ (1 Samuel 13:14)
David
• ‘The Lord has sought out a man after his own
  heart’ (1 Samuel 13:14)
• 1 Samuel 16 – 1 Kings 2 / 1 Chronicles 29
David
• ‘The Lord has sought out a man after his own
  heart’ (1 Samuel 13:14)
• 1 Samuel 16 – 1 Kings 2 / 1 Chronicles 29...
Solomon
Solomon
• 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9
Solomon
• 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9
• Reigned 970–931 (approx.)
Solomon
• 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9
• Reigned 970–931 (approx.)
• The wisest man (1 Kings 3:12; see Luke 1...
Solomon
• 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9
• Reigned 970–931 (approx.)
• The wisest man (1 Kings 3:12; see Luke 1...
Jerusalem
Rehoboam Jerusalem
922 BC



 Jeroboam Shechem
Rehoboam Jerusalem
922 BC


                     ISRAEL
 Jeroboam Shechem
Rehoboam Jerusalem
922 BC


                      ISRAEL
            Samaria
 Jeroboam
Rehoboam Jerusalem
922 BC




Rehoboam Jerusalem

            JUDAH
Saul
1050




       55
Rehoboam
                               931
Saul   David   Solomon
1050   1010    970




                         Jeroboa...
1050
                  Saul
                1010
                  David
                970
                  Solomon



...
Jeroboam      Rehoboam
         931           931
      Nadab 910     Abijam 913
     Baasha 909
      Elah 886         As...
Jeroboam      Rehoboam
         931            931
      Nadab 910     Abijam 913
     Baasha 909
      Elah 886          ...
God’s law
         Covenant




Israel
God’s law
         Covenant




Israel
prophets = nabi




                  57
prophets = nabi
called (by God) to call out (for God)




                                        57
58
Prophets are called by God




                             58
Prophets are called by God
     . . . to speak from God




                               58
Prophets are called by God
     . . . to speak from God
             . . . about God


                               58
authority


            59
uniformity


             60
Whether he is discussing the past, present or
future, the prophet is seeking to make God
the most genuine reality that men...
not foretelling


                  62
forthtelling


               63
Prophecy is essentially a ministry of disclosure,
a stripping bare. Israel’s great prophets do not
merely lift the veil of...
God’s glory

              65
God’s ultimate concern


                         66
Glory in the Old Testament




                             67
Glory in the Old Testament
• God’s glory revealed in creation




                                     67
Glory in the Old Testament
• God’s glory revealed in creation
• God’s glory rejected by human rebellion




              ...
Glory in the Old Testament
• God’s glory revealed in creation
• God’s glory rejected by human rebellion
• God’s glory revi...
Glory in the Old Testament
• God’s glory revealed in creation
• God’s glory rejected by human rebellion
• God’s glory revi...
Glory in the Old Testament
• God’s glory revealed in creation
• God’s glory rejected by human rebellion
• God’s glory revi...
The Bible’s Structure


                        68
Christian     Jewish

Old Testament   Tanak

New Testament



                         69
Old Testament
                Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
 Pentateuch     Numbers, Deuteronomy
                Joshua, Jud...
New Testament
  Revelation       Matthew Mark, Luke, John


   History         Acts


Timeless present   Romans – Jude


 ...
Old Testament   Tanak
  Pentateuch
     Law

   History      Prophets

   Wisdom       Writings

   Prophets


           ...
Old Testament    Tanak
  Pentateuch
     Law        Instruction

   History      Prophets

   Wisdom        Writings

   P...
Old Testament    Tanak
  Pentateuch
     Law        Instruction
                   Torah

   History      Prophets
       ...
Tanak
                            Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
  Law/Instruction           Numbers, Deuteronomy


         ...
The Word of
 the LORD
              74
Calling people
 back to the
  covenant
Covenant
enforcement
 mediators
 (Fee and Stuart)
Warning of
judgment




             76
Promising
restoration




              77
Restoration
Basic pattern

                79
80
Identification of
   Israel’s sin




                   80
Identification of
    Israel’s sin



Announcement of
   judgment


                    80
Identification of     Declaration of
    Israel’s sin    God’s love for Israel



Announcement of
   judgment


           ...
Identification of     Declaration of
    Israel’s sin    God’s love for Israel



Announcement of     Announcement of
   ju...
Old
Testament

   Promise
Old                  New
Testament       Testament

   Promise   Fulfilment
deep focus


             82
two horizons


               84
85
key themes

             86
1
God is the ruler of all of
history and every nation

                             87
2
      Humanity’s most
    fundamental need is
    to be right with God
                           88
3
 Religion, politics and
society must all be on
  a firm moral base
                          89
4
God offers us the choice
 of judgment or hope

                           90
conditional future?


                      91
The [Latter Prophets] did not call for reform,
for they knew it was too late; the end of the
present order was near and co...
5
The future kingdom of God


                            93
beacons


          94
These distant future events . . . are announced
to serve as beacons for God’s people –
beacons which will help them get th...
a universal kingdom


                      96
coming and continuing


                        97
a coming King


                98
6
    The glory of God


                       99
God’s glory in the prophets




                              100
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people
  and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11




          ...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people
  and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11
• God’s glory ...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people
  and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11
• God’s glory ...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people
  and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11
• God’s glory ...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people
  and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11
• God’s glory ...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer.
  31:31–33




                                  ...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer.
  31:31–33
• God will be shepherd Ezekiel 34:11–1...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer.
  31:31–33
• God will be shepherd Ezekiel 34:11–1...
God’s glory in the prophets
• God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer.
  31:31–33
• God will be shepherd Ezekiel 34:11–1...
Death
        102
i o n
            c t
         rre
 e s   u
R                  102
Read Joel and see how these key themes are
explored.




                                             103
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets
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I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets

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An introduction to the Old Testament prophets, focusing on the origins of prophetism with Moses, the greatest prophet, their origins in the early history of Israel, and on the key themes in the prophets. A lecture given on the Bible and Culture course at Schloss Mittersill, Austria (a course run jointly by Schloss MIttersill and IFES).

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  • Bible: bestselling book of all time; central to Western Culture; God’s self-disclosure
    Prophets: Nothing ever equalled the collection of literature by the prophets
    Who is the greatest prophet? Moses – Deuteronomy 34:10
  • Difficult because collections of spoken oracles, not necessarily in chronological order
  • Difficult because collections of spoken oracles, not necessarily in chronological order
  • Language; Culture; Geography; History; Religion
  • Core themes of BIBLE, not prophets only
  • God reversing the effects of sin and establishing a new creation.

    QUESTION: What are the key stages of salvation history?
  • God‘s commitment to his people: ‘I will be your God and you will be my people’

    QUESTION: What are the major covenants?
  • Judah, led by King Abijah, took 400k soldiers to meet Jeroboam with 800k. Abijah shouts this from Mount Zemaraim to Jeroboam
  • God‘s people in God‘s place enjoying God‘s presence.

    QUESTION: How can we summarise what God’s kingdom means throughout Scripture?
  • Marcus: God’s place = God’s household; Where God is
    Marcus adds God’s deliverance
  • Marcus: God’s place = God’s household; Where God is
    Marcus adds God’s deliverance
  • Marcus: God’s place = God’s household; Where God is
    Marcus adds God’s deliverance
  • Marcus: God’s place = God’s household; Where God is
    Marcus adds God’s deliverance
  • Marcus: God’s place = God’s household; Where God is
    Marcus adds God’s deliverance
  • Marcus: God’s place = God’s household; Where God is
    Marcus adds God’s deliverance
  • The kingdom revealed in Eden
    Gen 1–2
  • The kingdom revealed in Eden
    Gen 1–2
  • The kingdom revealed in Eden
    Gen 1–2
  • The kingdom resisted; Genesis 3–11
  • The kingdom resisted; Genesis 3–11
  • The kingdom resisted; Genesis 3–11
  • The kingdom resisted; Genesis 3–11
  • greatest prophet; prior to Moses God communicated directly with heads of families/key individuals (esp. Patriarchs). Moses leading people with 600k families – God speaks to nation through one man
    People wanted a (speaking) mediator: Deuteronomy 18:15–16
  • cf Aaron and Miriam’s complaint and God’s answer Nu. 12:1–8. Moses in entirely different category from all other prophets
    Later prophets to be like Moses (Deut. 18) - he is fountainhead of prophetism (contradicts religious evolution - peak first) – but never greater
  • The kingdom revealed in Israel – Gen 12 – 1 Kings 11 / 2 Chronicles 9
  • The kingdom revealed in Israel – Gen 12 – 1 Kings 11 / 2 Chronicles 9
  • The kingdom revealed in Israel – Gen 12 – 1 Kings 11 / 2 Chronicles 9
  • Moses addressing people in plain of Moab
    Israel was to have unique function among nations of earth
  • Joshua 11:16-23 (note: ‘all’)
    cf 13:1; 23:1-13 (lots still to do)
  • Joshua 11:16-23 (note: ‘all’)
    cf 13:1; 23:1-13 (lots still to do)
  • Joshua 11:16-23 (note: ‘all’)
    cf 13:1; 23:1-13 (lots still to do)
  • Joshua 11:16-23 (note: ‘all’)
    cf 13:1; 23:1-13 (lots still to do)
  • Joshua 11:16-23 (note: ‘all’)
    cf 13:1; 23:1-13 (lots still to do)
  • Joshua 11:16-23 (note: ‘all’)
    cf 13:1; 23:1-13 (lots still to do)
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • How the West was won
    (or not)
    Transjordan = Gilead
  • Note: these are corporate, not individual
    Life or death in promised land: Lev 26:1–39; Deut 4:15–40; 28 – 32 (note 30:11–20)
  • Note: these are corporate, not individual
    Life or death in promised land: Lev 26:1–39; Deut 4:15–40; 28 – 32 (note 30:11–20)
  • Note: these are corporate, not individual
    Life or death in promised land: Lev 26:1–39; Deut 4:15–40; 28 – 32 (note 30:11–20)
  • Note: these are corporate, not individual
    Life or death in promised land: Lev 26:1–39; Deut 4:15–40; 28 – 32 (note 30:11–20)
  • Note: these are corporate, not individual
    Life or death in promised land: Lev 26:1–39; Deut 4:15–40; 28 – 32 (note 30:11–20)
  • Note: these are corporate, not individual
    Life or death in promised land: Lev 26:1–39; Deut 4:15–40; 28 – 32 (note 30:11–20)
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • 10 ‘D’s
    These are corporate
  • Warned against settling in with Canaanites by Joshua and Moses (Josh 23)
  • Warned against settling in with Canaanites by Joshua and Moses (Josh 23)
    Bronze figure of Baal; Canaanite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Syria
    Ugaritic Baal figure
    Limestone stela with dedication to Baal, from Carthage 2nd-1st century BC; symbolism is Canaanite, with 2 representations of goddess Tanit
    Phoenician Astarte; 6th century from Tharros, Sardinia
    Gold god Hittite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Anatolia
  • Warned against settling in with Canaanites by Joshua and Moses (Josh 23)
    Bronze figure of Baal; Canaanite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Syria
    Ugaritic Baal figure
    Limestone stela with dedication to Baal, from Carthage 2nd-1st century BC; symbolism is Canaanite, with 2 representations of goddess Tanit
    Phoenician Astarte; 6th century from Tharros, Sardinia
    Gold god Hittite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Anatolia
  • Warned against settling in with Canaanites by Joshua and Moses (Josh 23)
    Bronze figure of Baal; Canaanite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Syria
    Ugaritic Baal figure
    Limestone stela with dedication to Baal, from Carthage 2nd-1st century BC; symbolism is Canaanite, with 2 representations of goddess Tanit
    Phoenician Astarte; 6th century from Tharros, Sardinia
    Gold god Hittite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Anatolia
  • Warned against settling in with Canaanites by Joshua and Moses (Josh 23)
    Bronze figure of Baal; Canaanite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Syria
    Ugaritic Baal figure
    Limestone stela with dedication to Baal, from Carthage 2nd-1st century BC; symbolism is Canaanite, with 2 representations of goddess Tanit
    Phoenician Astarte; 6th century from Tharros, Sardinia
    Gold god Hittite, about 1400-1200 BC, from Anatolia
  • Note God’s initiative in raising up future prophet(s)
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • 1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Shamgar 4. Deborah/Barak 5. Gideon 6. Tola 7. Jair 8. Jephthah 9. Ibzan 10. Elon 11. Abdon 12. Samson
    Othniel is reliable, highly competent and faithful to God
    Problems - idolatry; covenants
  • triple failure
  • triple failure
  • triple failure
  • Emphasising the advantages of a monarchy over anarchy
    Deuteronomy 17:14-20
  • Note 2 Samuel 7:8-16
  • Note 2 Samuel 7:8-16
  • Note 2 Samuel 7:8-16
  • Note 1 Kings 8:56-61
  • Note 1 Kings 8:56-61
  • Note 1 Kings 8:56-61
  • Note 1 Kings 8:56-61
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • Ephraim in green, centre
    Omri moved capital to Samaria (1 Kings 16)
  • 4. The kingdom revealed through prophets: Prophetic era: I Kings 12 / 2 Chronicles 10 – Malachi †† Key passage: 2 Kings 17:7–18
    Groups of prophets - ‘company of the prophets’ 2 Kings 4:1; 6:1 ≈≈ Ecstatic behaviour (1 Samuel 10:9–12) ≈≈ Consulted by kings – Ahab 1 Kings 22:6–8 ≈≈ Not always true (Ezekiel 13:1–7; Jeremiah 23:9–40; Hos. 4:5; Amos 7:12–13)
    Called people to repent – 2 Kings 17:13 cf Jeremiah 3:1–4:4
  • Prophets (nabi) called (to call=nabu) by God, not acting on own authority (Jer 14:14) Unoriginal message
  • Prophets (nabi) called (to call=nabu) by God, not acting on own authority (Jer 14:14) Unoriginal message
  • Amos 4:13 – ‘He formed the mountains and created the wind. he reveals his plans to men’
    Jeremiah speaking for God: 26:16; 27:2–4, 11; 43:1 cf 28:15–16.
    Special place in nation (prophetic immunity) - challenging all levels of society, installing/deposing kings (1 Ki 19:16; 21:17–22), declaring war (2 Ki 3:18; Hos 5:5–8), stating correct foreign policy Jer 27:8–22. cf Jeremiah 1:10
  • Amos 4:13 – ‘He formed the mountains and created the wind. he reveals his plans to men’
    Jeremiah speaking for God: 26:16; 27:2–4, 11; 43:1 cf 28:15–16.
    Special place in nation (prophetic immunity) - challenging all levels of society, installing/deposing kings (1 Ki 19:16; 21:17–22), declaring war (2 Ki 3:18; Hos 5:5–8), stating correct foreign policy Jer 27:8–22. cf Jeremiah 1:10
  • Amos 4:13 – ‘He formed the mountains and created the wind. he reveals his plans to men’
    Jeremiah speaking for God: 26:16; 27:2–4, 11; 43:1 cf 28:15–16.
    Special place in nation (prophetic immunity) - challenging all levels of society, installing/deposing kings (1 Ki 19:16; 21:17–22), declaring war (2 Ki 3:18; Hos 5:5–8), stating correct foreign policy Jer 27:8–22. cf Jeremiah 1:10
  • The prophet speaks God’s words
  • If God is the source, words and lifestyle of prophet must be consistent
  • Not what greatest prophet Moses was primarily doing
  • Prophets addressed their contemporaries. Ezekiel 3:17
    Note specific dates of many oracles
    Danger of false contrast between present and future
  • Testament = covenant; OT is first stage of revelation; NT sees OT as pointing forward to its fulfilment in 2nd stage of revelation; anticipates 3rd stage in return of Christ
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Structure comes from Septuagint but plays key part is shaping Xn theological reading of OT
    Wisdom concerns ‘timeless present’ (Sweeney); Prophets: fall+restoration pointing to Christ
    Equivalent structure in NT
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Torah = instruction, not law
    No NT because revelation through Moses is still the operative covenant
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • Former prophets: history from entry to exile; theological reasons for destruction of Israel/Judah; Latter prophets: failure to live by Torah & possibility of restoration; POINT TO WRITINGS not new revelation.
    Ketuvim concerned with holy life of Israel wrt temple and creation
  • 1 Sam 3:1 – In those days the word of the LORD was rare; there were not many visions. ≈≈ 1 Sam 3:7 – Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD: The word of the LORD had not yet been revealed to him. ≈≈ 1 Sam 15:10 – Then the word of the LORD came to Samuel . . .
    Elijah: See 1 Kings 17: 2, 8, 14, 24 – centrality of the Word from here onAMos 3:7 Indeed, the Sovereign Lord never does anything until he reveals his plans to his servants the prophets.
  • Enforcers of the covenant; Guard dogs of the covenant
    Recalled people to repentance, obedience, covenant faithfulness, God’s word
  • Enforcers of the covenant; Guard dogs of the covenant
    Recalled people to repentance, obedience, covenant faithfulness, God’s word
  • Amos 4:12 (‘Prepare to meet your God’); Isaiah 3:1-9; 39:1-8; Habakkuk 1:5-17Judgment inevitable if people will not turn - logical extension of presentCriticisms of social/political life come from emphasis on holiness of God’s character
    Same categories as in covenant curses - 10 ‘D’s
  • Some prophets had explicit message of hope if nation turned
    Same categories as covenant blessings: Life, Health, Abundance, Prosperity, Security, Respect (eg Amos 9:11–15)
    Mostly curse until 587; then reverting to original plan of mercy
  • Future expectation is very important in the Old Testament; Much is unfulfilled at the end. <2% is messianic; <5% ref. to new covenant; <1% ref. to still-future events
    NT stresses fulfilment of OT expectations and promises; NT is based on the OT
    The big themes are the bridge from their situation to ours
  • Future expectation is very important in the Old Testament; Much is unfulfilled at the end. <2% is messianic; <5% ref. to new covenant; <1% ref. to still-future events
    NT stresses fulfilment of OT expectations and promises; NT is based on the OT
    The big themes are the bridge from their situation to ours
  • Future expectation is very important in the Old Testament; Much is unfulfilled at the end. <2% is messianic; <5% ref. to new covenant; <1% ref. to still-future events
    NT stresses fulfilment of OT expectations and promises; NT is based on the OT
    The big themes are the bridge from their situation to ours
  • I. Introducing the Old Testament Prophets

    1. 1. The Prophets 1
    2. 2. tonywatkins.org twitter.com/tonywatkins_ facebook.com/tonywatkins 2
    3. 3. Why do we have the Bible?
    4. 4. Why do we have the Bible? So that we can know God
    5. 5. Why do we have the Bible? So that we can know God … and know how to respond to God
    6. 6. GOD us
    7. 7. GOD them us
    8. 8. GOD them us
    9. 9. GOD them us
    10. 10. How do you feel about the prophets in the Old Testament? 6
    11. 11. How do you feel about the prophets in the Old Testament? What do you find difficult about them? Why is it important to study them? 6
    12. 12. difficulties with the prophets 7
    13. 13. They have a queer way of talking, like people who, instead of proceeding in an orderly manner, ramble off from one thing to the next so that you cannot make heads or tails of them or see what they are getting at. 8
    14. 14. They have a queer way of talking, like people who, instead of proceeding in an orderly manner, ramble off from one thing to the next so that you cannot make heads or tails of them or see what they are getting at. Martin Luther 8
    15. 15. to g s in r d r t a s ie n r a b r n d e u
    16. 16. 10
    17. 17. Culture Language Religion History Geography 10
    18. 18. Core Themes 11
    19. 19. What are the main themes which run throughout the whole Bible? 12
    20. 20. salvation history 13
    21. 21. . . . the Lord God banished them from the Garden of Eden . . . Genesis 3:23 14
    22. 22. He will strike your head, and you will strike his heel. Genesis 3:15 15
    23. 23. For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. John 3:16 16
    24. 24. I saw a vast crowd, too great to count, from every nation and tribe and people and language, standing in front of the throne annd before the Lamb. They were clothed in white robes and held palm branches in their hands. And they were shouting wth a great roar, ‘Salvation comes from our God who sits on the throne and from the Lamb!’ Revelation 7:9–10 17
    25. 25. covenant
    26. 26. ‘I will be your God and you will be my people’ 19
    27. 27. I will make you into a great nation. I will bless you and make you famous, and you will be a blessing to others. I will bless those who bless you and curse those who treat you with contempt. All the families on earth will be blessed through you. Genesis 12:1–3, NLT
    28. 28. Now if you will obey me and keep my covenant, you will be my own special treasure from among all the peoples on the earth; for the earth belongs to me. . . . ‘Look, this blood confirms the covenant the Lord has made with you in giving you these instructions.’ Exodus 19:1; 24:8 21
    29. 29. Don’t you realise that the Lord, the God of Israel, made a lasting covenant with David, giving him and his descendants the throne of Israel forever? 2 Chronicles 13:5 22
    30. 30. ‘This is my blood, which confirms the covenant between God and his people. It is poured out as a sacrifice for many.’ Mark 14:24 23
    31. 31. kingdom 24
    32. 32. God’s people
    33. 33. God’s people God’s place
    34. 34. God’s rule God’s people God’s place
    35. 35. God’s rule God’s blessing God’s people God’s place
    36. 36. Four stages in the OT
    37. 37. Adam and Eve
    38. 38. Adam and Eve Eden
    39. 39. God’s words Relationship Adam and Eve Eden
    40. 40. Under God’s curse Excluded
    41. 41. Moses 29
    42. 42. There has never been another prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face. Deuteronomy 34:10 30
    43. 43. Israel
    44. 44. Israel Canaan
    45. 45. God’s law Covenant Israel Canaan
    46. 46. What other nation is so great as to have such righteous decrees and laws as this body of laws I am setting before you today? Deuteronomy 4:8 32
    47. 47. CANAAN
    48. 48. Jericho CANAAN
    49. 49. Jericho CANAAN
    50. 50. Reuben
    51. 51. Gad Reuben
    52. 52. Manasseh (half) Gad Reuben
    53. 53. Manasseh (half) Gad Judah Reuben
    54. 54. Manasseh (half) Gad Judah Reuben Simeon
    55. 55. Manasseh (half) Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    56. 56. Manasseh (half) Ephraim Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    57. 57. Manasseh (half) Ephraim Dan Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    58. 58. Manasseh Manasseh (half) (half) Ephraim Dan Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    59. 59. Issachar Manasseh Manasseh (half) (half) Ephraim Dan Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    60. 60. Zebullun Issachar Manasseh Manasseh (half) (half) Ephraim Dan Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    61. 61. er Ash Zebullun Issachar Manasseh Manasseh (half) (half) Ephraim Dan Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    62. 62. li hta er Ash Nap Zebullun Issachar Manasseh Manasseh (half) (half) Ephraim Dan Gad Benjamin Judah Reuben Simeon
    63. 63. li ARAM hta er Ash Nap Zebullun Issachar Manasseh Manasseh (half) (half) Ephraim Dan Gad AMMON Benjamin ES IN Judah Reuben T IS Simeon IL MOAB PH EDOM MIDIAN AMALEK
    64. 64. Covenant blessings 35
    65. 65. Covenant blessings • Life 35
    66. 66. Covenant blessings • Life • Health 35
    67. 67. Covenant blessings • Life • Health • Abundance 35
    68. 68. Covenant blessings • Life • Prosperity • Health • Abundance 35
    69. 69. Covenant blessings • Life • Prosperity • Health • Security • Abundance 35
    70. 70. Covenant blessings • Life • Prosperity • Health • Security • Abundance • Respect 35
    71. 71. Covenant curses 36
    72. 72. Covenant curses • Disease 36
    73. 73. Covenant curses • Disease • Drought 36
    74. 74. Covenant curses • Disease • Drought • Dearth 36
    75. 75. Covenant curses • Disease • Drought • Dearth • Danger 36
    76. 76. Covenant curses • Disease • Drought • Dearth • Danger • Death 36
    77. 77. Covenant curses • Disease • Defeat • Drought • Dearth • Danger • Death 36
    78. 78. Covenant curses • Disease • Defeat • Drought • Destruction • Dearth • Danger • Death 36
    79. 79. Covenant curses • Disease • Defeat • Drought • Destruction • Dearth • Deportation • Danger • Death 36
    80. 80. Covenant curses • Disease • Defeat • Drought • Destruction • Dearth • Deportation • Danger • Destitution • Death 36
    81. 81. Covenant curses • Disease • Defeat • Drought • Destruction • Dearth • Deportation • Danger • Destitution • Death • Disgrace 36
    82. 82. God’s law Covenant Israel Canaan/Israel
    83. 83. God’s law Covenant Canaan/Israel
    84. 84. The enemy within 38
    85. 85. 39
    86. 86. 39
    87. 87. 39
    88. 88. 39
    89. 89. 39
    90. 90. 40
    91. 91. Read Deuteronomy 18:9–22 What are the people of God to avoid? Why? What is the purpose of these pagan practices? What is the only valid option for God’s people? Why? 40
    92. 92. When the Lord your God eliminates the nations from the place where you are headed and you dispossess them, you will settle down in their land. After they have been destroyed from your presence, be careful not to be ensnared like they are; do not pursue their gods and say, ‘How do these nations serve their gods? I will do the same.’ . . . 41
    93. 93. You must not worship the Lord your God the way they do! For everything that is abhorrent to him, everything he hates, they have done when worshipping their gods. They even burn up their sons and daughters before their gods! Deuteronomy 12:29–31 (NET) 42
    94. 94. When you enter the land the Lord your God is giving you, you must not learn the abhorrent practices of those nations. There must never be found among you anyone who sacrifices his son or daughter in the fire, anyone who practices divination, an omen reader, a soothsayer, a sorcerer, one who casts spells, one who conjures up spirits, a practitioner of the occult, or a necromancer. . . . 43
    95. 95. Whoever does these things is abhorrent to the Lord and because of these detestable things the Lord your God is about to drive them out from before you. You must be blameless before the Lord your God. Those nations that you are about to dispossess listen to omen readers and diviners, but the Lord your God has not given you permission to do such things. . . . 44
    96. 96. The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you – from your fellow Israelites; you must listen to him. . . . I will raise up a prophet like you for them from among their fellow Israelites. I will put my words in his mouth and he will speak to them whatever I command. I will personally hold responsible anyone who then pays no attention to the words that prophet speaks in my name. Deuteronomy 18:9–15,17–19 45
    97. 97. A downward spiral (Judges 2:6 – 16:31) 46
    98. 98. 47
    99. 99. Turning from God 47
    100. 100. Turning from God Oppression 47
    101. 101. Turning from God Oppression Crying to God 47
    102. 102. Turning from God Oppression Rescuer Crying (Judge) to God 47
    103. 103. Turning from God Peace Oppression Rescuer Crying (Judge) to God 47
    104. 104. Turning from God Peace Oppression Rescuer Crying (Judge) to God 47
    105. 105. The state of the nation
    106. 106. The state of the nation JOSHUA: JUDGES:
    107. 107. The state of the nation JOSHUA: JUDGES: • Israel united • Factions/rivalry
    108. 108. The state of the nation JOSHUA: JUDGES: • Israel united • Factions/rivalry • Concerned for • Self-interest and God’s glory self-indulgence
    109. 109. The state of the nation JOSHUA: JUDGES: • Israel united • Factions/rivalry • Concerned for • Self-interest and God’s glory self-indulgence • Led by God’s • Slide into anarchy appointed leader and idolatry
    110. 110. 49
    111. 111. • Failure to deal with pagan nations 49
    112. 112. • Failure to deal with pagan nations • Failure to live by God’s standards 49
    113. 113. • Failure to deal with pagan nations • Failure to live by God’s standards • Failure to have God at the centre of life and worship 49
    114. 114. In those days Israel had no king; everyone did as he saw fit. Judges 17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25 50
    115. 115. Saul
    116. 116. Saul • 1 Samuel 9–31
    117. 117. Saul • 1 Samuel 9–31 • Reigned 1050–1010 (approx.)
    118. 118. Saul • 1 Samuel 9–31 • Reigned 1050–1010 (approx.) • Rejected because he rejected the word of the Lord (1 Samuel 15:23 )
    119. 119. David
    120. 120. David • ‘The Lord has sought out a man after his own heart’ (1 Samuel 13:14)
    121. 121. David • ‘The Lord has sought out a man after his own heart’ (1 Samuel 13:14) • 1 Samuel 16 – 1 Kings 2 / 1 Chronicles 29
    122. 122. David • ‘The Lord has sought out a man after his own heart’ (1 Samuel 13:14) • 1 Samuel 16 – 1 Kings 2 / 1 Chronicles 29 • Reigned 1010–970 (approx.)
    123. 123. Solomon
    124. 124. Solomon • 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9
    125. 125. Solomon • 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9 • Reigned 970–931 (approx.)
    126. 126. Solomon • 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9 • Reigned 970–931 (approx.) • The wisest man (1 Kings 3:12; see Luke 11:31)
    127. 127. Solomon • 1 Kings 1 – 11 / 1 Chron. 22 – 2 Chron. 9 • Reigned 970–931 (approx.) • The wisest man (1 Kings 3:12; see Luke 11:31) • But slipped into idolatry and unfaithfulness (1 Kings 11:31–35)
    128. 128. Jerusalem
    129. 129. Rehoboam Jerusalem
    130. 130. 922 BC Jeroboam Shechem Rehoboam Jerusalem
    131. 131. 922 BC ISRAEL Jeroboam Shechem Rehoboam Jerusalem
    132. 132. 922 BC ISRAEL Samaria Jeroboam Rehoboam Jerusalem
    133. 133. 922 BC Rehoboam Jerusalem JUDAH
    134. 134. Saul 1050 55
    135. 135. Rehoboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Jeroboam 931 55
    136. 136. 1050 Saul 1010 David 970 Solomon Jeroboam Rehoboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Asa 55 911
    137. 137. Jeroboam Rehoboam 931 931 Nadab 910 Abijam 913 Baasha 909 Elah 886 Asa 911 Zimri 885 Omri 885 Ahab 874 Ahaziah 853 Joram 852 Jehu 841 Jehoahaz 814 55 Jehoash 798
    138. 138. Jeroboam Rehoboam 931 931 Nadab 910 Abijam 913 Baasha 909 Elah 886 Asa 911 Asa Zimri 885 911 Omri 885 Ahab 874 Jehoshaphat Ahaziah 853 870 Joram 852 Jehoram 848 Jehu 841 Ahaziah 841 Athaliah 841 Jehoahaz 814 Jehoash 835 55 Jehoash 798
    139. 139. God’s law Covenant Israel
    140. 140. God’s law Covenant Israel
    141. 141. prophets = nabi 57
    142. 142. prophets = nabi called (by God) to call out (for God) 57
    143. 143. 58
    144. 144. Prophets are called by God 58
    145. 145. Prophets are called by God . . . to speak from God 58
    146. 146. Prophets are called by God . . . to speak from God . . . about God 58
    147. 147. authority 59
    148. 148. uniformity 60
    149. 149. Whether he is discussing the past, present or future, the prophet is seeking to make God the most genuine reality that men can know and experience. A.B. Mickelson Interpreting the Bible, p. 287 61
    150. 150. not foretelling 62
    151. 151. forthtelling 63
    152. 152. Prophecy is essentially a ministry of disclosure, a stripping bare. Israel’s great prophets do not merely lift the veil of the future in order to destroy false expectations; at the same time, they expose the conduct of their contemporaries. . . . Prophets tear the masks away and show the true face of the people behind them. Hans Walter Wolff, Confrontations 64
    153. 153. God’s glory 65
    154. 154. God’s ultimate concern 66
    155. 155. Glory in the Old Testament 67
    156. 156. Glory in the Old Testament • God’s glory revealed in creation 67
    157. 157. Glory in the Old Testament • God’s glory revealed in creation • God’s glory rejected by human rebellion 67
    158. 158. Glory in the Old Testament • God’s glory revealed in creation • God’s glory rejected by human rebellion • God’s glory revived in Israel [nation, temple, king] 67
    159. 159. Glory in the Old Testament • God’s glory revealed in creation • God’s glory rejected by human rebellion • God’s glory revived in Israel [nation, temple, king] • God’s glory defamed by idolatry 67
    160. 160. Glory in the Old Testament • God’s glory revealed in creation • God’s glory rejected by human rebellion • God’s glory revived in Israel [nation, temple, king] • God’s glory defamed by idolatry • God’s glory defended by the prophets 67
    161. 161. The Bible’s Structure 68
    162. 162. Christian Jewish Old Testament Tanak New Testament 69
    163. 163. Old Testament Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Pentateuch Numbers, Deuteronomy Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1–2 Samuel History books 1–2 Kings, 1–2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Wisdom Lit. Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Prophets Ezekiel, Daniel, Minor Prophets 70
    164. 164. New Testament Revelation Matthew Mark, Luke, John History Acts Timeless present Romans – Jude Anticipation Revelations 71
    165. 165. Old Testament Tanak Pentateuch Law History Prophets Wisdom Writings Prophets 72
    166. 166. Old Testament Tanak Pentateuch Law Instruction History Prophets Wisdom Writings Prophets 72
    167. 167. Old Testament Tanak Pentateuch Law Instruction Torah History Prophets Nevi’im Wisdom Writings Ketuvim Prophets 72
    168. 168. Tanak Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Law/Instruction Numbers, Deuteronomy Former Prophets Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings Nevi’im Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Latter Prophets Book of the Twelve Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song Writings Ketuvim of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra–Nehemiah, Chronicles 73
    169. 169. The Word of the LORD 74
    170. 170. Calling people back to the covenant
    171. 171. Covenant enforcement mediators (Fee and Stuart)
    172. 172. Warning of judgment 76
    173. 173. Promising restoration 77
    174. 174. Restoration
    175. 175. Basic pattern 79
    176. 176. 80
    177. 177. Identification of Israel’s sin 80
    178. 178. Identification of Israel’s sin Announcement of judgment 80
    179. 179. Identification of Declaration of Israel’s sin God’s love for Israel Announcement of judgment 80
    180. 180. Identification of Declaration of Israel’s sin God’s love for Israel Announcement of Announcement of judgment blessing 80
    181. 181. Old Testament Promise
    182. 182. Old New Testament Testament Promise Fulfilment
    183. 183. deep focus 82
    184. 184. two horizons 84
    185. 185. 85
    186. 186. key themes 86
    187. 187. 1 God is the ruler of all of history and every nation 87
    188. 188. 2 Humanity’s most fundamental need is to be right with God 88
    189. 189. 3 Religion, politics and society must all be on a firm moral base 89
    190. 190. 4 God offers us the choice of judgment or hope 90
    191. 191. conditional future? 91
    192. 192. The [Latter Prophets] did not call for reform, for they knew it was too late; the end of the present order was near and could not be averted. Donald Gowan Reclaiming the OT p. 125–6 92
    193. 193. 5 The future kingdom of God 93
    194. 194. beacons 94
    195. 195. These distant future events . . . are announced to serve as beacons for God’s people – beacons which will help them get their bearings and set their course in life, beacons which will give direction, hope, and encouragement, even in the darkest hour. Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text, p. 235 95
    196. 196. a universal kingdom 96
    197. 197. coming and continuing 97
    198. 198. a coming King 98
    199. 199. 6 The glory of God 99
    200. 200. God’s glory in the prophets 100
    201. 201. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11 100
    202. 202. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11 • God’s glory revealed in a new Zion. Isaiah 2 100
    203. 203. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11 • God’s glory revealed in a new Zion. Isaiah 2 • God’s glory revealed in new Davidic king. Jer. 23:5–6 100
    204. 204. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11 • God’s glory revealed in a new Zion. Isaiah 2 • God’s glory revealed in new Davidic king. Jer. 23:5–6 • God’s glory revealed in a new temple. Ez. 47:1 100
    205. 205. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed as he gathers a people and redeems them. Jer. 31:10–11 • God’s glory revealed in a new Zion. Isaiah 2 • God’s glory revealed in new Davidic king. Jer. 23:5–6 • God’s glory revealed in a new temple. Ez. 47:1 • God’s glory revealed in new creation. Isaiah 65:17 100
    206. 206. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer. 31:31–33 101
    207. 207. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer. 31:31–33 • God will be shepherd Ezekiel 34:11–13, 26–31 101
    208. 208. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer. 31:31–33 • God will be shepherd Ezekiel 34:11–13, 26–31 • God’s righteousness revealed in salvation of nations. Isaiah 42:6b–7; 49:6b 101
    209. 209. God’s glory in the prophets • God’s glory revealed in new covenant. Jer. 31:31–33 • God will be shepherd Ezekiel 34:11–13, 26–31 • God’s righteousness revealed in salvation of nations. Isaiah 42:6b–7; 49:6b • The Lord’s anointed will do this. Isaiah 11:1–4; 42:1; 49:1–3; 50:4; 59:21; 61:1 101
    210. 210. Death 102
    211. 211. i o n c t rre e s u R 102
    212. 212. Read Joel and see how these key themes are explored. 103
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