EZEKIEL
The importance of Ezekiel can hardly be
overstressed.
                Henry McKeating, Ezekiel
1
What is the historical context?
Setting
30th year of Ezekiel’s life
… when he should have
  started as a priest
5th year of Jehoiachin’s exile =
            593 BC
Six years before the fall of
        Jerusalem
5th day of 4th month = 31 July
Dates in Ezekiel
1:2    July 593        30:20 March 587

8:1    September 592   31:1      May 587

20:1   August 591      ...
A people in exile
surrounded by
pagan religion
cut off from the city
cut off from the temple
cut off from the land
experiencing God’s judgment
defeated + displaced
disillusioned + discouraged
Exile was not simply displacement from
the land, but it was the experience of the
end of creation, the exhaustion of
salva...
2
How does the prophet
 present his message?
structure
I. Judgment on Jerusalem


        4:1 – 24:27
II. Oracles against nations


        25:1 – 32:32
III. Restoration


   33:1 – 48:35
I. Judgment on Jerusalem
• The vision of God’s glory (1:1–28)
• Ezekiel’s commission (2:1 – 3:27)
• The coming fate of Jer...
II. Oracles against nations
• Oracles against Ammon, Moab, Edom,
  Philistia (25:1–17)
• Oracles against Tyre and Sidon (2...
III. Restoration
• Ezekiel call renewed (33:1–20)
• Jerusalem falls; oracles of salvation;
  vindication of Israel (33:21 ...
genres
The vision of God’s glory


          1:1–28
Majesty
                                 Beauty
                  Holiness

   Splendour                            Glory
...
Lord of the
Cherubim
An encounter with
God shapes everything

                        33
Ezekiel’s commission


      2:1 – 3:27
What repetitions (words/ideas/etc.) does
Ezekiel use in 1:28 – 3:15?




                                       ?
Ezekiel’s call
  2:1-3:27

                 36
Expect a difficult audience




                             37
Don’t be afraid of hostility




                               38
Go against the flow




                     39
Speak my words




                 40
God has work for you to do
‘Hear the word I speak’ (3:17)



                                 42
‘Give them warning from
        me’ (3:17)



                          43
3
What main problems does
 the prophet diagnose?

                          44
Ezekiel 4–5
Ezekiel 4:1–5:4
What does all this symbolism represent?




                                          ?
How would people h...
What theological perspectives does Ezekiel
give?




                                       ?
Ezekiel 6–7
Parallelism


              50
Synonymous
 Parallelism

               51
I have swept your offenses like a cloud,
your sins like the morning mist.
                                     Isaiah 44:2...
Then I shall turn your festivals into mourning
And all your songs into lamentation.
                                      ...
He will judge between many peoples
 and will settle disputes for strong nations far
 and wide.
They will beat their swords...
Synthetic
Parallelism

              55
The swift will not escape,
	

  The strong will not muster their escape,
	

  And the warrior will not save his life.
    ...
Fallen is virgin Israel,
	

   	

    never to rise again,
	

   deserted in her own land,
	

   	

    with no one to hel...
O Lord, how long shall I cry for help,
  and you will not hear
Or cry to you ‘Violence!’
  and you will not save?
        ...
Inverted
Parallelism

              59
Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah,
    nor Judah hostile toward Ephraim.
                                    Isaiah 11:...
Antithetical
Parallelism

               61
They do not cry out to me from their hearts,
but wail upon their beds.
                                 Hosea 7:14




   ...
All the nations may walk
 in the name of their gods;
we will walk in the name of the LORD
 our God for ever and ever.
    ...
Repetition


             64
• Leitwort

• Motif

• Theme

• Sequence of actions

• Type-scene

                        65
Inclusion


            66
Chiasm


         67
A    B



B’   A’
          68
‘I also raised up prophets from among your
children
     And Nazirites from among your youths.
        Is this not true, p...
God’s glory departs
      (8–11)

                      70
What is the progression within this section?




                                         ?
God is offended by idolatry at
  the heart of his people

           chapter 8

                                 72
God avenges his glory


       chapter 9

                        73
Jerusalem residents are
      complacent

       chapter 11

                          74
God’s glory moves out from
  the centre of worship

         chapter 10

                             75
. . . and towards the exiles


        chapter 10–11

                               76
Reasons for the exile


      12:1 – 24:27
Ezekiel 12
Ezekiel 13
judgment on false prophets
Ezekiel 14
Noah, Daniel, Job
      Danel,
Ezekiel 16
Read Ezekiel 16:1-14
How does God show his grace and
generosity?
Read 16:15-22
How does Israel respond? Why?

            ...
Jerusalem’s
  origins
   16:1-5
Abandoned
Neglected
Despised
Facing death
God’s grace
Rescues the baby from death
Gives life
Gives growth
Shows grace to the
   undeserving
God’s
generosity
  16:8–14
Betrothal (8)
Married (8)
Cared for (9)
Showered with gifts (10-13)
Made famous (14)
Made perfectly beautiful (15)
Jerusalem’s
 response
ingratitude
trusting in her own beauty
unfaithfulness
prostitution
Figures of
 speech
             107
Simile
Comparing one thing with
    something else

                           108
I will make your forehead like the hardest
stone, harder than flint.
                                 Ezekiel 3:9




     ...
Your prophets, Israel, are like jackals among
ruins.
                                  Ezekiel 13:4




                  ...
Judah's leaders are like those who move
boundary stones. I will pour out my wrath on
them like a flood of water.
          ...
Metaphor
Associating something with another object or
     concept to which it is not related

                           ...
You have not gone up to the breaches in
the wall to repair it for the house of Israel
so that it will stand firm in the bat...
Your ancestry and birth were in the land
of the Canaanites; your father was an
Amorite and your mother a Hittite. On
the d...
Metonymy
A related word is used to represent
    the person/object/concept

                                      115
And the glory of the LORD was standing
there, like the glory I had seen by the
Kebar River, and I fell facedown.
         ...
Do not be afraid of them or terrified by
them, though they are a rebellious house.
                                Ezekiel ...
Shall we rejoice in the sceptre of my royal
son? The sword despises every such stick.
                               Ezeki...
I did it to keep my name from being
profaned in the eyes of the nations . . .
                                Ezekiel 20:9...
The voice of the LORD will shatter Assyria;
with his rod [sceptre] he will strike them
down.
                             ...
Synecdoche
A part stands for the whole


                              121
Son of man, set your face against the
mountains of Israel; prophesy against them
and say, ‘You mountains of Israel, hear t...
My hand will be against the prophets who
see false visions and utter lying divinations.
                                  ...
My righteousness draws near speedily,
my salvation is on the way,
and my arm will bring justice to the nations.
The island...
Personification


                 125
Son of man, set your face against the
mountains of Israel; prophesy against them
and say, ‘You mountains of Israel, hear t...
Slash to the right, you sword, then to the
left,
wherever your blade is turned.
                             Ezekiel 21:16...
You will go out in joy
	

 And be led forth in peace;
The mountains and hills
	

 will burst into song before you,
and all...
Irony


        129
As for you, house of Israel, this is what the
Sovereign Lord says: go and serve your idols,
every one of you!
            ...
‘Go to Bethel and sin;
go to Gilgal and sin yet more.
Bring your sacrifices every morning,
your tithes every three years.
B...
Hyperbole
An extreme exaggeration


                          132
Because of all your detestable idols, I will
do to you what I have never done before
and will never do again.
            ...
Cursed be the day I was born!
May the day my mother bore me not be
blessed!
Cursed be the man who brought my
father the ne...
adultery
Genesis 2:23–24      Exclusive, intimate
Ephesians 5:31–32    covenant
Revelation 21:1–10   The ultimate marriage
Numbers ...
exclusive, intimate covenant
Genesis 2:23–24; Ephesians 5:31–32
ultimate marriage
Revelation 21:1–10
forgetfulness leads to prostitution
        Numbers 15:37–41
God’s judgment
Allowing his people to make
themselves a disgrace before
        the nations
Bringing down on their own
heads what they have done
Jerusalem’s lovers will be the
  agents of God’s judgment
Grace
Punishment
dealing with the people
    as they deserve
God will remember the
      covenant
God will make atonement
God is doing this for
  his own sake
Ezekiel 17
• Allegory
• Eagle – Nebuchadnezzar
• The shoot – Jehoiachin, exiled 597
• The seedling – Zedekiah, attempting to get
  he...
Ezekiel 18
prophetic dispute
• Opinion – ‘We are being punished for the
  sin of our parents’ generation’
• Refutation – This generation is paying for
...
Ezekiel 20
Dates in Ezekiel
1:2    31 July 593        30:20 March 587

8:1    17 September 592   31:1      May 587

20:1   14 August ...
• Very negative version of Israel’s history
• The punishment they have deserved has
  been delayed
• Judgment = second exo...
Identify the figures of speech in Ezekiel 21




                                         ?
Ezekiel 24
Dates in Ezekiel
1:2    31 July 593        30:20 March 587

8:1    17 September 592   31:1      May 587

20:1   14 August ...
• Different use of cooking pot metaphor –
  now expression of judgment
• God’s patience has finally come to an end
• Symbol...
Ezekiel 25–32
oracles against the nations
BC5. Ezekiel part 1
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The first part of the material on Ezekiel for my course on the OT prophets as part of Bible & Culture 2010.

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BC5. Ezekiel part 1

  1. 1. EZEKIEL
  2. 2. The importance of Ezekiel can hardly be overstressed. Henry McKeating, Ezekiel
  3. 3. 1 What is the historical context?
  4. 4. Setting
  5. 5. 30th year of Ezekiel’s life
  6. 6. … when he should have started as a priest
  7. 7. 5th year of Jehoiachin’s exile = 593 BC
  8. 8. Six years before the fall of Jerusalem
  9. 9. 5th day of 4th month = 31 July
  10. 10. Dates in Ezekiel 1:2 July 593 30:20 March 587 8:1 September 592 31:1 May 587 20:1 August 591 32:1 February 585 24:1 January 588 32:17 March 585 26:1 587 33:21 January 585 29:1 December 588 40:1 April 573 29:17 April 571
  11. 11. A people in exile
  12. 12. surrounded by pagan religion
  13. 13. cut off from the city
  14. 14. cut off from the temple
  15. 15. cut off from the land
  16. 16. experiencing God’s judgment
  17. 17. defeated + displaced
  18. 18. disillusioned + discouraged
  19. 19. Exile was not simply displacement from the land, but it was the experience of the end of creation, the exhaustion of salvation history, the demise of king, temple, city, land and all those supports which gave structure and meaning to life. Walter Breuggemann, ‘Weariness, Exile and Chaos’
  20. 20. 2 How does the prophet present his message?
  21. 21. structure
  22. 22. I. Judgment on Jerusalem 4:1 – 24:27
  23. 23. II. Oracles against nations 25:1 – 32:32
  24. 24. III. Restoration 33:1 – 48:35
  25. 25. I. Judgment on Jerusalem • The vision of God’s glory (1:1–28) • Ezekiel’s commission (2:1 – 3:27) • The coming fate of Jerusalem (4:1 – 7:27) • Jerusalem’s sin; God’s glory departs (8:1 – 11:25) • Reasons for the exile (12:1 – 24:27)
  26. 26. II. Oracles against nations • Oracles against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia (25:1–17) • Oracles against Tyre and Sidon (26:1 – 28:23) • Israel’s restoration (28:24–26) • Oracles against Egypt (29:1 – 32:32)
  27. 27. III. Restoration • Ezekiel call renewed (33:1–20) • Jerusalem falls; oracles of salvation; vindication of Israel (33:21 – 37:28) • God’s future victory over nations (38:1 – 39:29) • God’s glory returns; a renewed city, temple and land (40:1 – 48:35)
  28. 28. genres
  29. 29. The vision of God’s glory 1:1–28
  30. 30. Majesty Beauty Holiness Splendour Glory Power Activity Movement Awesomeness 30
  31. 31. Lord of the
  32. 32. Cherubim
  33. 33. An encounter with God shapes everything 33
  34. 34. Ezekiel’s commission 2:1 – 3:27
  35. 35. What repetitions (words/ideas/etc.) does Ezekiel use in 1:28 – 3:15? ?
  36. 36. Ezekiel’s call 2:1-3:27 36
  37. 37. Expect a difficult audience 37
  38. 38. Don’t be afraid of hostility 38
  39. 39. Go against the flow 39
  40. 40. Speak my words 40
  41. 41. God has work for you to do
  42. 42. ‘Hear the word I speak’ (3:17) 42
  43. 43. ‘Give them warning from me’ (3:17) 43
  44. 44. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 44
  45. 45. Ezekiel 4–5
  46. 46. Ezekiel 4:1–5:4 What does all this symbolism represent? ? How would people have reacted?
  47. 47. What theological perspectives does Ezekiel give? ?
  48. 48. Ezekiel 6–7
  49. 49. Parallelism 50
  50. 50. Synonymous Parallelism 51
  51. 51. I have swept your offenses like a cloud, your sins like the morning mist. Isaiah 44:22 52
  52. 52. Then I shall turn your festivals into mourning And all your songs into lamentation. Amos 8:10 53
  53. 53. He will judge between many peoples and will settle disputes for strong nations far and wide. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. 54
  54. 54. Synthetic Parallelism 55
  55. 55. The swift will not escape, The strong will not muster their escape, And the warrior will not save his life. Amos 2:14 56
  56. 56. Fallen is virgin Israel, never to rise again, deserted in her own land, with no one to help her up Amos 5:2 57
  57. 57. O Lord, how long shall I cry for help, and you will not hear Or cry to you ‘Violence!’ and you will not save? Habakkuk 1:2 58
  58. 58. Inverted Parallelism 59
  59. 59. Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah, nor Judah hostile toward Ephraim. Isaiah 11:13 60
  60. 60. Antithetical Parallelism 61
  61. 61. They do not cry out to me from their hearts, but wail upon their beds. Hosea 7:14 62
  62. 62. All the nations may walk in the name of their gods; we will walk in the name of the LORD our God for ever and ever. Micah 4:5 63
  63. 63. Repetition 64
  64. 64. • Leitwort • Motif • Theme • Sequence of actions • Type-scene 65
  65. 65. Inclusion 66
  66. 66. Chiasm 67
  67. 67. A B B’ A’ 68
  68. 68. ‘I also raised up prophets from among your children And Nazirites from among your youths. Is this not true, people of Israel,’ declares the LORD. ‘But you made the Nazirites drink wine And commanded the prophets not to prophesy.’ 69
  69. 69. God’s glory departs (8–11) 70
  70. 70. What is the progression within this section? ?
  71. 71. God is offended by idolatry at the heart of his people chapter 8 72
  72. 72. God avenges his glory chapter 9 73
  73. 73. Jerusalem residents are complacent chapter 11 74
  74. 74. God’s glory moves out from the centre of worship chapter 10 75
  75. 75. . . . and towards the exiles chapter 10–11 76
  76. 76. Reasons for the exile 12:1 – 24:27
  77. 77. Ezekiel 12
  78. 78. Ezekiel 13
  79. 79. judgment on false prophets
  80. 80. Ezekiel 14
  81. 81. Noah, Daniel, Job Danel,
  82. 82. Ezekiel 16
  83. 83. Read Ezekiel 16:1-14 How does God show his grace and generosity? Read 16:15-22 How does Israel respond? Why? ?
  84. 84. Jerusalem’s origins 16:1-5
  85. 85. Abandoned
  86. 86. Neglected
  87. 87. Despised
  88. 88. Facing death
  89. 89. God’s grace
  90. 90. Rescues the baby from death
  91. 91. Gives life
  92. 92. Gives growth
  93. 93. Shows grace to the undeserving
  94. 94. God’s generosity 16:8–14
  95. 95. Betrothal (8)
  96. 96. Married (8)
  97. 97. Cared for (9)
  98. 98. Showered with gifts (10-13)
  99. 99. Made famous (14)
  100. 100. Made perfectly beautiful (15)
  101. 101. Jerusalem’s response
  102. 102. ingratitude
  103. 103. trusting in her own beauty
  104. 104. unfaithfulness
  105. 105. prostitution
  106. 106. Figures of speech 107
  107. 107. Simile Comparing one thing with something else 108
  108. 108. I will make your forehead like the hardest stone, harder than flint. Ezekiel 3:9 109
  109. 109. Your prophets, Israel, are like jackals among ruins. Ezekiel 13:4 110
  110. 110. Judah's leaders are like those who move boundary stones. I will pour out my wrath on them like a flood of water. Hosea 5:10 111
  111. 111. Metaphor Associating something with another object or concept to which it is not related 112
  112. 112. You have not gone up to the breaches in the wall to repair it for the house of Israel so that it will stand firm in the battle on the day of the LORD. Ezekiel 13:5 113
  113. 113. Your ancestry and birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. On the day you were born, your cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water to make you clean, nor were you rubbed with salt or wrapped in cloths. . . . Ezekiel 16:3–4 114
  114. 114. Metonymy A related word is used to represent the person/object/concept 115
  115. 115. And the glory of the LORD was standing there, like the glory I had seen by the Kebar River, and I fell facedown. Ezekiel 3:23 116
  116. 116. Do not be afraid of them or terrified by them, though they are a rebellious house. Ezekiel 3:9 117
  117. 117. Shall we rejoice in the sceptre of my royal son? The sword despises every such stick. Ezekiel 21:10 118
  118. 118. I did it to keep my name from being profaned in the eyes of the nations . . . Ezekiel 20:9 119
  119. 119. The voice of the LORD will shatter Assyria; with his rod [sceptre] he will strike them down. Isaiah 30:31 120
  120. 120. Synecdoche A part stands for the whole 121
  121. 121. Son of man, set your face against the mountains of Israel; prophesy against them and say, ‘You mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Sovereign Lord. . . .’ Ezekiel 6:2–3 122
  122. 122. My hand will be against the prophets who see false visions and utter lying divinations. Ezekiel 13:9 123
  123. 123. My righteousness draws near speedily, my salvation is on the way, and my arm will bring justice to the nations. The islands will look to me and wait in hope for my arm. Isaiah 51:5 124
  124. 124. Personification 125
  125. 125. Son of man, set your face against the mountains of Israel; prophesy against them and say, ‘You mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Sovereign Lord. . . .’ Ezekiel 6:2–3 126
  126. 126. Slash to the right, you sword, then to the left, wherever your blade is turned. Ezekiel 21:16 127
  127. 127. You will go out in joy And be led forth in peace; The mountains and hills will burst into song before you, and all the trees of the field will clap their hands Isaiah 55:12 128
  128. 128. Irony 129
  129. 129. As for you, house of Israel, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: go and serve your idols, every one of you! Ezekiel 20:39 130
  130. 130. ‘Go to Bethel and sin; go to Gilgal and sin yet more. Bring your sacrifices every morning, your tithes every three years. Burn leavened bread as a thank offering and brag about your freewill offerings— boast about them, you Israelites, for this is what you love to do,’ declares the Sovereign LORD. Amos 4:4–5 131
  131. 131. Hyperbole An extreme exaggeration 132
  132. 132. Because of all your detestable idols, I will do to you what I have never done before and will never do again. Ezekiel 5:9 133
  133. 133. Cursed be the day I was born! May the day my mother bore me not be blessed! Cursed be the man who brought my father the news, who made him very glad, saying, ‘A child is born to you – a son!’ Jeremiah 20: 14–15 134
  134. 134. adultery
  135. 135. Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Forgetfulness leads to prostitution Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23
  136. 136. exclusive, intimate covenant Genesis 2:23–24; Ephesians 5:31–32
  137. 137. ultimate marriage Revelation 21:1–10
  138. 138. forgetfulness leads to prostitution Numbers 15:37–41
  139. 139. God’s judgment
  140. 140. Allowing his people to make themselves a disgrace before the nations
  141. 141. Bringing down on their own heads what they have done
  142. 142. Jerusalem’s lovers will be the agents of God’s judgment
  143. 143. Grace
  144. 144. Punishment
  145. 145. dealing with the people as they deserve
  146. 146. God will remember the covenant
  147. 147. God will make atonement
  148. 148. God is doing this for his own sake
  149. 149. Ezekiel 17
  150. 150. • Allegory • Eagle – Nebuchadnezzar • The shoot – Jehoiachin, exiled 597 • The seedling – Zedekiah, attempting to get help from Egypt for a rebellion • He will be uprooted, exiled and killed • God will plant a new king on a high mountain
  151. 151. Ezekiel 18
  152. 152. prophetic dispute
  153. 153. • Opinion – ‘We are being punished for the sin of our parents’ generation’ • Refutation – This generation is paying for its own sin • Repentance is possible – leads to life • A new heart and new spirit
  154. 154. Ezekiel 20
  155. 155. Dates in Ezekiel 1:2 31 July 593 30:20 March 587 8:1 17 September 592 31:1 May 587 20:1 14 August 591 32:1 February 585 24:1 15 January 588 32:17 March 585 26:1 587 33:21 8 January 585 29:1 December 588 40:1 573 29:17 571
  156. 156. • Very negative version of Israel’s history • The punishment they have deserved has been delayed • Judgment = second exodus; purging • God’s motivation is the honour of his name among the nations (9, 14, 22, 39, 41, 44)
  157. 157. Identify the figures of speech in Ezekiel 21 ?
  158. 158. Ezekiel 24
  159. 159. Dates in Ezekiel 1:2 31 July 593 30:20 March 587 8:1 17 September 592 31:1 May 587 20:1 14 August 591 32:1 February 585 24:1 15 January 588 32:17 March 585 26:1 587 33:21 8 January 585 29:1 December 588 40:1 573 29:17 571
  160. 160. • Different use of cooking pot metaphor – now expression of judgment • God’s patience has finally come to an end • Symbolic action (15–27)
  161. 161. Ezekiel 25–32
  162. 162. oracles against the nations

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