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How to succeed in new GCSE assessment. Explaining our research-based teaching model for complex processes.

How to succeed in new GCSE assessment. Explaining our research-based teaching model for complex processes.

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Skills are back slc ase presentation Skills are back slc ase presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Explaining our research-based teaching model for complex processeshow to succeed in new GCSE assessment THE resource for GCSE 2011
  • “ “ Look at these findings. Figure out of – if you can – how Darwin’s theory “ natural selection can explain BOTH. Two scientists investigated animals on islands compared with the mainland. Islands have different conditions, like being windy, and may lack food and shelter. Scientist A: animals growEvil OCR BIGGER on islands. Scientist B: animals grow SMALLER onexaminer islands. 4 marks
  • “ Look at this graph. I bet you can’t use it to explain why a liquid cools “ when it evaporates. Molecules in a liquid do not all have the same speed. No. of moleculesEvil AQA Speed of moleculesexaminer 6 marks
  • “ Read this. You’ll never be able to decide whether reducing the emissions “ will reduce global warming. Engines in large ships particles of black soot and sulphate into the atmosphere in their exhaust. In the Atlantic Ocean, the soot often lands on the Arctic ice. But sulfates stay in the atmosphere and reflectEvil Edexcel sunlight. Campaigners want these emissions greatly reduced.examiner 6 marks
  • Do explicitly teach the skills needed?Q1: What’s the pattern in pollution levels?Q2: When was pollution highest?Q3: What’s the average pollution level?
  • AQAOCR Edexcel
  • A teaching model for complex processesGradual release of responsibility1.Break a complex process into small chunks2.Teach one at a time, make the thinking visible3.Give whole-task guided practice, with emphases4.Provide ‘scaffolds’ for the early stages5.Achieve fluency with more practice across context © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • A theoretical basis for the teacing modelCognitive load theory:•Connects the mind’s architecture to teaching•Limited processing capacity = ‘working memory’•Unlimited long-term memory•Avoid overload, it stops learning & problem-solving•Good instruction carefully limits cognitive load © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • VecteursLe concept de direction établit une relationentre deux points dans lespace, cest-à la«direction» dun point à un autre. Par exemple,la direction du point A au point B peut êtredésigné de A à B, tandis que la directionopposée serait dans ce cas, B-to-A. La directionest sans dimension, cest, il na pas dunité demesure et représente seulement une ligne dedésigner le sens de partir à (de A à B) sansaucun sens de «combien» qui est considérécomme l "importance" dune quantitémesurable.
  • How we’ve embedded the research/theory Presents A tool for GCSE 10© CSE and ASE 2011 This page may have been changed from the original
  • To improve your analytical skills by: ● Comparing some physical properties of copper and aluminium. ● Drawing up a table to organise data. ● Displaying patterns in the data on a chart or graph.ELICIT 11 11 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Engage - context discuss 12© Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Overall task...and thefts continue to rise. Could cables be made from a less valuable metal? discuss More science 14 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Students given dataI’ve done some conductivity tests.Aluminium looks promising. Organise my findings so I can include them in this report. 15 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Breakdown of skill: draw table 1 Complete a tableChoose Name X (the independent variable) and Y (the dependent variable)HEADINGS and give their units.Add Make space for each set of results. If these are repeats, add space for an average.SPACESCollect Check the resultsRESULTS as you collect them.Calculate If it’s clear why a result is anomalous, leave it out.AVERAGES 16
  • Make step-by-step thinking visible Name X (the independent variable) and Y (the dependent variable) and give their units (if they have any). Current in cable Type (amps) of metalChoose this sort of table becausethe current has been measured.It does not need to becalculated. 17 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Make space for each set of results. If these are repeats, add space for an average. Current in cable Type (amps) of metal 1 2 averageWe have 2 results for eachmetal so we’ll need anaverage column. 18 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Next process: draw graphAluminium isn’t such a good conductor,but perhaps we can compensate byusing thicker cables.Show how the currentchanges when thecable diameterincreases. 19 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Breakdown of skill: plot graph 2 Plot a chart or graph Is X a continuous variable? NO YESits values are words, its values can be or discrete numbers any number, like length like shoe sizes or temperature Use a bar chart Use a line graph to to compare the show what happens values of Y. to Y as X increases. The scale must go up Choosing scales in equal 1 Take the smallest Y- steps value from the largest to find the range. e.g. 50 – 0 = 50 2 Divide this range by the number of squares on the Y axis. e.g. 50 ÷12 = 4.5 3 Round the result up to choose what each square will represent. e.g. make each square worth 5. 4 Repeat 1-3 for the X- axis. 20
  • Make step-by-step thinking visibleCurrent in cable (amps) The independent variable tested goes on the X axis. The dependent variable measured goes on the Y axis. Cable diameter (mm) 21 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Current in cable (amps) 800 for the Y axis: 600 range = 740-40 = 700 400 700÷8 = 87 Only start at so round up to 100 zero if some of 200 your results It’s fine to label are close to zero. alternate lines. 0 Cable diameter (mm) 22 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Current in cable (amps) 800 for the X axis: 600 range = 20-5 = 15 400 15÷5 = 3 Each cm must so round up to 5 be worth 200 the same number but its neater to label of units. every other square. 0 10 20 Write the values on lines – not in gaps. Cable diameter (mm) 23 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • 800 XCurrent in cable (amps) 600 400 X 200 X X 0 10 20 Cable diameter (mm) 24 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • SS1 Scaffold sheet given to students Analyser 2 Plot a chart or graph 1 Complete a table Is X a continuous variable? NO YES its values are words, its values can beChoose Name X (the independent variable) or discrete numbers any number, like length and Y (the dependent variable) like shoe sizes or temperatureHEADINGS and give their units. Y can be measured Y is calculated from A and B Use a bar chart Use a line graph to Y (units) X A B Y to compare the show what happens X (units) (units) (units) (units) (units) values of Y. to Y as X increases. The scale must go up Choosing scales in equal 1 Take the smallest Y- steps value fromAdd Make space for each set of results. the largest to find the range. If these are repeats, add space for an average.SPACES e.g. 50 – 0 = 50 2 Divide this range by the number X Y (units) X A B Y Average of squares on the Y axis. (units) (units) (units) (units) Y (units) (units) Write the e.g. 50 ÷12 = 4.5 1 2 3 Average Download samples a b a Y values Download samples on lines. Write the 3 Round the result up to choose what each square will represent. b X values e.g. make each square worth 5.Collect at Check the results at in spaces. 4 axis. Repeat 1-3 for the X- upd8.org.uk/crucialRESULTS as you collect them. The 7 is an outlier. It is an anomalous result, upd8.org.uk/crucial Use a line e.g. 2, 7, 3 of best fit or so it should be checked. curve, to show the trend.Calculate If it’s clear why a result is anomalous, leave it out. Write theAVERAGES X and Y values on the lines e.g. Average = (2+7+3) = 4 not in the gaps. 3 But 7 is anomalous, so a more 25 trustworthy average is (2+3) = 2.5 Only start at zero if some of Each cm must be worth 2 your results are close to zero. the same number of units.
  • Edexcel
  • Edexcel P2F Q6
  • Decompose it !What knowledge and skills areneeded to get the 12 marks?6 marks: explanation6 marks: QWC
  • Scaffold sheet given to studentsAnalyser Worked examples Common patterns positive correlationspot the Say what happens to Y as Y Y Y negative correlationTREND X increases? Use the . . . . Y changes by names of these variables. Y the same amount Y Y Y X X X for each increase 1 graph Y increases Y decreases Y does not in X. as X increases as X increases change X X 2 graphs or X X Y is directly one with 2 partsdescribe the 2 A 2 A proportional to X, Y Y so if X doubles,PATTERN Y B 1 1 B Y doubles. Give details. Check Say what 0 0 X the common patterns is different 0 1 2 X In graph A, X In graph A, Between 0 for ideas. about them. and 1... Y reaches a Y changes Y Y changes but between higher more for each more quickly 1 and 2... maximum increase in X. as X gets larger. value. X 2 A 2 A 2give Y 1 Y B Y 1 Y Y changes Choose values to illustrate 1 more slowlyNUMBERS B Download samples any pattern or difference. 0 These values X Download samples 0 X These show 0 X X as X gets larger. 1 graph 2 or more what is different at show that Y increases. at about the graphs Y Y is inversely proportional to X if X times Y alwaysCOMPARE upd8.org.uk/crucial upd8.org.uk/crucial gives the same value A Use numbers 2 2 A X Y Ynumbers to show how big 1 B 1 any difference is. B 0 0 Y X X In graph A, The gradient of Y fluctuates. the maximum value graph A is four of Y is double what times the gradient Xsuggest Use scientific ideas to it is in graph B. of graph B. Y Y rises, reaches a suggest reasons for any peak and then falls.REASONS pattern or difference. gradient = change in Y change in X X 30
  • AQA
  • Teach complex processesTeach content and apply processes © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • ● ‘Reasoner’ uses banning sun beds to teach: - identify conflicting evidence and weaknesses - decide how well evidence supports a claim - suggest further tests● ‘Communicator’ uses games to teach QWC: - analyse a question for meaning - identify key points - organise them logically © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • ● Limestone (Edexcel) Students battle with ‘sinkholes’ and silence campaigners’ objections to a mega quarry● Energy transfer (AQA) Students model the cooling system of a laptop, to get to the bottom of a fire casualty.● Heart disease (OCR) Students diagnose and treat a mysterious A&E hospital case, by analysing conflicting data. © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Sample ‘Application lesson’ Presents An Application for AQA 35© CSE and ASE 2011 This page may have been changed from the original
  • Objectives ● Find out how harmful bacteria form antibiotic-resistant strains. ● Discover why resistant strains spread rapidly. ● Draw conclusions from evidence about new ways of treating infections.STARTER ELICIT 36 36 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • SS3 – 6 Scientists are testing new weapons against superbugs. cockroach brains honey silver nanoparticlesAre any worth funding? Is there enough evidenceSTARTER to show that they work? ELICIT 37
  • SS3 Research SS3 Scientist Simon Lee, UK Scientist U.M. Seraj, Bangladesh Investigation Investigation ●grow different types of bacteria on agar plates ●grow two types of bacteria on agar plates ●add cockroach juice and leave overnight at 37 ºC. ●add cockroach brain juice and leave for two hours at 37 ºC. Results Results Zone of clearance (mm) Type of bacteria Percentage of bacteria killed MRSA More than 90 Escherichia coli More than 90 If an antibiotic kills 90% of the Type of bacteria bacteria, your body’s immune system can kill the rest.© CSE and ASE 2011
  • SS4 Research SS4Scientist Arne Simon, Germany Scientist Ahmed Sukari Halim, Malaysia. Investigation ●anaesthetise 36 rats, and make burn Observations wounds on them A 12-year old leukaemia patient ●infect the rat wounds with bacteria had an MRSA-infected wound. Doctors treated the wound with ●cover the wounds with honey antiseptic for 12 days. It did not Results get better. Then doctors treated the wound with Australian medical honey, made from Manuka flowers. Two days later, the Relative number of wound had cleared up. bacteria Manuka flowers days after honey dressings applied© CSE and ASE 2011 © CSE and © CSE and ASE 2011 ASE 2011
  • SS5 Scientist Nilda Ayala-Núṅez, Mexico Investigation ●Add silver nanoparticles to resistant bacteria on agar plates. ●Leave for 24 hours at 35 ºC. Results Type of resistant Percentage of bacteria bacteria destroyed after 24 hours S. pyogenes 99.7 P. aerugionosa 92.8 E. coli 95.7 If an antibiotic kills 90% of the bacteria, your body’s immune system can kill the rest.© CSE and ASE 2011
  • Use this lifeline to make SS6Reasoner Start here conclusions from the lab data More than 1 piece of evidence 1 piece of evidence Does each piece of evidence Is there anyCHECK support the claim*? evidence to supportEVIDENCE the claim*? A LOT of support A LITTLE support NO support Explain HOW WELL the evidenceSUMMARISE supports the claim* overall. Explain why the evidence opposes the claim* or is irrelevant. Suggest a test to make Say the claim* could the claim stronger. be wrong. Suggest aNEXT STEPS Describe the results claim that fits the you expect if the evidence better. claim* is correct. * or hypothesis© CSE and ASE 2011
  • upd8.org.uk/crucialSpecial offer £100 off! Just like us at scienceupd8email: tonysherborne@upd8.org.uk tonysherborne