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Irish academic patenting 1980 – 2012

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This is a 'quick and dirty' piece of patent landscaping work we undertook during summer 2012. In the absence of any credible published analysis of the impact of Irish state science and innovation …

This is a 'quick and dirty' piece of patent landscaping work we undertook during summer 2012. In the absence of any credible published analysis of the impact of Irish state science and innovation policy (which almost uniquely is academic rather than industry-led) and a practice of non-disclosure of hard fact, we decided to try and determine whether it had in fact generated commercially-relevant outputs. We'd love a commission from the Irish government to redo this piece of work thoroughly and rigorously. But we suspect this isn't imminent...

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  • 1. Irish Academic Patenting 1980 – 2012 June 2012 Tony Owens Draft Paper
  • 2. Study Objective and Research Questions The objective of this piece of work was to analyse the commercial relevance of inventive R&D work undertaken by mainly state-funded Irish R&D performers. This was done by performing a moderately-detailed landscaping study on the patent output of Irish patent owners (assignees) known to be largely state-funded. The basis for this approach is the assumption that commercially-valuable and original discoveries tend to be patented. As far as is known, this study is the first ever quant/qual study of the commerciallyrelevant outputs of Ireland academic-led innovation system. • • • • • • What IP is patented by Irish academic inventors? Which institutions and inventors are prolific? What subject‐matter areas are popular? What trends are apparent? What collaborations are apparent? Which patent publications are highly cited? shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 3. Study Design and Data Processing Search All patents assigned to Irish-registered assignees from Jan 1980 to May 2012 Aggregation Fulltext downloads from PatSeer & Espacenet/USPTO (for analytics) Selection Organisation of patents into families based on common priority applications. Manual selection of all patent assignees known to be Irish State‐controlled research performers. Cleanup Merged assignee name variants or mis‐spellings. Merged misspelt or variations of inventor names. Stripped some patents with no apparent Irish academic connections. Stripped and re‐downloaded some US patents with corrupt database entries. Manually redefined family root members based on existence of an EP patent if present, else a WO patent, else a GB patent, else an IE patent , else the earliest published family member Analytics Fulltext word-mining using both user-defined and auto-generated taxonomies Visualisation Simple stats and correlations, heatmaps, 2D maps Notes The objective for some metrics is to identify unique invention records originating from inventors employed by the Irish State (i.e. count a single representative record for each patent family). For other metrics it is more appropriate to include complete patent families, which has been done 3 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 4. Disclaimers 1. Patent Landscaping is not a precise science – 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Not all patent records included but representive sample of the inventive output of the sector under study • may exclude some re‐assigned patents • excludes patents related to ‘invention leakage’ from the institution or filed subsequently by leavers Some ‘ultimate company’ names incorrect Excludes data prior to 1980 Some missing data for C/Y 2003‐2004 Resident country status for academic inventors not always reliable The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect the policy or position of affiliated companies, clients or colleagues. They should not be utilised in policy development as they are based on a limited data set and have not been subjected to peer review. 4 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 5. Activity Levels – No. of Patent Families 5 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 6. Priority Countries for Patent Families 6 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 7. Inventor Productivity - Published Inventions 7 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 8. Academic Assignee Timeline 8 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 9. What has Irish academic R&D been inventing? 9 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 10. Auto-Blood Pressure Auto-Diode Structure Auto-Optical Modulator Auto-Enzyme Systems 0 Auto-Improved Cytokine Design 19952010 Auto-Thermal Interface 50 (2.6%) NAT UNIV IRELAND MAYN Auto-Vascular Graft 12 20002010 0 Auto-Comprising Nanoparticles 64 (3.3%) ROYAL COLL SURGEONS IE Auto-Death Receptor 0 Auto-Porous Microparticles 11 19952010 Auto-Holographic Recording 65 (3.3%) DUB INST OF TECH Auto-Treatment of Infection 10 19892004 0.09 Auto-Fungal and Yeast Species 66 (3.4%) ENTPR IRELAND Auto-Metal Oxide 0 Auto-Semiconductor Materials 9 19761990 Auto-DNA Fragments 68 (3.5%) INST FOR IND RES & STANDARDS Auto-Lactobacillus Salivarius 8 19942010 0 Auto-Optical Communication System 78 (4%) TEAGASC DAIRY PRODUCTS RES CT Auto-Analysis System 7 20002011 0 Auto-Strain of Lactobacillus 84 (4.3%) UNIV LIMERICK Auto-Light Source 6 19972011 0 Auto-Treatment and Prophylaxis 194 (9.9%) UNIV DUBLIN CITY Auto-Nucleotide Sequence 19892011 0.72 Auto-Data Processing 5 229 (11.7%) Auto-Immune Response UNIV COLL DUBLIN (NUI DUBLIN) 19892011 0.12 IE 4 272 (13.9%) Auto-Nucleic Acid NAT UNIV IRELAND GALWAY CA 3 19882011 0.18 GB 396 (20.3%) NAT UNIV IRELAND CORK FR 19792011 0.24 Key Inventor (Top 5) CN 2 Filing Year Range JP 427 (21.9%) TRINITY COLL DUBLIN No. of Filings in last 5 yrs vs Average of Top 20 Assignees DE 1 Filing Trend ( Cumulative ) EP Assignee WO # Avera ge No.of Total No. Fwd of Cites Records per Paten ts US Coverage (Includes families) Auto-Producing Recombinant Biological Products Auto-Bifidobacterium in the Treatment of Inflammatory Disease Inventive Activity Summary (by Patent Assignee) 58 108 127 1 18 0 6 10 49 79 15 4 25 3 0 17 6 0 4 4 0 0 5 11 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 2 38 96 108 0 20 0 7 3 18 75 21 11 2 10 3 11 3 16 14 14 14 6 8 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 10 3 0 0 9 21 0 67 80 74 0 10 0 5 3 20 35 38 6 1 15 9 0 0 1 0 0 2 7 0 0 19 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 3 6 40 55 78 0 10 0 7 2 11 17 5 12 1 0 1 0 8 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 SIEMENS PLC(5) YORKSHIRE WATER SERVICES LTD(5) AAMIC AB(4) ROYAL COLL SURGEONS IE(4) ENTPR IRELAND(3) 26 45 68 0 7 0 5 29 7 20 2 8 0 0 12 0 8 0 4 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 DUB INST OF TECH(3) EUROP ECONOMIC COMMUNITY(3) COOK INC(2) EIRECOMPOSITES TEORANTA(2) LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES INC(2) 10 18 27 0 2 0 0 1 0 28 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 11 12 0 4 0 1 0 2 6 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 14 7 0 10 0 4 0 8 3 14 0 2 8 0 6 0 13 0 4 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 18 21 0 3 0 0 11 1 6 0 1 0 0 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 14 23 26 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 11 12 21 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Co-Assignees FOSTER TIMOTHY J(34) MILLS KINGSTON(30) SHVETS IGOR(30) KELLEHER DERMOT(30) WALSH JAMES(18) TEXAS A & M UNIV SYS(12) N/ A(11) INHIBITEX INC(9) NAT UNIV IRELAND CORK(7) HITACHI EUROP LTD(4) ROSS R PAUL(31) O'MAHONY LIAM(27) COLLINS JOHN KEVIN(26) HILL COLIN(25) MCCARTHY THOMAS VALENTINE(23) ENTPR IRELAND(41) TEAGASC DAIRY PRODUCTS RES CT(30) BIORESEARCH IRELAND(9) TRINITY COLL DUBLIN(7) UNIV GENT(5) BARRY THOMAS GERARD(40) SMITH TERENCE JAMES(36) MAHER MAJELLA(28) SAMALI AFSHIN(22) O'CONNOR LOUISE(21) REGAN CIARAN M(24) SMYTH BARRY JOSEPH(16) DARCY RAPHAEL(13) HENEGHAN CONOR(12) FITZMAURICE DONALD(12) ENTPR IRELAND(16) BIORESEARCH IRELAND(9) UNIV GRONINGEN(9) DEGUSSA-HULS AKTIENGASELLSCHAFT(8) INSTITUCIO CATALANA DE RECERCA(7) AMERICAN BIOGENETIC SCIENCES(14) BIO MEDICAL RES LTD(5) NAT DIGITAL RES CT(4) RWTH AACHEN(4) TRINITY COLL DUBLIN(4) MACCRAITH BRIAN(23) ELLINGBOE ALBERT ROGERS(15) MURPHY NOEL(14) CLYNES MARTIN(14) KILLARD ANTHONY JOSEPH(13) GRIMES RONAN(8) WALSH EDMOND(8) CONWAY THOMAS J(8) MCGLOUGHLIN TIMOTHY M(7) WALSH MICHAEL(7) ROSS R PAUL(54) STANTON CATHERINE GERARDINE(29) HILL COLIN(27) FITZGERALD GER(11) ZELDER OSKAR(11) NAT UNIV IRELAND CORK(30) ENTPR IRELAND(5) ALIMENTARY HEALTH LTD(4) CORK INST OF TECHNOLOGY(2) CALLAGHAN DONAL J O(1) ANDERSON FRANCIS JOSEPH(7) MCLOUGHLIN THOMAS PATRICK(5) CARROLL FRANCIS ALFRED(5) HOARY MARTO JOSEPH(4) COLLINS JOHN KEVIN(30) O'SULLIVAN GERALD CHRISTOPHER(27) O'MAHONY LIAM(23) SHANAHAN FERGUS(18) BARRY THOMAS GERARD(12) MARTIN SUZANNE(18) TOAL VINCENT(18) NAYDENOVA IZABELA(14) COYLE EUGENE(7) ETACHERI VINODKUMAR(7) No Co-Assignee Present RAMTOOLA ZEBUNNISSA(12) KENNY DERMOT(11) KELLY JOHN(7) PABARI RITESH(7) GREENWAY MATT(6) FARRELL RONAN(6) LOWRY JOHN(6) MAHON BERNARD(6) SHORTEN ROBERT(5) Leith Douglas(4) NAT UNIV IRELAND CORK(41) NAT UNIV IRELAND GALWAY(16) TEAGASC DAIRY PRODUCTS RES CT(5) UNIV DUBLIN CITY(3) INNOGENETICS N.V.(1) MINMET PLC DUBLIN(5) RIO TINTO TECHNOLOGY DEV LTD(5) EUROP ECONOMIC COMMUNITY(3) UNIV LIMERICK(3) NAT UNIV IRELAND MAYN(2) UNIV DUBLIN CITY(4) NAT UNIV IRELAND MAYN(1) INST NAT SANTE RECH MED(4) PASTEUR INSTITUT(4) DUB INST OF TECH(2) COLD SPRING HARBOR LAB(1) ROYAL COLL SURGEONS IE(1) 10 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 11. Top 20 Word‐mined Clusters Each bubble = single patent family (invention) Size of bubble  number of forward citations. Intensity of bubble  recency of patent Map of the most popular subject-matter of Irish state-funded inventions (fulltext word-mining and classification taxonomy). 11 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 12. Invention Portfolios of Irish State R&D Performers Each bubble = single patent family (invention) Size of bubble  number of forward citations. Intensity of bubble  recency of patent Map of Portfolio's of Patent Families assigned to Irish state-funded R&D performers. shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609 12
  • 13. Collaborations between Invention Portfolio Owners Nodes represent invention assignees. Lines between nodes  co-cited invention assignees. No. of co-assigned inventions enumerated in red. 13 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 14. Observations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Irish academic patenting is a relatively recent thing – negligible activity pre Noughties (except TCD) The inventions have low levels of forward citation (cites from more recently filed patents) particularly after adjustment for self-citation. In marked contrast to publication citation performance, only one ‘landmark’ patent was identified (US6870657; Electrochromic device, to UCD). Patenting was almost exclusively focused on four areas until post 2006; of which only two (Photonics and Microbiology/Probiotic Foods) were realistically capable of commercialisation by Irish indigenous firms. A striking bias towards science and against engineering/technology is apparent. Almost all prolific inventors are bioscientists. Collaborations as evidenced by patent co‐assignment are primarily with other academic research performers. There is little evidence of significant/consistent engagement with commercial businesses. There is evidence of changing policy in the recent arrival of engineering/technology‐led patenting by the ‘IT’s’ – in particular DIT, WIT and SOIT 14 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609
  • 15. Tentative Conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The low level of forward citations (after adjustment for self-citation) raise serious questions about the commercial relevance of previous academic RDI activities. The striking bias towards science and against technology and engineering apparent in previous patenting severely limits scope for engagement with industry and with SME’s in particular. The leading funder of Irish academic R&D is SFI which funds four thematic areas: nanotech, biotech, ICT and renewable technology. Despite this, only one of these funding areas, biotech, has generated significant patent output. In the aggregate, patenting is a leading indicator of commercialisation. The continued lack of significant and consistent co‐citation with industrial collaborators strongly suggests that the history of failure of the largest Irish academic RDI providers to deliver commercially‐relevant outputs will continue. The rise of patenting in certain of the ‘IT’s’ (WIT, DIT, SOIT) which tend to be more engaged with Irish companies is a positive development. 15 shibumi© | www. shibumi-consulting.net | info@shibumi-consulting.net | ++353 – (0)1 - 4429609