V O T E R S ’ E D U C AT I O N K I T O N T H E M AY 2 0 1 0 E L E C T I O N S




             The People’s Choice
       ...
Elections and ambition
                                 P
                                           resident Gloria Macap...
The promise and perils
 of automated elections
                                                                           ...
against which he or she can later be measured.

Where the Presidentiables Stand
                                          ...
Economic growth
         and corporate profits
n Growth in gross domestic product (GDP) dur-
                             ...
People’s Criteria                                                                                       Benigno “Noynoy”
 ...
Richard Juico                       Maria Ana Consuelo                     Nicanor Jesus                     Gilberto Edua...
Election Facts and Fig
                                                                                                   ...
gures
                                                                  P10 – presidential candidate’s      Election-relat...
People’s Criteria
                                                                                                        ...
Richard Juico                   Maria Ana Consuelo
                                                                       ...
People’s Criteria                                                                               Benigno “Noynoy”          ...
People's Choice and Voters Education Kit
People's Choice and Voters Education Kit
People's Choice and Voters Education Kit
People's Choice and Voters Education Kit
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People's Choice and Voters Education Kit

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An overview of the Automated Election System, "Election Facts and Figures", "The People's Criteria" vis a vis the nation's situation, and "Where the Presidentiables Stand" (a matrix of the 9 presidential candidates' views vis a vis The People's Criteria)

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People's Choice and Voters Education Kit

  1. 1. V O T E R S ’ E D U C AT I O N K I T O N T H E M AY 2 0 1 0 E L E C T I O N S The People’s Choice T he overwhelming majority of Filipinos suffer chronic poverty and backwardness. The last nine years of the Arroyo administration have only seen their situation become even worse. Many are hoping that the May 2010 elections will be a fresh start and that new leadership will address their plight. Yet the elections can only usher in the needed reforms if the people are able to choose national and local leaders who are genuinely pro-people, patriotic and democratic. The country’s problems are huge and demand committed leaders willing to challenge long-standing monopolies of economic and political power. The people have to be critical to see if such leaders are at hand. Elections can be used to put real progressives into government but the reality for now is that they are going to be a minority at best. At the end of the day their strength will come from being part of a larger effort to build democracy based on people organizing for their democratic rights. Whatever happens, elections must be a venue for raising the awareness of the people about their democratic rights and the kinds of leaders that they should have and de- serve. This kind of awareness can be the starting point of struggling for these rights even after the May 2010 elections. IBON Foundation | PAGBABAGO! People’s Movement for Change 1
  2. 2. Elections and ambition P resident Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and her allies ap- pear to be using the May 2010 elections to remain in power. They are maneuvering to take national and local positions in the next administration. It is also likely that there will be renewed efforts at charter change that, among others, includes a shift to a parliamen- tary system that allows former president Arroyo to become prime minister. For now there are even fears that the elections may fail due to problems with automation, intensified violence, and massive fraud. Scenarios of emergency rule, some kind of martial law and of a “transition government” have also already been floated. All these are symptoms of Philippine politics driven by ambition rather than democratic gover- nance and service to the people. Arroyo administration officials running in May 2010 President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Congressional seat, Pampanga) Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita (Congressional seat, Batangas) Justice Secretary Agnes Devanadera (Congressional seat, Quezon) Secretary Hermogenes Esperon of the Presidential Management Staff (Congressional seat, Pangasinan) Secretary Augusto Syjuco of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Congressional seat, Iloilo) Budget Secretary Rolando Andaya (Congressional seat, Camarines Sur) Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap (Congressional seat, Bohol) Secretary Raul Gonzalez, chief presidential legal counsel (Mayor, Iloilo City) Secretary Edgar Pamintuan of the Luzon Urban Beltway (Mayor, Angeles City) 2 The People’s Choice: The May 2010 Elections and the People’s Criteria
  3. 3. The promise and perils of automated elections 3 Facts and figures on the Automated Election System from the Center for People Empowerment Vulnerabilities from in Governance (CenPEG) and the Computer Professionals’ Union (CPU) canvassing to proclamation The Automated Election Sys- n Possible failure to generate or tem (AES) promises modern print election returns (ERs) democratic elections in the country with quicker counting n Automated dagdag-bawas in canvassing of ERs, statements of that eliminates the conditions votes, certificates of canvass for wholesale cheating through the notorious dagdag-bawas. n ERs can be digitally signed and encrypted by BEIs and also others P7.2 billion who know their passwords, creating Smartmatic-TIM contract the possibility of changing ERs; SOVs 82,200 2 Election day voting and COCs can be similarly altered Precinct Count Optical Scan vulnerabilities (PCOS) machines n Security concerns regarding the servers consolidating votes 1,671 n Manipulation of results through unique ballots compact flash (CF) cards used to 1 n Power failure and/or communi- Pre-election process configure each PCOS machine cations breakdown W hat is ‘automated’ from the old manual n Inadequate testing of machines n Confusion from using a new, unfamiliar and more complicated n Unclear procedures in case of conflicting results, connectivity or system? in actual field conditions system than in manual elections – transmission problems, hardware or ex. possible problems with various software failure, and in adjudicat- n Voting remains manual, with n No real source code review election paraphernalia ing electoral protests in an auto- voters writing their names and mated election filling up ballots by hand n No plan for verifying program n Smartmatic-TIM generates and actually installed in the 82,200 hence knows the digital signatures/ n But vote-counting from the PCOS machines passwords of the Board of Election The conditions for disarray and con- ballots is computerized, with Inspectors (BEIs) ditions for fraud are there not just PCOS machines counting and n Manipulation of lists of voters, in the presidential elections but also recording votes at the precinct candidates lists and precincts/clus- n No way to verify integrity of in the other national positions (vice level tered precincts program installed in PCOS upon ini- presidential, senatorial) and the tialization local positions vital for the Arroyo n Canvassing is also computer- n Possible printing of excess bal- circle’s efforts to remain in power ized, with recorded votes from lots to be used for cheating n Problems with filling up long precincts sent via Internet to ballot, ballot jamming and misread- Persistence of means of fraud: servers for consolidation at mu- n Security concerns in storage, ing, machine breakdown vote-buying, voter intimidation and nicipal, provincial and national packing and delivery of ballots as harassment, sabotaging voters, fly- levels well as in deployment and testing/ n Power failure and/or communi- ing voters, ballot-switching, spoiled sealing of PCOS machines IBON Foundation | PAGBABAGO! People’s Movement for Change cations breakdown ballots… 3
  4. 4. against which he or she can later be measured. Where the Presidentiables Stand More important is what a candidate has done in terms of pushing formal policies, programs or laws on one side or the other of an issue. This means that their personal position becomes ex- pressed in a way having an impact beyond themselves. T But most revealing is a candidate having actual involvement he problems of the country are long-standing and enormous. It is on a matter as an active participant, direct beneficiary or in only reasonable to expect candidates, especially for the country’s other ways having a vested interest. This is because they can say highest offices, to already have concrete proposals for dealing or formally push one thing while in actual practice be doing the opposite. with these. This is a requirement for any real leadership. It is also rea- A candidate is said to have no clear stand or position when sonable to expect them to share their program with the public which there is none apparent but also when these are made only in shows that they respect the voters. ambiguous or general terms. Candidates have to be considered beyond motherhood statements which anyone can say. The country’s problems are clear – does a candidate have the courage for the difficult things that need to be done? Do it yourself! The People’s Criteria are our own! Color In assessing candidates we can give some weight to public state- the birds according to how you would rate them (0 be- ments they make on issues. While mere declarations, they at least show ing the worst, 5 being the best) according to their stand that a candidate is aware of the issue and able to articulate a position and track record. Benigno “Noynoy” John Carlos “JC” Joseph “Erap” People’s Criteria Gordon Ejercito Estrada Cojuangco Aquino delos Reyes Liberal Party (LP) Ang Kapatiran Party (AKP) Partido ng Masang Pilipino (PMP) P 1 20.9 billion (US$430 million) – To- Will you work to establish the truth behind tal amount of kickbacks, ill-gotten the “Hello, Garci”, NBN-ZTE scam, fertil- wealth and payoffs involved in just 16 izer scam and other anomalies by way of nVows to prosecute Pres. nSays Pres. Arroyo should nOusted as president in 2001 major corruption cases. (Pagbabago! Re- independent and highly credible bodies? Will Arroyo for her involvement in be investigated for scandals in a People Power revolt, after search Working Group): you pave the way for the prosecution of Mrs. corruption, and proposes to during her presidential term a failed impeachment trial n IMPSA power scam (US$470 million Arroyo, her relatives, her close allies and other create a commission to investi- including “the NBN-ZTE broad- on corruption charges, and project; US$14 million kickback) government officials who have been involved in gate the scandals surrounding band scandal, extra-judicial subsequently convicted for the n PIATCO-NAIA Terminal 3 scam (US$425 large-scale graft and corruption, electoral fraud her administration. killings, and the road users capital offense of plunder. million project; US$20-70 million and their cover-up? tax scam”, that his presidency kickback) n Jose Pidal accounts (P300-400 million in ill-gotten wealth) ON C OR RU P T ION nIn 2005, before the Depart- will make sure that evidence nHas no clear stand on the ment of Agrarian Reform (DAR) collated is strong, and that prosecution of Pres. Arroyo, n Fertilizer funds scam (P728 million for presidential election campaign) revoked the stock distribution Pres. Arroyo will be given due although he distanced himself n NorthRail scam (US$503 million project; US$50 million kickback) option (SDO) in Hacienda Lu- process and the matter left to from opposition calls for an n Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard scam (P1.1 billion project; P533 million kickback) isita, voted against playing the the courts. Arroyo resignation after he was n Quedancor swine scam (P2.5 billion program; P900 million for presidential ‘Garci tapes’ and lauded Pres. granted presidential pardon in election campaign) Arroyo for her “I am sorry” nHas reportedly filed cases 2007. n Irrigation fund scam (P3.1 billion missing) speech. against government officials n Mega-Pacific poll automation scam (P1.3 billion project; P500 million kickback) before the Ombudsman with n NBN-ZTE scam (US$330 million project; US$130 million kickback) nAs senator, participated himself as the complainant. n Cybereducation project (P27 billion) in hearings investigating a n Military comptrollers scandal (P71 million in ill-gotten wealth) number of reported scandals n “Euro General” scandal (P7 million in ill-gotten wealth) involving the alleged misuse of n Jueteng payoffs (P500,000 to P1 million monthly) public funds. n PEACE Bonds (P1.4 billion broker’s fee) n Mismanaged PAGCOR/GSIS funds (hundreds of millions of pesos) nBeing questioned for the Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway (SCTEx) passing through Haci- enda Luisita which is allegedly HELLO GARCI?... SO I WILL overpriced and said to have STILL LEAD BY MORE THAN ONE M (MILLION), OVERALL? benefited the Aquino family. 4 The People’s Choice: The May 2010 Elections and the People’s Criteria
  5. 5. Economic growth and corporate profits n Growth in gross domestic product (GDP) dur- amid Poverty and inequality n Number of poor families increased 530,642 since 2000 to 4.7 million poor families in 2006 ing the last nine years of the Arroyo administra- n Number of poor Filipinos increased 2.1 million since 2000 to 27.6 million in 2006 tion (2001-09) averaged 4.5% annually com- (NSCB, using low official poverty lines) P41 pared to 3.9% under Aquino (1986-91), 3.8% - Official poverty line or average daily income required for a person to stay out of poverty, according to under Ramos (1992-97) and 2.4% under Estrada (1998-2000). which the government counts just 32.9% of the population as “poor” - Buys one kilo of rice (P36) and an egg (P5) n Net income of Top 1000 corporations in the Philip- n IBON self-rated poverty 69% (January 2010), implying 64.5 million poor Filipinos pines rose from P116.4 billion in 2001 to average n P801 billion (US$15.6 billion) - net worth in 2006 of just the 20 richest Filipinos, including close Arroyo allies P416.7 billion annually in the period 2002-08 (Business Lucio Tan, Enrique Razon, Jr., Eduardo Cojuangco, Enrique Aboitiz and others, which was equivalent to the combined World) income for the year of the poorest 10.4 million Filipino families. (Forbes Asia, NSCB) Richard Juico Maria Ana Consuelo Nicanor Jesus Gilberto Eduardo Eduardo “Eddie” Gerardo ”Gibo” Manuel “Manny” “Dick” Gordon “Jamby” “Nicky” Pineda Cruz Villanueva Madrigal-Valade Cojuangco Teodoro, Jr Bamba Villar Jr. Bagumbayan-Volunteers for Perlas III a New Philippines Independent Independent Lakas ng Tao-Kabalikat ng Malay- Bangon Pilipinas (BP) Nacionalista party (NP) (B.BAYAN-VNP) ang Pilipino (LAKAS-KAMPI) nAs chair of the Senate Blue nBelieves that Pres. Arroyo nAgrees that Pres. Arroyo nWill not involve himself in nHas continuously supported nAs House Speaker, transmit- Ribbon Committee, said that should face prosecution, saying should be prosecuted for the prosecution of Pres. Arroyo calls for the resignation of ted impeachment charges Pres. Arroyo and husband Mike that large-scale corruption and corruption. and will “let the justice system Pres. Arroyo for election fraud against Pres. Arroyo to the Arroyo along with whistleblow- human rights violations under work” and “focus on moving and corruption Senate in 2005. ers Jun Lozada and Joey de her term have brought shame nVows to remove corruption the country forward instead”. Venecia must be held account- to the country. in all government agen- nVows to prosecute not only nHas no clear answer on the able for the controversial NBN- cies within his first year in nBelieves that transparency, Pres. Arroyo but all the other prosecution of Pres. Arroyo for ZTE deal. nSays that anti-graft and cor- office. giving incentives and improv- officials involved in corruption large-scale corruption except ruption measures should not ing the standard of living of cases, saying that “no one is to say that he will leave it to nBelieves that corruption only focus on the “big fish” nVows to ensure that government officials will help above the law”. the judicial system. shoos away investments and but also the punishment of anti-corruption initiatives eradicate corruption. suggests that the Ombudsman politicians for promoting “free converge with policies and nWants Congress to specify nBelieves corruption can end be made an elective position trade” policies that support programs aimed at eradicat- plunder as a heinous crime, through transparency in public to be more effective in holding foreign plunder and economic ing poverty and enhancing empower the Office of the biddings, in the statements erring officials accountable for underdevelopment the quality of life for all. Ombudsman, hold rigorous of assets and liabilities of of- their crimes. performance reviews, and ficials, and in lifestyle checks. institutionalize an undersecre- tary for Moral Reforms. nFaces allegations of corrup- tion on the C-5 road extension project which was reportedly overpriced and made to pass through properties of his cor- porations. IBON Foundation | PAGBABAGO! People’s Movement for Change 5
  6. 6. People’s Criteria Benigno “Noynoy” Cojuangco Aquino Liberal Party (LP) John Carlos “JC” Gordon delos Reyes Ang Kapatiran Party (AKP) Joseph “Erap” Ejercito Estrada Partido ng Masang Pilipino (PMP) C 2 ounterinsurgency programs Will you uphold human rights and end poli- Oplan Bantay Laya 1 (2002-06) and 2 cies giving rise to human rights violations (2007-2010); Human rights violations against such as extra-judicial killing, torture, and activists, peasants, workers, church people, nIn a privilege speech in 2007, nOpenly declares opposition to nAs president, signed the Compre- enforced disappearance? Will you stop the per- expressed commitment to end extrajudicial killings, even if hensive Agreement on Respect for national minorities, lawyers, media and others secution of social activists, dissidents and critics extrajudicial killings and enforced only in general terms. Human Rights and International since 2001 (Karapatan): of government? Will you punish perpetrators of disappearances in the country and Humanitarian Law (CARHRIHL). n 1,188 political killings human rights violations? criticized the Arroyo gov’t for its n 205 enforced disappearances nAs Olongapo City Councilor, weak response on the issue. nRampant human rights violations n 223 political prisoners (as of 2009) ON H UM A N R IG H T S pushed for the implementa- nDownplays the Hacienda Luisita tion of Barangay Human Rights were however recorded during his (HL) massacre and even insists that term with 974 cases of rights vio- n 873,431 victims of forcible evacuation and displacement Action Centers as mandated by only two of seven farmers killed lations, according to rights group n 534,717 of indiscriminate firing were from HL. the Department of Interior and Karapatan. Among these were n 84,630 of food and other economic blockades Local Government (DILG). nAs a representative, voted against the arrests and detention of 301 n 52,310 of illegal search and seizure the Human Security Act (RA 9372, or individuals, 45 victims of summary n 38,616 of hamletting Anti-Terror Law), which is criticized executions, 14 massacre incidents by human rights groups as a law that and 22 enforced disappearances. will intensify human rights violations. U 3 S$11.4 billion – Total minerals ex- Will you protect the national patrimony ports, 2002-09 (NSO) and environment by opposing large-scale, export-oriented, and foreign-led extractive nHas no clear stand on the is- nSays that he will repeal the nAs president, vowed to push for industries such as mining and oil exploration? n But 68% of gross revenues of Will you uphold the rights to ancestral land and sue of large-scale mining. Mining Act of 1995 and have the repeal of the Mining Act of strict policies particularly on 1995 and to investigate the per- all mining firms in the Top 1000 to self-determination of indigenous peoples and nSays that the effects of min- large-scale mining to prevent the mits issued by the National Com- corporations are of foreign mining national minorities? destruction of the environment. mission on Indigenous Peoples ing, oil and natural resources TNCs account (Business World) (NCIP) to mining companies. ON N AT ION A L PAT R I MON Y extraction can be further stud- n 10,500 people – Number of ied and discussed especially nPlatform declares promot- monitored victims of human rights ing: “a safe, clean, healthy nHowever, after only a year with the community. and wholesome environment, in office, almost 200 mineral violations related to mining proj- particularly zero waste manage- production sharing agreements ects over the period 1994-2005 ment; stewardship as a way of (MPSAs) were approved cover- (Kalikasan) life; and the development of ing ancestral lands and some parks throughout the country.” ecologically critical areas. 7 out of 10 farmers are landless (KMP) 4 Will you work for genuine agrarian reform anchored on the distribution of land to the tillers? Are you in favour of scrapping nAbstained from voting on the nPlatform has no clear stand nAs president, declared Eduar- n There are14 recorded cases of stock schemes such as the stock-distribution option, pro-landlord CARPer but said on agrarian reform programs as do ‘Danding’ Cojuangco as the distribution option (SDO) nationwide land use conversion and others that have al- on record that he will imple- existing in the country, although “godfather of agrarian reform” used to avoid distributing land to lowed evasion of land reform and endangered ment the program if he becomes proposes to increase agricul- and supported corporative farmers, such as in Hacienda Luisita food security? president. tural productivity by introducing agrarian reform. new technologies and providing in Tarlac province (IBON) A G R A R I A N R E F OR M nIs in favor of joint-venture support infrastructure towards nUnder his term, there was A N D A G R IC U LT U R A L schemes in agriculture. agricultural development and “a widespread cancellation of n In 2006, almost 75% of the poor were in rural areas where pov- high degree of self-sufficiency”. DE V E LOP M E N T farmer beneficiaries’ Certifi- erty incidence is almost three times that in urban areas (World Bank) nHas refrained from declaring a clear position on the Hacienda cate of Land Ownership Awards (CLOA) and emancipation T he Philippines is the world’s biggest rice importer Luisita controversy but was re- cently compelled to promise ha- patents (EP), reaching at least n 2.4 million tons imported in 2008 were the highest recorded worldwide for that or any cienda redistribution to farmers 1,892 covering 374,266 hect- other year, and may be exceeded by an even higher 2.6-3.2 million in 2010 (USDA, NFA) by 2014 (the distribution of the ares as of May 2000. n One out of every five spoons of rice Filipinos consume is imported (19% of total 6,453-hectare property should consumption) have been distributed in 1967). 6 The People’s Choice: The May 2010 Elections and the People’s Criteria
  7. 7. Richard Juico Maria Ana Consuelo Nicanor Jesus Gilberto Eduardo Eduardo “Eddie” Gerardo ”Gibo” Manuel “Manny” “Dick” Gordon “Jamby” “Nicky” Pineda Cruz Villanueva Bagumbayan-Volunteers for Madrigal-Valade Cojuangco Teodoro, Jr Bamba Villar Jr. Perlas III a New Philippines Independent Independent Lakas ng Tao-Kabalikat ng Malay- Bangon Pilipinas (BP) Nacionalista party (NP) (B.BAYAN-VNP) ang Pilipino (LAKAS-KAMPI) nThinks that the country’s hu- nVoted against the Human Se- nVows to protect human nAs defense secretary from 2007 nBelieves that there should nSays that upholding human rights man rights situation is dismal curity Act (Anti-Terror Law). rights to the fullest extent by to 2009, was in charge of the be a faster trial of pending is one of his party’s priorities, as but attributes it to the people cultivating a culture of respect implementation of Oplan Bantay cases of those responsible for well as giving justice to the victims who perpetrate the violations nBelieves that the government for human rights in all agen- Laya II that among others explic- “shocking injustices” such as from the Martial Law period up to itly targets civilian ‘enemies of the present. and says “it is not the adminis- should end its total war policy cies and affairs of government extrajudicial killings. tration”. and provide reparation for the as well in the public at large the state’. During this period, nSays that human rights violations families of the victims. “through appropriate partner- 320 cases of extrajudicial kill- nWants Congress to define can be addressed by strengthen- ings, and 43 cases of enforced ing the leadership of the Armed nAs senator, voted for the Hu- ships with civil society groups”. syndicated warlordism as a disappearances were recorded Forces of the Philippines (AFP)- man Security Act. heinous crime. Philippine National Police (PNP) while the number of illegal ar- rests increased from 2006. and by addressing the concerns of the military. nAs a representative, voted nAs senator, voted for the Human against the Human Security Act. Security Act and also its principal author. nBelieves that there is nothing nAs senator, filed a bill repealing nCritical of the Mining Act of nBelieves that mining should nVows to impose a moratorium nNot opposed to large-scale wrong with foreign investors in the Mining Act of 1995 and a bill 1995 and supports the passage of be aggressively pursued for be- on all large-scale open-pit min- mining and natural resources large-scale mining and natural for the imposition of a total log the so-called Alternative Mining ing among the biggest poten- ing until Filipinos are ready to extraction and says that inves- resources extraction as long as it ban. Bill. tials of the country. have their own mining projects tors should follow the same upholds the way of life of the in- nBelieves that foreign mining nVows to regulate mining opera- that protect the environment. standards as those in devel- digenous people and the country companies and local politicians tions to make sure that they do nPlans to revive the mining oped countries. benefits from it. who have protected them should not permanently damage the be penalized for destroying the industry in Central Luzon and nWants to ensure ancestral nSays that the Marcopper mining environment and health or oper- Davao. domains for upland farmers nPlatform includes promot- Philippine environment over the ate in watershed and ancestral disaster in Marinduque in 1996 past century. and lead multi-stakeholder ing the rights and welfare of domain areas; will give prior- should not dissuade the govern- nSays that government and ity to small-scale, community- consultations in the issuance indigenous people and migrant ment from reviving the industry people should push for a real, owned mining operations that of Certificates of Ancestral dwellers in upland ecosystems. noting that “Marcopper was more drastic and not token shift to are ecological sound and socially Domain Titles. a damage (sic) of people riding renewable energy, genuine forest responsible. on the issue”. conservation and regeneration. nAs senator, voted for the nPlatform says that will work with nVows to speed up the “prop- nBelieves that government’s nSupported calls to pass the nDid not vote on the CARPer. CARPer. progressive people’s organizations er” implementation of the role must stop once an agrar- CARPer. Vows to review this program, say- for genuine agrarian reform, to government’s agrarian reform ian reform program is imple- ing that land reform should ensure stop landgrabbing and land con- equitable distribution of land and nCo-sponsor and author of Sen- program on affected private mented because “it is no lon- nVows to give full support to that effective land distribution ate Bill 3429 (an Act Reform- version to non-food uses, to en- lands and will accelerate the ger reform but rather a sort of agriculture, saying his primary and thoroughgoing land reform is ing the Administrative Titling sure adequate farmgate prices and passage of a comprehensive government-funded peasantry agenda is to rejuvenate the ag- important to address landlessness. Process) farm pay, and to freely distribute land use plan for the country program.” ricultural economy as the foun- nKnown to be a landowner and to peasant-tiller cooperatives and real estate developer and faces that can ensure food security. dation of an economic growth associations haciendas previously allegations of landgrabbing (such and social justice program. diverted from land reform. as 12.7 out of 200 hectares of nVows to remove local mo- nAs senator, voted for CARPer irrigated land in Iloilo City being nopolies and oligopolies that converted for non-agricultural although said that, in the spirit suppress the prices of agri- purposes). of social justice, anti-farmer laws cultural products and which nVows to review agricultural and programs (such as the CARP’s extract usurious lending rates trade liberalization and provide stock distribution option allowing support and safety nets to protect from the poor. big hacienda owners to evade land local producers while giving them transfer) should be abolished. access to the global market. IBON Foundation | PAGBABAGO! People’s Movement for Change 7
  8. 8. Election Facts and Fig T Declared net worth of selected Schedule for the casting of votes val presidential candidates: (th In the Philippines: May 10, 2010, 7:00 am to 6:00 pm P1.05 billion – Manuel Villar, Jr. For absentee voters abroad: Any day from April 10, 2010 (host P232.43 million – Gilbert Teodoro, Jr. P35.86 million – Joseph Estrada country time) to 3:00 pm of May 10, 2010 (Philippine time) P25.62 million – Richard Gordon P13.94 million – Benigno Aquino, III [Based on latest available SALN TOTAL CANDIDATES as reported by PCIJ, 7 Feb 2010] POSITIONS AT STAKE WOMEN CANDIDATES RUNNING [Ad v 1 President 1 9 Estimated campaign budgets: P2-6 billion – president 1 Vice President 1 8 P200-600 million – senator P15-100 million – congressman 12 Senators 14 61 230 District representatives 129 798 57 Party-list Representatives 187 Party list groups in the 14th Congress 80 Governors 42 291 n 15,337,808 – Total number of party list votes cast in 2007 (excluding those for disqualified Batas PL group), out of 80 Vice Governors 34 241 45.0 million registered voters n 52 party list representatives from 33 organizations, or 766 Members of Sangguniang Panlalawigan 289 2,042 19% out of total 269 representatives n Progressive party list groups such as Anakpawis, Bayan Muna, Gabriela Women’s Party and Kabataan 137 72 463 n Dubious party list groups include among others ANAD City Mayors (Pastor Alcover, Jr), Ang Kasangga (Ma. Lourdes Arroyo), Bantay (Jovito Palparan, Jr) 137 City Vice Mayors 59 391 Palace-backed or -allied party list groups running for 15th Congress 1,524 Members of Sangguniang Panglungsod 728 4,582 n 1-Utak (1-United Transport Koalisyon) n Adhikain ng mga Dakilang Anak ng Maharlika (ADAM)n Ang Galing 1,497 Municipal mayors 727 4,071 Pinoy (AG) nAgbiag Timpuyo Ilokano (Agbiag) nAhon Pinoy (Ahon) nAkbay Pinoy OFW-National (APOI) nAan- gat Ating Kabuhayan Pilipinas (Anak) n Babae para sa 1,497 Municipal Vice Mayors 608 3,945 Kaunlaran (Babae Ka) nBigkis Pinoy Movement (Bigkis) nByaheng Pinoy Labor Association (Byaheng Pinoy) 11,980 Members of Sangguniang Bayan 5,641 33,172 nKalahi Sectoral Party (Kalahi) n League of Youth for Peace and Advancement (LYPAD), among others 8 The People’s Choice: The May 2010 Elections and the People’s Criteria
  9. 9. gures P10 – presidential candidate’s Election-related maximum allowed campaign Private Armies - 57 people were killings: killed in the Ampatuan massacre in No- spending per voter or P507.2M given 50.7M registered voters vember 2009. 1986 - 153 n The Philippine National police esti- Total TV, radio and print advertising mates that there are 132 private armies lue of selected presidential candidates P5 – political party’s maximum 1988 - 188 from Nov 2009 to January 2010 allowed campaign spending per 1992 - 89 with a combined strength of 10,000 voter or P253.6 million armed men nationwide. hree months before campaign period): 1995 - 108 n The PNP also estimates that there 1998 - 77 P1,024.2 million – Manuel Villar, Jr. are around 1.2 million unlicensed guns 2001 - 111 in circulation across the country. P407.4 million – Gilbert Teodoro, Jr. P268.8 million – Benigno Aquino, III Basic monthly salaries 2004 -189 P244.6 million – Richard Gordon as of 2009: 2007 -121 Urban Militarization - Military P90.1 million – Eddie Villanueva President - P82,400 2010 -89 reported Vice President - P77,637 (highest) units including the 103rd and 27th Bat- P84.3 million – Joseph Estrada by PIPVTR as of mid-March talions of the Armed Forces of the Phil- Senator - P67,898 (highest) (PNP, PIPVTR) value estimates from Nielsen Media as reported by PCIJ, 16 Feb Congressman - P67,898 ippines are currently deployed in various 2010. Actual ad spending may be at a 30-40% discount] urban-poor areas of Metro Manila such as BASECO, Dagat-dagatan and PNR Site. Clad in full-battle gear, soldiers are known to ask the resi- dents regarding the wherabouts of progressive Party-list leaders and There are 76,340 clustered precincts, support- ers. each with a PCOS machine. In recognition of the need to democratize Congress and There are 37,422 voting centers. include “marginalized” and “underrepresented” sectors, 7 the Party List Law (RA 7941) says that 20% of Congress should consist of representatives from party list (PL) groups to give the poor and marginalized a greater voice there. Every voter can vote for one (1) party list group, party or organization. Each party list can have 1-3 representa- tives depending on the total votes they get. What are genuinely progressive party list groups? 1. Representing poor sectors in society that, despite their significant numbers, are politically and economi cally marginalized 2. Organized and with concrete platforms to advance the interest of their constituencies There are 50,723,734 registered voters as of January 15, 2010 3. Able to oppose the policies, programs and structures that have marginalized their constituencies out of a total population of 94.0 Million (NSO, medium assumption 2010): Young potential voters aged 18-24 years old The party list system has allowed a few progressive PLs to enter Congress but traditional ruling elites are subverting number to 12.52 million the system’s intent and using it to take additional seats in where 3.76 million are aged18-19 Congress aside from the district representative seats that they have long-dominated. and 8.76 million are aged 20-24 IBON Foundation | PAGBABAGO! People’s Movement for Change 9
  10. 10. People’s Criteria Benigno “Noynoy” John Carlos “JC” Joseph “Erap” Cojuangco Aquino Gordon Ejercito Estrada delos Reyes Partido ng Masang Pilipino Liberal Party (LP) Ang Kapatiran Party (AKP) (PMP) T 5 he share of manufacturing in the economy has fallen to 21.8% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009 which Will you work for national industrialization? Will you reverse policies of liberalization, privatization and deregulation? Will you nPlatform is silent on manufac- turing and industrial develop- nCriticizes globalization for being disadvantageous to small nAs president, his ‘Angat Pinoy’ development program keep economic protectionist measures, restric- ment. is even lower than its 24.8% share in 1960, and medium Filipino enterpris- continued the same foreign tions on foreign ownership of land in the Philip- nAs senator, voted ‘no’ to the es who cannot compete with half a century ago (NSCB) cheap foreign goods supported investment-biased Medium- pine Constitution? controversial JPEPA saying he n 60-75% of total manufacturing sales in believed that Filipinos deserved or subsidized by their govern- Term Philippine Development the Top 1000 corporations in the country in the N AT ION A L I S T E C ONOM IC a better-negotiated and mutu- ments, which causes local jobs Plans (MTPDP) of previous and opportunities to be lost. last five years have been accounted for by foreign trans- P OL IC I E S ally beneficial treaty. administrations. national corporations (Business World) nSays that he will form a group nWill promote ‘industrializa- to review possible changes to tion’ by encouraging “useful nCampaigned for charter the charter including to the industries [including] telecom- change through Concord, and n The price of diesel is 175% higher than nine years ago (from P13.82 per liter in January restrictions on foreign invest- munications and information favored lifting restrictions on 2001 to P37.82 in January 2010) and of gasoline170% higher (from P16.56 to P44.69).(IBON ment. technology”. foreign investment and grant- monitoring) nAs representative, voted nGenerally against foreign ing 100% foreign ownership of ownership of land but open to no to the EPIRA law in 2001. exploring “limited ownership” land. Looked into EPIRA and TRANSCO of land by foreigners. amendments, and questioned gov’t selling such revenue- generating assets. T rue unemployment (NSO data with IBON estimates adjusting for govt’s change in methodology in April 2005) 6 Will you promote job creation and uphold job security by protecting domestic indus- try? Do you support the demand of work- nAs senator, sponsored the nSays that he will review the nAs president, ignored calls n 4.3 million - unemployed in 2009 ers for an increase in minimum wage? Will you Productivity Incentives Act labor code to address the for minimum wage increases reverse labor export and labor contractualization n 11.2% – unemployment rate policies to protect working people’s rights and granting annual incentives to problem of “rampant contrac- saying that granting a wage (average, 2001-09) private sector workers and tualization”. hike may “scare away inves- promote their welfare? increasing penalties for non- tors” and take away the coun- JOBS AND WAGES P oor quality of jobs - out of 35.1 Million “employed” in 2009: n 4.2 million “unpaid family workers” (NSO) compliance with increases/ad- justments in workers’ wages. nWill generate jobs by allow- ing small and medium enter- prises, including cooperatives, try’s comparative advantage in labor costs. n 12.2 million “own account workers” mainly in informal sector (NSO) nHowever, as part owner of to thrive. This will be done nUnder his term, labor export n 11.7 million “wage and salary workers” but without written contracts Hacienda Luisita, has toler- by removing corruption that and contractualization con- (IBON estimate based on NSO data) ated unfair labor practice and hampers businesses, exempting tinued. Major workers’ strikes unjust workers’ wages. small businesses from taxation, were violently dispersed (e.g. 12.8 million – Part-time work, equivalent to one out of three jobs (NSO) and providing credit. PAL, LRT, Manila Hotel). 2.7 million – Number of working children (5-17 years old) (NSO) nSays that the social costs of P917 – Family living wage in NCR in 2008 (NWPC) the labor export policy are n P382 – Nominal NCR minimum wage (non-agriculture) since 2008 (NWPC) too high and that OFWs should n P399 – Average daily basic pay received by NCR wage & salary workers (April-09, BLES) be provided livelihood and n P288 – Average daily basic pay received by wage & salary workers in Philippines (April-09, business opportunities to draw BLES) them back. Percentage of families earning less than minimum wage in 2006 (BLES) n 46% of families with 1-5 household members, 49% of families with 6-10 members, 50% of fami- lies with 11 or more members 8.2 million – Stock of overseas Filipinos in 2008 (4.3 million temporary workers and 3.8 million permanent residents,DFA) 1.29 million – OFWs deployed Jan-Nov 2009, or 3,845 per day (POEA) 10 The People’s Choice: The May 2010 Elections and the People’s Criteria
  11. 11. Richard Juico Maria Ana Consuelo Nicanor Jesus Gilberto Eduardo Eduardo “Eddie” Manuel “Manny” “Dick” Gordon “Jamby” Gerardo ”Gibo” Madrigal-Valade “Nicky” Pineda Cojuangco Teodoro, Jr Cruz Villanueva Bamba Villar Jr. Bagumbayan-Volunteers for a New Philippines Perlas III Lakas ng Tao-Kabalikat ng Malay- Independent Independent Bangon Pilipinas (BP) Nacionalista party (NP) (B.BAYAN-VNP) ang Pilipino (LAKAS-KAMPI) nFavors charter change ac- nAdvocates genuine, pro- nSays that trade liberalization nWill not reverse neoliberal nVows to review treaties that nSays that a viable manufactur- cording to Constitutional Filipino industrialization and a will be undertaken only in the policies and seeks to attract have adverse effects on the ing sector is key to economic means. nationalist economy, including context of reducing poverty new foreign investors for the economy such as JPEPA, AFTA, growth. Filipino-controlled manufactur- and GATT. nSays that the policy of liberal- and social justice. country’s industrial enclaves nAs Olongapo mayor, con- ing and freeport zones. nBelieves that agriculture ization and blind adherence to verted former Subic Naval nAs senator, voted against the nSays that a constitutional must be vigorously protected globalization must be reviewed. JPEPA and supported the cam- from unfair global trade. base into an economic zone convention can be convened in nSupports charter change However, as senator, voted ‘yes’ paign against its ratification. nWants to stop oil deregulation attracting foreign and local nWill reverse “free market” 2013 but is opposed to provi- and removing the national- to JPEPA. and the oligopolistic practices investments. policies imposed by the IMF, sions selling out the patrimony ist economic provisions of the of oil firms nFavors charter change al- WB, WTO and ADB and replace of the country including land Constitution. nWants to either revise or though says that the economic them with the pro-Filipino ownership by foreigners. repeal the EPIRA Law to lower provisions in the current charter policies and against removing the cost of electricity nationalistic economic provi- nBelieves that the Philip- do not hinder economic growth. pines can enter into principled nEconomic program focuses on Says foreign firms can have sions in the Constitution. encouraging small and medium nFiled bills to repeal the Oil partnerships with foreign access to land through a lease countries for the development enterprises. Deregulation Law as well as of its resources as long as the system. recover ownership of Petron country’s rights are recognized nSays that oil industry remains and Malampaya. and respected an oligopoly and called for a re- view of oil deregulation in 2004. nVows to create jobs at home nBelieves that a genuine and nSays meaningful employment nSays there is a need for nVows to create jobs at home nBelieves that a reason- through attracting foreign pro-Filipino industrialization for the poor will be created more job-creating opportuni- through increased domestic able, legislated wage hike investments, so that Filipinos will ensure adequate and de- by increasing government ties especially in the indus- and foreign investments, which is an option alongside the will not need to work abroad. cently paying jobs so that Fili- resources for agriculture and try and services sectors. will also make overseas unem- Regional Tripartite Wages pinos will no longer be pushed fisheries and prioritizing poli- ployment an option rather than and Productivity Boards nBelieves that tourism is the to migrate abroad. cies and programs to eradi- nProgram for job creation a necessity. in addressing demands for best way to generate jobs so cate poverty. is reliant on attracting wage hikes. proposes to develop tourism nSays Filipino labor must be foreign investment rather nSupports calls for higher zones and an entrepreneurial adequately protected and than strengthening domestic wages and decent living for nBelieves that government spirit. nurtured through living wages, industry. workers, and is against con- should provide a stimulus regularization of work tenure, tractualization. package to immediately banning of contractualization address the need of laborers and agency-hiring, and defense and employees for a just and of migrant rights. Platform decent wage. supports nationwide P125 daily hike in wages across-the-board nProgram for job creation is based on attracting foreign investments into the country. IBON Foundation | PAGBABAGO! People’s Movement for Change 11
  12. 12. People’s Criteria Benigno “Noynoy” John Carlos “JC” Joseph “Erap” Cojuangco Aquino Gordon Ejercito Estrada delos Reyes Partido ng Masang Pilipino Liberal Party (LP) Ang Kapatiran Party (AKP) (PMP) I 7 n 2010, the Arroyo administration is Will you stop the commercialization and spending only P6.85 per Filipino per privatization of education and health day on education, P1.10 on health and services? Will you put an end to automatic 16 centavos on housing – while paying debt servicing? Will you prioritize spending nNo clear position on social nRecognizes that some nAs president, allocated P21.75 in debt service. (IBON computations government funds for needed economic pro- services, debt service, and foreign debts “must be hon- relatively more of budget on DBM data) grams and social services over debt servicing and military spending. ored” while open to possibil- for social services compared military spending? ity of “debt condonation if to the Aquino, Ramos and G overnment debt was P4.40 trillion as of end-2009 which is equivalent to P74,000 per work- ing age Filipino and more than double the P2.17 trillion SOCIAL SERVICES necessary”. nPlatform does not have Arroyo administrations. Nonetheless debt servicing was still prioritized over debt inherited from the previous Estrada government. The clear position on social education, health and other administration has effectively been borrowing an additional P250 billion annually since coming to services, debt service, and social services. power. (BTr) military spending. Onver 2001-2010, the Arroyo administration has paid (IBON computations on BTR and DBM data): P5.85 trillion – debt service, which is over three times the P1.8 billion in debt payments made over 15 years by the Aquino, Ramos and Estrada administrations combined n P1.59 trillion – education n P197 billion – health n P42 billion – housing V 8 alue-Added Tax Reform Law (RA 9337, Are you in favour of scrapping the reformed or RVAT Law) implemented since No- value added tax (RVAT) and other regres- vember 2005: sive taxes that unduly burden the people? Will you work for a progressive taxation pro- nAs senator, voted ‘yes’ to nSays he will lower the VAT on nHas no record of pushing n Increased VAT rate from 10% to 12%, gram? the RVAT Law (RA 9337) and electricity, food and water. for progressive taxation even paid by all Filipinos rich and poor so-called Sin Taxes Law (RA when he was president. n Corporate income tax rate decreased TAX E S 9334). from 32% to 30% (only temporarily raised to 35% in 2006-08) nOpen to imposing new B ecause of RVAT Law: n Filipinos paid P363.0 billion in additional taxes over the period 2006-09 (DOF) n In effect, each Filipino 15 years old and over paid the government P6,025 in additional taxes to address the budget deficit. taxes in 2006-09 (IBON computations on DOF data) n Meanwhile corporations will pay P15.9 billion less because of the lower corporate income tax rate of 30% W n hile billions in pesos worth of revenues are lost, uncollected or foregone due to corruption and investor-biased policies: Uncollected corporate taxes – P82.0 billion (2006, NTRC) n Uncollected VAT – P56.9 billion (2002, NTRC) n Foregone revenues from smuggling – P64 billion (DOF), P100 billion (2004, FPI), P174 billion (2004, FTA) n PEZA tax and duty-free import incentives – P152.1 billion (2003, DOF) n Redundant BOI fiscal incentives – P51.8 billion (2004, Reside) n Trade liberalization (tariff cuts) – P100 billion (IBON) 12 The People’s Choice: The May 2010 Elections and the People’s Criteria
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