Odbor za morsko kajakarenje
Committee for Sea Kayaking
CROATIAN SEA KAYAKER’S „STARS“
CERTIFICATION
Zagreb, 2011.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Overview of the system for sea kayaker certification ..................................................
3
1 Overview of the system for sea kayaker certification
1.1 Levels
System consists of 4 stars (2 beginning and 2 advanced...
4
1.2.2 2 star certification
Personal paddling skills
o Lifting, carrying and launching
o Efficient forward paddling
o Ste...
5
1.2.4 4 star certification
Personal paddling skills, all performed to “demonstration” caliber in open sea conditions
o A...
6
A committee of at least three (3) current assessors review instructor assessment reports and
makes a determination as to...
7
2 Guidance for instructors for each level’s training and testing
2.1 1st
Star guidance for instructors
GENERAL GUIDANCE:...
8
o Must be able to rotate the kayak 180 degrees, both right and left, using any
combination of forward and reverse sweep ...
9
o Must review core aspects of technique, in particular, paddle verticality, strong torso
rotation
2.2 2nd
Star guidance ...
10
o Effectively turn the boat through a 360 degrees with between a 3 and 4 meter turning
radius without losing forward mo...
11
AWARENESS OF OTHERS IN A GROUP
Ensure that paddlers are aware of others as well as themselves on a trip. I.e. ensure th...
12
2.3 3rd
Star guidance for instructors
GENERAL GUIDANCE:
The 3rd
star level requires a clear demonstration of paddling s...
13
The paddler must pass through a course 10m that involves tight turning right and left around
fixed objects, (at least 5...
14
o Paddler must demonstrate ability to assess any possible first aid needs and be
prepared with proper supplies
GROUP MA...
15
2.4 4th
Star guidance for instructors
GENERAL GUIDANCE:
The four star certification is a clear demonstration of paddlin...
16
Paddler must demonstrate ability to assess any possible first aid needs and be prepared
with proper supplies
Use of tow...
17
While also not required, a kayaker wishing to be a top level guide/instructor should develop the
following skills as we...
18
2.5 Guidance for certification of the level 1 instructors
The Level 1 Certificate in sea kayak instruction will be the ...
19
Identify environmental hazards in terms of their possible effect on the kayak, and demonstrate
methods for avoiding the...
20
Demonstrate a wide knowledge and skill of given topic
Facilitate an effective group discussion that:
o Creates a partic...
21
2.6 Guidance for certification of the level 2 instructors
The Level 2 Certificate in sea kayak instruction will be the ...
22
Demonstrate/teach/instruct knowledge of environmental ethics and role model these.
Demonstrate/teach/instruct an apprec...
23
Candidates will need to be able to travel to certain locations within the assessment area
Logbooks
Copies of logbooks a...
24
o lesson provision forms and the use of 4 Star theory and level
o Use of 4 Star guide as well as instructor notes
Gener...
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Croatian stars sea kayak certification

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This is the Croatian Sea Kayak standards system which I created in cooperation with the Croatian Kayaking Association and the United Nations Development Program back in 2011. The system has been going through the extremely slow process of implementation and acceptance by the government and is beginning to be implemented in full starting this year (2014).

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Transcript of "Croatian stars sea kayak certification"

  1. 1. Odbor za morsko kajakarenje Committee for Sea Kayaking CROATIAN SEA KAYAKER’S „STARS“ CERTIFICATION Zagreb, 2011.
  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Overview of the system for sea kayaker certification ...................................................................... 3 1.1 Levels..................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 The level of knowledge covered within the certification for each level .................................. 3 1.2.1 1 star certification............................................................................................................... 3 1.2.2 2 star certification............................................................................................................... 4 1.2.3 3 star certification (level 1 guide)....................................................................................... 4 1.2.4 4 star certification (level 2 guide)....................................................................................... 5 1.2.5 Instructor Level 1 ............................................................................................................... 5 1.2.6 Instructor Level 2 ............................................................................................................... 5 1.2.7 Assessor Certification ........................................................................................................ 5 1.3 Basic organizational framework for certification..................................................................... 6 2 Guidance for instructors for each level’s training and testing.......................................................... 7 2.1 1st Star guidance for instructors ............................................................................................. 7 2.1.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 1 star certification ................... 7 2.1.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 1 star certification.................................... 8 2.1.3 Safety, leadership & group skills that must be developed to attain 1 star certification...... 8 2.1.4 THEORY THAT MUST BE COVERED TO ATTAIN 1 STAR CERTIFICATION ............... 8 2.2 2 nd Star guidance for instructors ............................................................................................ 9 2.2.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 2 nd star certification................. 9 2.2.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 2nd star certification ............................... 10 2.2.3 Safety, leadership & group skills that must be developed to attain 2nd star certification. 10 2.2.4 Theory that must be covered to attain 2 nd star certification ............................................. 11 2.3 3 rd Star guidance for instructors........................................................................................... 12 2.3.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 3rd star certification ............... 12 2.3.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 3rd star certification................................ 13 2.3.3 Leadership & group skills that must be developed to attain 3 rd star certification............. 13 2.3.4 Theory that must be covered to attain 3 rd star certification.............................................. 14 2.4 4th Star guidance for instructors ........................................................................................... 15 2.4.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 4th star certification ............... 15 2.4.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 4 th star certification................................ 15 2.4.3 Leadership & group management skills that must be developed to attain 4 th star certification..................................................................................................................................... 16 2.4.4 Theory that must be covered to attain 4th star certification 3rd ......................................... 16 2.4.5 Additional information for 4 star awardees wishing to act as professional guides/instructor assistants ........................................................................................................... 16 2.5 Guidance for certification of the level 1 instructors .............................................................. 18 2.5.1 Format and time to complete........................................................................................... 18 2.5.2 SKILL AND EXPERIENCE - PRE-REQUISITES ............................................................ 18 2.5.3 SKILLS AND EXPERIENCES THAT SHOULD BE COVERED BY PROGRAMME....... 18 2.5.4 NOTES FOR CANDIDATES............................................................................................ 20 2.6 Guidance for certification of the level 2 instructors .............................................................. 21 2.6.1 Format and time to complete........................................................................................... 21 2.6.2 SKILL AND EXPERIENCE - PRE-REQUISITES ............................................................ 21 2.6.3 SKILLS AND EXPERIENCES THAT SHOULD BE COVERED BY PROGRAMME....... 21 2.6.4 NOTES FOR CANDIDATES............................................................................................ 22 2.7 Becoming an Instructor assessor......................................................................................... 23 2.7.1 Stage 1: Obtain an Assessor Log from the Croatian Kayak Association ........................ 23 2.7.2 Stage 2: Attend Assessor Training .................................................................................. 23 2.7.3 Stage 3: Assist in 3 assessments to a minimum 4 Star certification ............................... 24 2.7.4 Stage 4: Complete individual action plan ........................................................................ 24 2.7.5 Stage 5: Receive an Endorsement from a Registered Assessor .................................... 24 2.7.6 Stage 6: Be assessed performing a Level 1 instructor Assessment ............................... 24
  3. 3. 3 1 Overview of the system for sea kayaker certification 1.1 Levels System consists of 4 stars (2 beginning and 2 advanced), 2 Instructor and Assessor level certification. 1 st Star level is a clear stepping stone to becoming a paddler. Designed as a basic award, the one star is the level people would typically reach after an introductory course of six hours quality time in the sheltered waters (bay, lake, not further than 100 m from the coast, wind not exceeding force 2; 2 nd Star level is improvement over 1 st star level that helps paddlers develop fundamental skills on flat water (i.e. up to moderate distances in the sheltered waters). The emphasis is on gaining breadth of experience, creating the desired movement of the kayak and developing a deeper understanding of how the paddle, boat and water interact; 3 rd Star level represents a major step forward from the introductory levels (1 and 2 star). Namely, it recognizes the level of skill, understanding and knowledge demonstrated while paddling in a moderate environment (winds less than force 4), as part of a group traveling over moderate distances (more than 10 and less than 20 km in a single trip). This is also the level of skills that allows holder to start acting as instructor and certifier for the introductory courses (i.e. 1 star training), and in line with this right, the first level at which independent assessment of acquired skills is required; 4 th Star level represents the master level in all skills required at the lower levels. In addition, the holder is also expected to demonstrate maturity and leadership skills required to make responsible decisions and act as leader of a groups of paddlers (up to 8 paddlers) on trips in moderate waters (winds not exceeding force 4) traveling over moderate distances (more than 10 and less than 20 km in a single trip). This is also the level of skills allowing holder to act as fully qualified instructor and certifier for the introductory courses (up to 2 star training). Instructor Level 1 can plan, deliver, and review training programmes in protected waters. They can work with paddlers up to the 4 star stage of development; Instructor Level 2 is able to plan, deliver, and review a series of progressive sessions safely and effectively in open sea conditions. They work with Level 1 instructors and 4 star guides with a specific focus on developing instructional skills; Instructor Assessor is the highest level in the certification system approved to those individuals that beside demonstrated the highest level of personal kayaking and tutoring skills also have record of active involvement in development of sea kayaking in Croatia as part of the sea kayaking in the world. 1.2 The level of knowledge covered within the certification for each level 1.2.1 1 star certification Personal paddling skills o Lifting, carrying and launching o Basic forward paddling, 100m o Basic steering and control o Beach landing and exiting Rescue skills o Capsizing o Wet exit with a swim to shore o Wet exit with an assisted rescue, (re-entry into kayak) Safety and group skills o Personal risk management o Hypothermia/first aid needs awareness o Awareness of others in a group Theory o Equipment o Environment o General paddling
  4. 4. 4 1.2.2 2 star certification Personal paddling skills o Lifting, carrying and launching o Efficient forward paddling o Steering and control o Maneuvering in a confined area o Moving sideways o Preventing capsize o Beach landing and exiting o Securing the kayak Rescue skills o Capsizing o Wet exit with a swim to shore o Wet exit with an assisted rescue, (re-entry into kayak) o Assisted rescue without a swim, (“T” rescue) o Introduction to rolling Safety and group skills o Personal risk management o Awareness of others in a group o Ability to assist others in a group trip Theory o Equipment o Environment o General paddling o Basics of trip planning 1.2.3 3 star certification Personal paddling skills o “Demonstration” quality forward paddling o Advanced steering and control, reverse paddling, stopping o Maneuvering in a confined area o Moving sideways efficiently o Preventing capsize o Consistent roll on one side o Securing multiple kayaks Rescue skills o Capsizing o Wet exit with an assisted rescue, (re-entry into kayak) o Assisted rescue without a swim, (“T” rescue) o Rolling Safety and group skills o Sea Safety o Personal and group risk management, (assessment of conditions, etc.) o Ability to assist others in a larger group trip, lead a small group Theory o Equipment o Environment o Group management o Navigation o Advanced paddling technique o Trip planning
  5. 5. 5 1.2.4 4 star certification Personal paddling skills, all performed to “demonstration” caliber in open sea conditions o Advanced launching and landing o Full array of standard and advanced strokes o Forward, sideways, turning, combination, etc. o Preventing capsize o Consistent roll on both sides o Securing multiple kayaks, (rafting) Rescue skills o Demonstrate skilful application of appropriate skills o Rescue multiple, (at least 2), capsized paddlers o Deep water self rescue o Towing o Group rescue, (shepherding) Leadership and group skills o Sea Safety o Group control and risk management, (assessment of conditions, etc.) o Situation assessment and incident management o Skilful application of leadership principles, strategies and decision making Theory o Equipment o Leadership responsibilities, decision making o Environment o Group management o Navigation o Advanced paddling technique o Trip planning 1.2.5 Instructor Level 1 The Level 1 program includes the following 4 key areas: Basic instruction of kayaking Planning and Preparing Sessions Delivering Sessions Reviewing Sessions During the learning program the following assessment tasks will be performed: Written Exam/Theory Rescue Skills Coaching/Communication Skills Organizational/implementation skills 1.2.6 Instructor Level 2 The Level 2 program includes the following 4 key areas: Advanced instruction of kayaking Planning and Preparing Sessions Delivering Sessions Reviewing Sessions During the learning program the following assessment tasks will be performed: Rescue Skills Advanced Coaching/Communication Skills Organizational/implementation skills 1.2.7 Assessor Certification In order to become an assessor, a certified instructor must be able to demonstrate having performed at least 8 certification trainings over a minimum of 1 and maximum of 3 years
  6. 6. 6 A committee of at least three (3) current assessors review instructor assessment reports and makes a determination as to status. 1.3 Basic organizational framework for certification Certification Title Who can sign in Instructors who can organize and run training programme: Instructors who can assist in training to gain instructor / assessor status: Formal Certifying person 1 Star novice Any 3 star holder (as the lowest independently assessed level) 3 star holder acting as an assistant 4 star holder (can be the same one that run the training) 2 Star Novice or 1 Star holder Any 4 star holder 4 star holder acting as an assistant 4 star holder (can be the same one that run the training) 3 Star 2 Star holder Any Level 1 instructor 4 star holder acting as an assistant Level 1 instructor (not the same person that run the training*) 4 Star 2 or 3 Star holder Any Level 1 instructor Level 1 or 2 instructor Level 2 instructor or Instructor Assesor (not the same person that run the training*) Level 1 instructor 4 Star holder Any Level 2 instructor Level 1 or 2 instructor Instructor Assesor (not the same person that run the training*) Level 2 instructor Level 1 instructor Any Instructor Assessor Level 2 instructor Instructor Assesor (not the same person that run the training*) Instructor Assessor Level 2 instructor Committee decision/satisfied criteria - Committee decision/satisfied criteria * INDEPENDENCY IS IMPORTANT FOR ensuring equivalency in assessment, which becomes important at level 3 star, because this is beginning couching level)
  7. 7. 7 2 Guidance for instructors for each level’s training and testing 2.1 1st Star guidance for instructors GENERAL GUIDANCE: Instructor must perform a safety talk prior to beginning the lesson. Instructor must communicate with each paddler prior to launch to determine possible risks (i.e. poor swimmer, heat sensitive, asthmatic, etc.). Instructor must communicate to all paddlers their need to be aware of their own situation and to communicate if they are having difficulties. While the requirements listed bellows are essential for the one star certification, it should be noted the ultimately overall focus should be on the following: It is important to get new paddlers started down the path of paddling properly, i.e. focus on proper technique early Ensure proper self and group awareness, and responsibilities – paddlers are not passengers, but active participants Sea kayaking opens a new world to those who partake in it, giving them a new way to experience the sea, reinforce this fact 2.1.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 1 star certification LIFT, CARRY AND LAUNCHING THE KAYAK: Lift – emphasis on safe lifting and balance of the kayak Single lift; be able to lift the kayak at the cockpit and place it on the shoulder, (consideration needs to be made for the strength of the paddler relative to the weight of the kayak – weaker individuals need not demonstrate a single carry) Double lift; one person at the bow and one at the stern using handles to simultaneously lift the kayak Carry – emphasis on stable carrying of the kayak Single carry; control and balance of the kayak as it is carried on the shoulder at the cockpit of the kayak Double carry; safe carry with emphasis on communication between the two carriers Launch – emphasis on proper seating in the kayak, preparation for launch and entry to the water Paddler must understand how to outfit the cockpit area to be properly seated; foot rests, back support; knee positioning; paddler must be sitting upright when launching Proper placing of the spray skirt and adjustment of PFD must be completed before launching Execute a proper launch sliding without issue into the water; may be assisted or alone STABLE FORWARD PADDLE 100 METERS Focus should be a four core areas (all must be demonstrated for certification): o Grip and feathering of the paddle: proper gripping of paddle needs to be reviewed as does the process of feathering (dealing with offset) o Posture: paddler should be sitting upright o Stroke length: initiation in front of knees, release behind the hips o Basic body rotation: introducing the concept of torso rotation as a means to paddle rather than simply pulling with the arms Introduce usage of steering sweep strokes at the end of each stroke for directional control STEERING AND CONTROLLING THE BOAT - emphasis on core control skills Turning while maintaining forward motion o Paddler must be able to turn right and left while moving forward using either sweep strokes, stern rudders or combination forward/sweep strokes Reverse paddling o While paddling in reverse, usage of the “non-power” face of the blade must be exhibited o Paddle in reverse for 5m to within 0.5m of a target; extreme accuracy is not required Stopping o Be able to stop moving both forward and in reverse using short strong strokes; must be able to stop within 4 strokes Kayak rotation
  8. 8. 8 o Must be able to rotate the kayak 180 degrees, both right and left, using any combination of forward and reverse sweep strokes o Decent body rotation must be present BEACH LANDING AND EXITING Review of beaching both forwards and sideways and when each is advisable, (assessment of risk) Review of exiting the kayak without capsizing; (must be demonstrated) 2.1.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 1 star certification Prior to doing any paddling, paddlers must perform capsize/basic self rescue, (condition dependant requirement, if the weather/water are too cold, the instructor may chose to do this after the paddler has had a chance to warm up). CAPSIZING (BASIC SELF AND ASSISTED RESCUE) Wet exit with a swim to shore (must be demonstrated) Exit technique should be taught prior to launching. o Three steps of wet exiting: Lean forward; Release of spray deck; Hands behind hips – push to exit; instructor must be mindful to demonstrate this without placing of hands of the spray deck Wet exit with an assisted rescue (re-entry into kayak) (must be practiced, proficient demonstration not required – deep water environment preferred) o Usage of same exit technique as with basic self recue o Instructor assists the paddler in re-entry using the technique of their choice, (side entry, over the bow/stern, wet side entry, etc.) 2.1.3 Safety, leadership & group skills that must be developed to attain 1 star certification PERSONAL RISK MANAGEMENT Hypothermia/first aid needs awareness. Instructor must communicate to all paddlers how to recognize hypothermia, (or heat stroke as the case may be) and how to deal it. Instructor must assess any possible first aid needs and be prepared with proper supplies, (this should be done as a group activity to ensure all group members are aware of any possible needs) Awareness of others in a group o Ensure that paddlers are aware of others as well as themselves on a trip. Be aware of others and their circumstances (is someone struggling, not paying attention, etc.) and communicate with the instructor if they have concerns. o Ensure that paddlers understand that they are in a “group” and as such have responsibilities o Stronger paddlers in a group should not “just paddle ahead” (paddling in front with consent of the instructor is acceptable, but they must remain within hearing range at all times, usually less than 50m) o What should they do if a fellow paddler capsizes (call the instructor, remain calm, provide assistance without risking themselves, help the capsized paddler remain calm till the instructor arrives) 2.1.4 THEORY THAT MUST BE COVERED TO ATTAIN 1 STAR CERTIFICATION EQUIPMENT - The instructor must review all aspects of equipment Paddle, (blade – power face and back, shaft, offset, grip) PFD Kayak, (bow, stern, cockpit, dry compartments – if present, rudder – if present, seat, foot pegs, internal adjustability, any other accessories present, e.g. compass) ENVIRONMENT The instructor must review the general environmental conditions of the day (i.e. rain, sun, air temperatures, water temperatures, wind) and what their impact may be GENERAL PADDLING The instructor must review that basic techniques of paddling that will be covered in the course o Forward, backward, sweep, braking, feathering of the paddle
  9. 9. 9 o Must review core aspects of technique, in particular, paddle verticality, strong torso rotation 2.2 2nd Star guidance for instructors GENERAL GUIDANCE: Instructor must perform a safety talk prior to beginning the lesson. Instructor must communicate with each paddler prior to launch to determine possible risks (poor swimmer, heat sensitive, asthmatic, etc.). Instructor must communicate to all paddlers their need to be aware of their own situation and to communicate if they are having difficulties. The 2nd star level is a clear step above the one star level with more emphasis on developing real paddling skills. It is important that paddlers develop their skills with an emphasis on proper technical execution with more focus on performance. More specifically: Be consistent with adhering to proper technique. It is not a “sometimes” thing, i.e. must be demonstrated with real consistency (e.g. proper execution on basic required skills, e.g. forward strokes, sweep strokes, etc., should occur more than 2/3 of the time) It is essential to develop a strong brace stroke, as it is the pathway to rolling and is the paddler’s best and first mode of self rescue. There should be a good effort to further enhance the sense of self and group awareness, and responsibilities – again, paddlers are not passengers, but active participants 2.2.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 2 nd star certification LIFT, CARRY AND LAUNCHING THE KAYAK Lift – emphasis on safe lifting and balance of the kayak Single lift; be able to lift the kayak at the cockpit and place it on the shoulder, (consideration needs to be made for the strength of the paddler relative to the weight of the kayak – weaker individuals need not demonstrate a single carry) Double lift; one person at the bow and one at the stern using handles to simultaneously lift the kayak Carry - emphasis on stable carrying of the kayak Single carry; control and balance of the kayak as it is carried on the shoulder at the cockpit of the kayak Double carry; safe carry with emphasis on communication between the two carriers Launch - emphasis on proper seating in the kayak, preparation for launch and entry to the water Paddler must understand how to outfit the cockpit area to be properly seated; foot rests, back support; knee positioning; paddler must be sitting upright when launching Proper placing of the spray skirt and adjustment of PFD must be completed before launching Execute a proper launch without issue from a variety of shore/banks, (beach, rock, platform, etc. – at least two types must be covered and demonstrated) EFFICIENT FORWARD PADDLE 250 METERS Objective: efficient forward paddling which creates smooth movement of the kayak through the water. It is important to communicate the greater efficiency of using the major muscle groups of the body to drive the kayak rather than just the arms, and its relevance to creating a more powerful stroke The following must be demonstrated: Effective feathering of the paddle (dealing with offset) Stroke length; initiation in front of knees, release behind the hips understanding of the importance of proper posture with good torso rotation from the hips STEERING AND CONTROLLING Emphasis on further development of core control skills and learning the effect the paddle has and fluid transitions from one stroke to the next as needed Develop a broader array of steering solutions (Stern sweeps, stern rudder, J-strokes (all must be demonstrated)) Turning while maintaining forward motion o Development of edging skills, (both into and away from the center of the turn) o Development of “looking for future water” or “seeing the path of the turn” o Paddler must be able to turn right and left 90 degrees while moving forward using either sweep strokes, stern rudders or combination forward/sweep strokes
  10. 10. 10 o Effectively turn the boat through a 360 degrees with between a 3 and 4 meter turning radius without losing forward momentum, (both right and left must be demonstrated) o Development of speeding up and slowing down during a turn Reverse paddling: Paddle in reverse for 15m to within 0.5m of a target; decent accuracy, relatively straight line is required Stopping: be able to stop from a moderate pace moving using short strong strokes; must be able to stop within 4 strokes Combination strokes o Must be able to combine at least two complete, (both sides), sets of strokes with one motion, (e.g. Left side forward sweep + right side J – stroke, Forward stroke into stern sweep – same side), with forward momentum, (maintenance of momentum is not required o Decent body rotation must be present throughout MANEUVERING IN A CONFINED AREA The ability to control direction in a tight space is what is sought here. The paddler must pass through a course 10m that involves tight turning right and left around fixed objects, (at least 5 objects, course may be set in shallow water, < 2m) Technique is important, but is secondary to accuracy and control MOVING SIDEWAYS Focus is on developing a solid draw stroke (at least one variety must be demonstrated while multiple may be tried, e.g. sculling, release, etc.) Understanding of the following core aspects is required: Strong torso rotation, chest facing the paddle; Upright posture; Verticality of the paddle; Balanced strokes with minimal “yawing” of the kayak. PREVENTING A CAPSIZE Emphasis is on proper usage of the body to return the boat to a balance upright position (usage of knees, hips and torso, head moving down). Understanding of the kayaks balance point and the influence of hull shape on stability Low bracing and high bracing, demonstrated on both sides with maintenance of a basic elbow/hand “box” relationship. Introducing of low brace sculling for on edge support BEACH LANDING AND EXITING Effective beaching on multiple shore types, (at least two must be demonstrated) Stable and controlled exiting of the kayak without capsizing; (must be demonstrated) 2.2.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 2nd star certification CAPSIZING (BASIC SELF AND ASSISTED RESCUE) Self recue (must be demonstrated) o A controlled capsize with a wet exit followed by either swimming to shore with all equipment or executing a wet reentry, (wet reentry not required). Assisted rescue, (re-entry into kayak with assistance)(all must be demonstrated – deeper water environment preferred, >3m) o Capsize as with self recue o Instructor assists the paddler in re-entry using the technique of their choice, (side entry, over the bow/stern, wet side entry, etc.) o Assisted rescue without a swim, (“T” rescue; capsize without wet exit, use bow of rescuers kayak to recover upright position) INTRODUCTION TO ROLLING Basic work on the required body motions to execute a technically proper “C to C” roll, may experiment with sweep rolls, (Baffo roll is not allowed, a successful roll is not required). 2.2.3 Safety, leadership & group skills that must be developed to attain 2 nd star certification PERSONAL RISK MANAGEMENT Instructor must cover self assessment with an orientation on each paddler developing the ability to recognize their own limits and to paddle within them First aid needs awareness: Instructor must assess any possible first aid needs and be prepared with proper supplies (this should be done as a group activity to ensure all group members are aware of any possible needs)
  11. 11. 11 AWARENESS OF OTHERS IN A GROUP Ensure that paddlers are aware of others as well as themselves on a trip. I.e. ensure that paddlers understand that they are in a “group” and as such have responsibilities. Be aware of others and their circumstances (is someone struggling, not paying attention, etc.) and communicate with the instructor if they have concerns Stronger paddlers in a group should not “just paddle ahead” (paddling in front with consent of the instructor is acceptable, but they must remain within hearing range at all times, usually less than 50m) What should they do if a fellow paddler capsizes, (call the instructor, remain calm, provide assistance without risking themselves, help the capsized paddler remain calm till the instructor arrives) Paddlers must demonstrate group awareness through a minimum 1 hour sheltered water trip 2.2.4 Theory that must be covered to attain 2nd star certification EQUIPMENT The paddler must demonstrate good knowledge of all aspects of equipment Paddle, (blade – power face and back, shaft, offset, grip) PFD Kayak, (bow, stern, cockpit, dry compartments – if present, rudder – if present, seat, foot pegs, internal adjustability, any other accessories present, e.g. compass) ENVIRONMENT The paddler must be able to recognize the general environmental conditions of the day (i.e. rain, sun, air temperatures, water temperatures, wind) and assess what their impact may be GENERAL PADDLING The instructor must review the basic techniques of paddling that will be covered in the course: Forward, backward, sweep, braking, feathering of the paddle Must review core aspects of technique, in particular, paddle verticality, strong torso rotation BASIC TRIP PLANNING The instructor must introduce basic aspects of trip planning, i.e.: Considering weather, Considering the quality of the group Understanding of the “weakest link” principle Map review Managing the group/keeping them together
  12. 12. 12 2.3 3rd Star guidance for instructors GENERAL GUIDANCE: The 3rd star level requires a clear demonstration of paddling skills equivalent to “advanced- intermediate” level with demonstration of real paddling skills. Consequently, consistent proper technical execution is required, i.e. while everyone lapses technically some, this must be an occasional thing only. As this level of certification acts as a 1st guide level, as well as lowest level allowed to implement basic level tutoring and certification, working on roll development is important, as is development of group management skills. Instructing group management skills within a group can be awkward, encourage the group members to delegate various responsibilities amongst themselves throughout the course as a means to both build and demonstrate their skills There should be a good effort to begin developing leadership. Paddlers need to develop a strong capacity to communicate effectively without being arrogant, but nonetheless being in clear command 2.3.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 3rd star certification “DEMONSTRATION” QUALITY FORWARD PADDLING Paddler must execute: High quality forward strokes throughout the training/assessment Good posture, with body upright and balanced Proper feathering of the paddle with no problems Proper stoke length Effective initiation and power phases with an early release at the hips Minimal need to use correctional or steering strokes to maintain direction Consistent and fluid torso rotation Able to demonstrate high and low verticality of the paddle with their strokes Ability to demonstrate good style while cruising with sufficient power to paddle into the wind ADVANCED STEERING AND CONTROL, REVERSE PADDLING, STOPPING Emphasis on solidifying core control skills and demonstrating fluid transitions from one stroke to the next as needed Stern sweeps, stern rudder, J-strokes, bow rudder<static bow draw> (all must be effectively demonstrated) Turning while maintaining forward motion o Consistent demonstration of edging skills o Paddler must be able to turn right and left 90 degrees while moving forward using either sweep strokes, stern rudders or combination forward/sweep strokes completing the turn through a 2m wide target area o Effectively turn the boat through a 360 degrees with between a 3 and 4 meter turning radius without losing forward momentum, (both right and left must be demonstrated) o Demonstration of speeding up and slowing down during a turn Reverse paddling o Paddle in reverse for 25m through an obstacle course that has at least 4 turns of 90 degrees, is required o Speed is not what matters here, nor is technique, rather control and accuracy Stopping o Be able to stop from cruising speed using a minimum of short strong strokes Combination strokes o Must demonstrate consistent combination of multiple sets of strokes with one motion, (e.g. Left side forward sweep + right side J – stroke, Forward stroke into stern sweep – same side), with forward momentum, (maintenance of momentum is not required o Clean, fluid body rotation must be present throughout MANEUVERING IN A CONFINED AREA The ability to control direction in a tight space is what is sought here.
  13. 13. 13 The paddler must pass through a course 10m that involves tight turning right and left around fixed objects, (at least 5 objects, course may be set in shallow water, < 2m) Unlike the 2 star, it is important to demonstrate effective technique as well as accuracy and control MOVING SIDEWAYS Focus is on expanding to demonstrate multiple draw strokes (at least three, e.g. sculling, release, bow, stern,etc.). Understanding of following core aspects is required: Strong torso rotation, chest facing the paddle; Upright posture; Verticality of the paddle; Balanced strokes with minimal “yawing” of the kayak; Effect of paddle location relative center. PREVENTING A CAPSIZE Bracing must be performed with the kayak well off balance both in static and moving situations, (with a forward stroke following the brace). Understanding of the kayaks balance point and the influence of hull shape on stability Low bracing and high bracing, demonstrated on both sides with maintenance of a basic elbow/hand “box” relationship. Demonstration of low brace sculling for on edge support and balance ROLLING ON FLAT-WATER Effective roll must be performed on at least one side. Roll may be of the paddler choice in terms of variety, (sweep, C to C, back deck, etc. but a Baffo roll will not count) Failed attempts do not disqualify a paddler, but a successful roll must be seen 2.3.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 3rd star certification For third star to be credited as level 1 guiding certificate, must possess a first aid certificate, (from GSS, Red Cross, or any other certified provider)! In addition, following skills should be demonstrated: Contact tows and use of tow lines o A push or pull contact tow must be demonstrated o A simple tow using a tow line must also be demonstrated o Emergency release of the tow line must be demonstrated and the paddler must understand the inherent dangers of associated with towing Deep water rescue o A safe and timely rescue of a capsized kayaker must be performed, (both being rescued and rescuing) o Paddler must demonstrate effective verbal communication while controlling the recue o Paddler must capsize their kayak and then follow the directions of the rescuer demonstrating the ability to re-enter their rescued kayak Assisted rescue without a swim, (T-rescue) o Paddler must perform both recue and be rescued o The “rescuee” must capsize their kayak and present their hands along the side wall of both side of the kayak simultaneously which sliding them back and forth slowly o The “rescuer” must approach from a reasonable distance and present the bow to the capsized paddlers hands from less than a 90 degree angle, (the rescuer must also perform a paddle presentation to the capsized paddler at close range from a parallel position). 2.3.3 Leadership & group skills that must be developed to attain 3rd star certification SAFETY AND GROUP AWARENESS Paddler must demonstrate knowledge of all aspects and information that should be covered in a pre-trip/lesson safety talk, i.e.: o Group discussion of the days plan, environmental conditions and their impact, confirmation that all others on the trip have their PFD, as well as o Individual communication with each paddler prior to launch to determine possible risks; (poor swimmer, heat sensitive, asthmatic, etc.) o Group communication to all paddlers regarding their need to be aware of their own situation and to communicate if they are having difficulties First aid needs awareness
  14. 14. 14 o Paddler must demonstrate ability to assess any possible first aid needs and be prepared with proper supplies GROUP MANAGEMENT Ability to manage a group Paddler must demonstrate that they are aware of others on a trip as well as of their responsibilities, i.e.: o Be aware of others and their circumstances, (is someone struggling, not paying attention, etc.) and communicate with the instructor if they have concerns o Stronger paddlers in a group should not “just paddle ahead”, (paddling in front with consent of the instructor is acceptable, but they must remain within hearing range at all times, usually less than 50m) o Perform rescues as needed, (call for the group to remain static or collect together, remain calm, provide assistance without risking themselves or others, help the capsized paddler, return the rescued paddler to the group) Paddlers must demonstrate group awareness and management through a minimum one hour sheltered water trip 2.3.4 Theory that must be covered to attain 3rd star certification EQUIPMENT The paddler must demonstrate complete knowledge of all aspects of equipment Paddle, (blade – power face and back, shaft, offset, grip) PFD Kayak, (bow, stern, cockpit, dry compartments – if present, rudder – if present, seat and foot pegs, internal adjustability, any other accessories present, e.g. compass) ENVIRONMENT The paddler must be able demonstrate what impact the general environmental – i.e.: rain, sun, air temperatures, water temperatures, wind, swells, coastal formations (e.g. Cliffs v.s. beaches) – conditions may have The paddler must be able to demonstrate understanding of existing hazards on a given trip course. ACCESS Demonstrate knowledge of regulations regarding sea kayaking Where is access allowed, what is needed to launch, (what authorities need to be contacted) What equipment is required TRIP PLANNING The paddler must demonstrate effective trip planning (this activity may be done as a group) that takes into account following aspects: Considering weather, Considering the quality of the group Understanding of the “weakest link” principle and its impact on a trip Map/chart usage Must be able to recognize coastal features Must be able to plot a course and follow it.
  15. 15. 15 2.4 4th Star guidance for instructors GENERAL GUIDANCE: The four star certification is a clear demonstration of paddling skills equivalent to “advanced” level with demonstration of exemplary paddling skills as well as group management and leadership skills. Consequently, consistent proper technical execution is required, i.e. while everyone lapses technically some, this must be an occasional thing only. As this level of certification acts as a 2nd guide level, as well as level allowed to implement both basic levels tutoring and certification, working on roll development is important, as is development of group management skills. Instructing group management skills within a group can be awkward, encourage the group members to delegate various responsibilities amongst themselves throughout the course as a means to both build and demonstrate their skills There should be a good effort to further developing of leadership skills. Paddlers need to develop a strong capacity to communicate effectively without being arrogant, but nonetheless being in clear command 2.4.1 Personal paddling skills that must be developed to attain 4th star certification ADVANCED LAUNCHING AND LANDING Paddler must demonstrate launching and landing in at least light surf Paddler must demonstrate launching and landing in uneven rocky shores Paddler must demonstrate ability to land a group in at least light surf, ensuring safety of the group Paddler must demonstrate ability to land a group in uneven rocky shores, ensuring safety of the group FULL ARRAY OF STANDARD AND ADVANCED STROKES MUST BE PERFORMED TO DEMONSTRATION ABILITY Forward, moving sideways, steering and turning, combination, etc At least 4 types of draw strokes, including static draw while moving forward and a static bow draw/bow rudder while moving forward With combination strokes it is essential that there be good fluid transitions from one to the next without pause. PREVENTING CAPSIZE During a range of realistic conditions, e.g., rough sea, high winds, waves, where it is needed, strong successful bracing must be demonstrated, using both high and low braces CONSISTENT ROLL ON BOTH SIDES Regular roll must be performed on both sides in open sea conditions, (waves, wind, etc.) Roll may be of the paddler choice in terms of variety, (sweep, C to C, back deck, etc. but a Baffo roll will not count) The paddler must demonstrate the ability to pause for three second prior to executing the roll Failed attempts do not disqualify a paddler, but consistent successful rolls must be seen PRACTICAL NAVIGATION Paddler must demonstrate the ability to plan by interpreting maps, charts and sources of tidal/wind information for the purpose of navigation Paddler must demonstrate ability to properly fix a position using a chart and compass for purposes of navigation Paddler must demonstrate ability to adjust a plan based on “changing” conditions (If conditions are constant, a simulation may be done for purposes of demonstration) 2.4.2 Rescue skills that must be developed to attain 4th star certification For fourth star to be credited as level 2 guiding certificate, must possess an advanced first aid certificate, (from GSS, Red Cross, or any other certified provider – may be acquired after the skills assessment - within 3 months) For those guiding in areas without regular mobile telephone service, or on extended trips where the potential exists for telephone service to be limited, a VHF radio must be present and the guide must receive a VHF operator’s license In addition, following skills should be demonstrated:
  16. 16. 16 Paddler must demonstrate ability to assess any possible first aid needs and be prepared with proper supplies Use of tow lines. A variety of techniques (at least 2) should be demonstrated in open, (at least moderate), seas, e.g. rafted tow, tandem tow, contact tow, pull/push assisted tow, etc. o At least one should be demonstrated with an assist from a non-towing paddler o The paddler must perform a tow of at least 100m bringing the capsized kayak to safety Self rescue o Paddler must demonstrate ability to do a wet reentry without assistance following a capsize and wet exit. Full rescue o Paddler must demonstrate ability to rescue an “incapacitated” paddler 2.4.3 Leadership & group management skills that must be developed to attain 4th star certification The paddler should practice a variety incident management situations and work on practical aspects of resolving those situations which could occur during the course of a trip Paddler must demonstrate an understanding of how to maintain an overview of a situation such that the safety of the group as a whole is always taken into consideration. o knowledge of all aspects and information that should be covered in a pre-trip/lesson safety talk o Group control and leadership styles o Group discussion of the days plan, environmental conditions and their impact, confirmation that all others on the trip have their PFD and other needed equipment o Individual communication with each paddler prior to launch to determine possible risks; (poor swimmer, heat sensitive, asthmatic, etc.) o Group communication to all paddlers regarding their need to be aware of their own situation and to communicate if they are having difficulties o Knowledge of how best to resolve incidents involving people, (e.g. injuries, heat stroke, etc.), as well as incidents involving equipment, (paddle or boat repair, lost hatch, etc.) Demonstrated ability to manage a group Paddler must demonstrate that they are aware of others on a trip as well as of their responsibilities. o Be aware of others and their circumstances, (is someone struggling, not paying attention, etc.) and communicate with the instructor if they have concerns o Stronger paddlers in a group should not “just paddle ahead”, (paddling in front with consent of the instructor is acceptable, but they must remain within hearing range at all times, usually less than 50m) Perform rescues as needed, (call for the group to remain static or collect together, remain calm, provide assistance without risking themselves or others, help the capsized paddler, return the rescued paddler to the group) Paddlers must demonstrate group awareness and management through a minimum one hour sheltered water trip 2.4.4 Theory that must be covered to attain 4th star certification 3rd Same topics as in the 3rd star requirements, however demonstrating more maturity in assessments of conditions, as well as in trip planning. 2.4.5 Additional information for 4 star awardees wishing to act as professional guides/instructor assistants As a 4 star certification does allow for some instruction, although it is not a requirement, there are certain skills that the certified guide should be particularly aware of from a “how to teach” standpoint, i.e. the guide shall be able to demonstrate the ability to teach the skills necessary for a guided sea kayaking trip. These include but are not limited to: Strokes: forward; stopping; turning; brace/support Safety: wet exit; assisted re-entry; rafting-up; signals on the water Equipment: fitting of kayaks, buoyancy aids and spray decks; lifting and carrying sea kayaks
  17. 17. 17 While also not required, a kayaker wishing to be a top level guide/instructor should develop the following skills as well; Be able to role model and demonstrate the ability pass on to clients the need to appreciate and care for the environment and ensure that clients adhere to Leave No Trace standards Be able to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the development of kayaking as a recreation, sport and industry Be able to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of, and the ability to pass onto clients, the relevant history, geology, flora, fauna and general information about the area in which they are in that adds value to the client’s experience
  18. 18. 18 2.5 Guidance for certification of the level 1 instructors The Level 1 Certificate in sea kayak instruction will be the foundation for instructors to confirm and develop their skills that will underpin instructional practice in the future. The award is relevant to potential instructors who wish to work with non-competitive sea kayakers. The training aims to develop instructors’ skills to work with both beginning and advanced kayakers. The Level 1 instructor can: Organize and provide training up to 4 stars Assist higher level instructors in up to level 1 instructor certification courses Organize and provide assessments up to 3 stars 2.5.1 Format and time to complete The Level 1 Instructor certification involves minimum 4 days of contact time with the instructor (including approximately 3 days covering required skills / knowledge, half a day of practice aiming to improve performance in the weakest points, and half day assessment) In order to maximize effect of this advanced level program, at the beginning of the program, candidate completes self assessment evaluation form which serves as guidance for the instructor in customization of the tutoring Courses are run in a variety of formats, anything from a modular course run over a series of weeks to intensive 4-day courses. Candidates who have a sound knowledge of the Technical Syllabus should be able to complete an intensive 4-day program and complete all elements required for certification; whilst the modular option allows time for you to consolidate your learning and gives you time to gain experience and knowledge between sessions. 2.5.2 SKILL AND EXPERIENCE - PRE-REQUISITES Sea Kayak 4 star certification Additionally: o 35 personal days sea kayaking, with daily distances over 15 km. These have to include 2 trips of 3 days or more in duration (moving from point to point is acceptable). o 30 days formal instruction/teaching sea kayaking (this must include assisting a minimum of four 3 or 4 star trainings). The Instructor Candidate will hold First Aid Certificate (Outdoor First Aid recommended) issued within the last three years. The above are minimum requirements; extra days are advised so that a broad spectrum of variables is experienced. 2.5.3 SKILLS AND EXPERIENCES THAT SHOULD BE COVERED BY PROGRAMME SEA KAYAK SKILLS – must be able to demonstrate and teach to role model standard Maintain control of the kayak while maneuvering Achieve the purpose and identify the technical elements of specific paddle strokes Demonstrate a brace that rights the sea kayak from a point of capsize Bring the sea kayak to stop from a fast paddle within two boat lengths or 3 – 4 paddle strokes Demonstrate an effective stern rudder from both sides Demonstrate side surfing or a controlled broach using braces from both sides, with the sea kayak stable and controlled , (conditions allowing) Avoid obstacles using appropriate strokes and boat control including railing/ edging Exit from the beach and land the sea kayak on the beach in the sea kayak demonstrating control at all times. Land and launch the sea kayak in surf with the sea kayak stable, maintaining control at all times Demonstrate efficient and effective paddling strokes when packed for multi day trips Describe and apply the dynamics of surf and wave formations and applied to the sea kayak trip to ensure safety of self Apply the effects of tide, current, wind, and local conditions to the sea kayak trip to ensure safety of self Recognize life threatening weather signs and make and justify decisions in accordance with safety considerations
  19. 19. 19 Identify environmental hazards in terms of their possible effect on the kayak, and demonstrate methods for avoiding them Make decisions regarding trip commencement and completion in terms of safety for self and group Adjustment of procedures allows for the strengths and weaknesses of others in the group, and mutual support is demonstrated Calculate times and distances for the legs of the planned sea kayak trip Take a navigational fix from known landmarks using a map and compass Follow a bearing allowing for wind and sea conditions RESCUES Demonstrate an unassisted self-rescue Demonstrate a rescue of a single sea kayak, a weak swimmer and a strong swimmer Prioritize and justify actions in relation to the prevailing conditions Demonstrate knowledge of “Help” and “Huddle” positions Complete a roll successfully on both sides, consistently and confidently, in open sea with the sea-kayak stable at all times with paddling position and readiness regained promptly on completion of the roll ENVIRONMENTAL CARE Element - “Enhance personal and group knowledge of the sea kayaking environment” Demonstrate/teach/instruct knowledge of local cultural considerations. Demonstrate/teach/instruct an understanding of how sea kayaking developed as a sport. Demonstrate/teach/instruct knowledge of environmental ethics and role model these. Demonstrate/teach/instruct an appreciation of relationships with other recreational water users. Demonstrate an awareness and consideration of relevant access issues at a given site. Demonstrate knowledge of legislation relevant to kayaking. CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT Select clothing and personal gear for sea kayaking Select equipment for sea kayaking Select, store and maintain safety equipment Check the sea kayak and equipment for wear and damage Transport the sea kayaks and equipment for sea kayaking without damage to gear, vehicle, or trailer. Describe safety equipment used for sea kayaking Describe kayaks in terms of their design features and uses Describe sea kayaking equipment in terms of design and uses Identify and repair worn and damaged equipment Carry out field repairs Select and justify clothing and equipment are selected according to trip requirements Plan the trip according to the trip and local marine requirements Pack the sea kayak with overnight gear in accordance with the expected sea and weather conditions, to maintain all packed gear in dry condition LEADERSHIP Demonstrate an awareness and sensitivity to the cultural needs of a given group. Demonstrate an effective and full group briefing and debriefing. Demonstrate the leadership style and listening skills most relevant to a given groups needs. Organize and motivate a group/individuals in a sea kayak environment. Organize and control a group effectively during a given emergency. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES Prepare a lesson plan and deliver this lesson for any given sea kayak skill contained within the given certification. Demonstrates ability to seize teachable moments and impart an awareness of nature - its participants and processes. Select and prepare venue, equipment as required for a given lesson Present a given lesson that includes an introduction, uses appropriate voice, language, body language, teaching/visual aids demonstrations and evaluation of learning.
  20. 20. 20 Demonstrate a wide knowledge and skill of given topic Facilitate an effective group discussion that: o Creates a participative open tolerant learning environment o Group discussion may use Self evaluation and Peer review that; • creates a participative open, tolerant learning environment • manages unacceptable behavior effectively • deals with expressed fears and anxieties effectively • encourages enthusiasm, interest and learning RISK AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT Element - Enhance personal and group safety in a sea kayak environment. Demonstrate the ability to adjust plans when the environment dictates. Demonstrate the concepts and principles of managing risk during a given sea kayak trip. Describe procedures used in the event of a given accident or illness in the party, party member being missing, party becoming lost. Is familiar with the use of and can describe the pros and cons of different methods of communication. (range = VHF, signals, cell phone). Describe how the Search and Rescue system works. Describe the prevention, symptoms and remedies for - dehydration, hypothermia, hyperthermia, sunburn, allergic reaction, blisters. 2.5.4 NOTES FOR CANDIDATES Assessment Process The specific format and requirements of assessments will be at the assessors‘ discretion. The training/assessment will take place over three days. One day will be a guided day trip. The area for the guided trip may be dictated by the assessors Candidates will need to be able to travel to certain locations within the assessment area Logbooks Copies of logbooks and first aid certificates must be presented prior to the assessment along with a summary of logged sea kayaking experience Professionalism and Preparedness When presenting yourself for assessment, assessors will expect you to be professional in your attendance and attitude during the assessment. This includes being on-time, open to feedback and willing to undertake any duties that would be expected of a sea kayak guide You are expected to present yourself for assessment having prepared yourself with the skills and knowledge in the syllabus plus the full extent of equipment necessary for a guided trip. Assessments are not the place to be trying new gear or techniques, nor are they a training course Appropriate Techniques There are a range of techniques for the syllabus points to choose from that you may use to demonstrate competency that are appropriate to the conditions encountered. There may be time to discuss other techniques during the assessment Navigational, Nautical and Meteorological Knowledge Past assessments have highlighted a lack of knowledge and skills relating to navigation and the sea (tides, beacons, etc). It is recommended that candidates attend a Coastguard Day Skippers course During the assessment you will be required to answer questions and demonstrate your ability with these subjects both in a practical and verbal format Possible Assessment Outcomes There are three possible outcomes for candidates presenting themselves for assessment; o Pass - The candidate has satisfied all of the criteria of the assessment and is awarded the certificate o Defer - (Criteria to be reassessed and deadline within 6 months)
  21. 21. 21 2.6 Guidance for certification of the level 2 instructors The Level 2 Certificate in sea kayak instruction will be the confirmation of an instructors skills and abilities to not only instruct but also to contribute to the long term sustainability and development of sea kayak instruction as a whole, as well as developing and managing sea kayak programmes, leading multi-day sea kayak expeditions, etc. The certification is relevant to existing instructors who wish to work with non-competitive sea kayakers at a high level of skill. The Level 2 instructor can: Organize and provide training up to Level 1 instructor Assist higher level instructors in up to level 2 instructor certification courses Organize and provide assessments up to 4 stars 2.6.1 Format and time to complete The Level 1 Instructor certification involves minimum 3 days (24 hours) of contact time with the instructor This is the most senior level training, done usually in one on one or very small groups style, consisting of approximately 1 day covering required skills / knowledge, followed by 2 days of practice aiming to improve performance in the weakest points, which also serves as assessment (the Instructor assessor that run the training acts also as assessor). In order to maximize effect of this advanced level program, at the beginning of the program, candidate completes self assessment evaluation form which serves as guidance for the instructor in customization of the tutoring Courses are run in a variety of formats, anything from a modular course run over a series of weeks to intensive 3-day courses. Candidates who have a sound knowledge of the Technical Syllabus should be able to complete an intensive 3-day program and complete all elements required for certification; whilst the modular option allows time for you to consolidate your learning and gives you time to gain experience and knowledge between sessions. 2.6.2 SKILL AND EXPERIENCE - PRE-REQUISITES Sea Kayak Guides and Level 1 Instructor Awards. 50 days personal experience, including multi-day trips in a variety of locations (not less than six hours and / or 15 km of kayaking per day) . 90 “sessions” (An instruction “session” would normally be considered not less than two hours) of training guides/instructors (including minimally 10 sessions in capacity of assistant in the training for the Level 1 instructors). Current First Aid Certificate. These are minimum requirements; extra days are advised so that a candidate has both a depth and breadth of experience in a variety of conditions 2.6.3 SKILLS AND EXPERIENCES THAT SHOULD BE COVERED BY PROGRAMME INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Following syllabus should be read in conjunction with sea kayak level 1 as all relevant elements will be assessed when attempting this certification. In the following areas the level 2 sea kayak instructor will be expected to demonstrate teaching to teach, instruct in all aspects within the stars and instructor 1 certification. SEA KAYAK SKILLS Lead expedition kayaking; Demonstrate competence in instruction, leadership and management of intermediate and advanced sea kayakers in exposed coastlines with limited landing options on multiday (greater than 3 days) trips. Train/instruct guides and instructors Teach/instruct the content of the Sea Kayak Guides and Level 1 Instructor Awards. Role model sea kayaking proficiency skills. Demonstrate the ability to analyze safety plans, understand the legislative requirements and make suitable recommendations to ensure instructional programs meet their legal and moral obligations. ENVIRONMENTAL CARE Demonstrate/teach/instruct knowledge of local cultural considerations. Demonstrate/teach/instruct an understanding of how sea kayaking developed as a sport.
  22. 22. 22 Demonstrate/teach/instruct knowledge of environmental ethics and role model these. Demonstrate/teach/instruct an appreciation of relationships with other recreational water users. Demonstrate an awareness and consideration of relevant access issues at a given site. Demonstrate knowledge of legislation relevant to kayaking. CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT Select clothing and personal gear for sea kayaking Select equipment for sea kayaking Select, store and maintain safety equipment Check the sea kayak and equipment for wear and damage Transport the sea kayaks and equipment for sea kayaking without damage to gear, vehicle, or trailer. Describe safety equipment used for sea kayaking Describe kayaks in terms of their design features and uses Describe sea kayaking equipment in terms of design and uses Identify and repair worn and damaged equipment Carry out field repairs Select and justify clothing and equipment are selected according to trip requirements Plan the trip according to the trip and local marine requirements Pack the sea kayak with overnight gear in accordance with the expected sea and weather conditions, to maintain all packed gear in dry condition LEADERSHIP AND INSTRUCTING Demonstrate competence in leadership. Demonstrate principles of party management and effectively manage the party in changing situations: Briefs, capsized student/s, on open sea group management, difference in abilities of party members, changes in environmental conditions. Demonstrate the ability to pack a sea kayak for an overnight trip and knowledge of environmentally friendly travel techniques. Describe and disclose the relevant hazards encountered on the water described in this scope, and list suitable avoidance and management techniques. Describe the signs and treatment for near drowning, hypothermia, shock, sunburn, shoulder dislocation and dehydration. Demonstrate an effective communication system for groups on open sea. Select a training venue for a given group. Select and prepare a range of learning/fun activities for a given group. Demonstrate the protection of surf landings with a group for less experienced paddlers. Demonstrate an in depth working knowledge of a map and compass for navigation. Demonstrate an in depth working knowledge of weather systems and the effects on a sea kayak expedition/program Demonstrate an ability to access current weather/tidal information. RISK AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT Element - Enhance personal and group safety in a sea kayak environment. Demonstrate the ability to adjust plans when the environment dictates. Demonstrate the concepts and principles of managing risk during a given sea kayak trip. Describe procedures used in the event of a given accident or illness in the party, party member being missing, party becoming lost. Is familiar with the use of and can describe the pros and cons of different methods of communication. (range = VHF, signals, cell phone). Describe how the Search and Rescue system works. Describe the prevention, symptoms and remedies for - dehydration, hypothermia, hyperthermia, sunburn, allergic reaction, blisters. 2.6.4 NOTES FOR CANDIDATES Assessment Process The specific format and requirements of assessments will be at the assessors‘ discretion. The training/assessment will take place over three days. One day will be a guided day trip. The area for the guided trip may be dictated by the assessors
  23. 23. 23 Candidates will need to be able to travel to certain locations within the assessment area Logbooks Copies of logbooks and first aid certificates must be presented prior to the assessment along with a summary of logged sea kayaking experience Professionalism and Preparedness When presenting yourself for assessment, assessors will expect you to be professional in your attendance and attitude during the assessment. This includes being on-time, open to feedback and willing to undertake any duties that would be expected of a sea kayak guide You are expected to present yourself for assessment having prepared yourself with the skills and knowledge in the syllabus plus the full extent of equipment necessary for a guided trip. Assessments are not the place to be trying new gear or techniques, nor are they a training course Appropriate Techniques There are a range of techniques for the syllabus points to choose from that you may use to demonstrate competency that are appropriate to the conditions encountered. There may be time to discuss other techniques during the assessment Navigational, Nautical and Meteorological Knowledge Past assessments have highlighted a lack of knowledge and skills relating to navigation and the sea (tides, beacons, etc). It is recommended that candidates attend a Coastguard Day Skippers course During the assessment you will be required to answer questions and demonstrate your ability with these subjects both in a practical and verbal format Possible Assessment Outcomes There are three possible outcomes for candidates presenting themselves for assessment; o Pass - The candidate has satisfied all of the criteria of the assessment and is awarded the certificate o Defer - (Criteria to be reassessed and deadline within 6 months) 2.7 Becoming an Instructor assessor There are six stages involved with achieving assessor status: Stage 1: Obtain an Assessor Log from the Croatian Kayak Association Stage 2: Attend Assessor Seminar Stage 3: Assist in 3 assessments to a minimum 4 Star certification Stage 4: Complete individual action plan Stage 5: Receive an Endorsement from a Registered Assessor Stage 6: Be assessed performing a Level 1 instructor Assessment 2.7.1 Stage 1: Obtain an Assessor Log from the Croatian Kayak Association The Assessor Logbook is available to instructors and 4 star guides who are actively assessing relevant skills tests The Logbook can be acquired at anytime upon achieving a 4 star certification Any assessments performed must be fully marked in the logbook as well as reported to the HKS The assessor candidate is solely responsible for maintenance and updating of its contents 2.7.2 Stage 2: Attend Assessor Training Once the candidate has completed two years or 12 assessments, the logbook is returned to the Croatian Kayak Association. When the logbook is received, the evidence is checked and authorized. The candidate is then able to book onto an Assessor Training Day. Potential Assessors are expected to be familiar with the all training Syllabi, Trainer Notes, and Star Certification Guidance Notes prior to attending the Assessor Training. This day is a classroom-based day, covering: An overview of the Assessors Certification including: o prerequisites o level of personal skill required o what leadership at this level means o skill acquisition
  24. 24. 24 o lesson provision forms and the use of 4 Star theory and level o Use of 4 Star guide as well as instructor notes General assessment principals Establishment of candidate action plan 7 steps of assessment principal o Implement and confirmation of instructional goals. o Be available to other instructors and guides o Promote climate conducive to learning. o Communicate the vision and mission of certification system. o Set high expectations for guides and instructors. o Develop instructional leaders. o Maintain positive attitudes toward instructors, guides and award candidates. Once this course has been completed, it does not need to be repeated. 2.7.3 Stage 3: Assist in 3 assessments to a minimum 4 Star certification An assessor candidate must assist in an assessment of minimum 4 star certification (3 total assists) The candidate must demonstrate full awareness of the relevant requirements to receive the certificate and be able to assess them The candidate must demonstrate progressive improvement in assessing through the 3 assists There is no pass or fail, however, poor progression in assessing can lead to being required to perform more assists 2.7.4 Stage 4: Complete individual action plan Candidates are then expected to work out in the field gaining the required experience. This will include the observation of others working, team teaching, being observed and eventually leading the whole assessment process, (stage 3). This will be influenced by the individual action plan established during Stage 2, but also the candidates own reflection. The action plan will include; A time line for completing all required tasks (less than 3 years in length) A list of particular personal skills that the candidate views as needing development A list of requested “mentor” assessors 2.7.5 Stage 5: Receive an Endorsement from a Registered Assessor Once the candidate has completed their action plan, they must gain an endorsement from a registered Assessor. This states the action plan has been completed and that they are confident that the candidate has run assessments clearly showing all round competence and ability in accordance with the stated criteria. Once this endorsement is achieved, the logbook is returned to the HKS with their registration fee, and re evidence of the initial prerequisites (listed in Stage 2). Once approved candidates are authorized to proceed to perform a level 1 instructor assessment. 2.7.6 Stage 6: Be assessed performing a Level 1 instructor Assessment Once stage 5 is completed, candidates are required to work with a certified Level 2 instructor and assessor to arrange an assessment. (A list of suitable instructors and assessors will be provided). Cost of participation in the Assessment is at the candidates expense Potential Assessors will be assessed by the full assessor through all elements of the Assessment. They will be expected to set the up assessment, administer it, lead debriefs, and conclude any paperwork. Candidates will be assessed against established criteria If successful, they will then be accredited as an Assessor If the candidate being assessed as an assessor performs poorly, the certified assessor will step in and ensure the clients receive a fair assessment. This decision is up to the lead assessor

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