Agile Descriptions
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Agile Descriptions Agile Descriptions Presentation Transcript

  • Agile Descriptions Tony Hammond Nature Publishing Group [email_address]
  • Web 2.0 Stuff
    • Some topics to consider:
    • Web Feeds
    • Markup
    • Tagging
    • Collaborative Filtering
    • Social Networking
    • Text Mining
  • Web Feeds
    • Feeds = news, blogs, podcasts, ...
    • Feed formats are RSS / Atom
    • Feeds are just Rivers of Metadata
    • XML documents polled by subscribers
    • <item> / <entry> = <title>, <link>, <description> / <summary>
    • Administrative metadata
    • Descriptive metadata (dc, prism, mods, ...)
    • Common description model - RDF
  • Markup
    • Two main approaches to adding
    • semantics to documents:
    • Embedded Metadata
      • Content hidden from user
      • ‘ Blob’ added to page content
    • Exposed Metadata
      • Microformats (  F’s)
      • RDFa = RDF w/attributes
      • eRDF = embedded RDF
  • Embedded Metadata (i)
    • HTTP headers - exchanged in request
    • HTTP entities - in GET, PUT, POST
      • HTML <head>
        • <meta>
      • HTML <head> / <body>
        • HTML comments
        • HTML comments as RDF ‘islands’
  • Embedded Metadata (ii)
    • Binary data:
    • XMP
      • PDF’s (and arbitrary binary files)
    • EXIF
      • JPEG’s (digital photos)
    • ID3 tags
      • MP3’s (audio files)
  • Exposed Metadata -  F’s
    •  F’s qualify display content
    •  F’s add semantic tier to existing structure
    •  F’s limit search indexing abuse
    •  F = nested markup layered on top of host markup environment (HTML/XML)
    • Examples:
      • rel-license, rel-tag, ...
      • hCard, hCalendar, hReview, xFolk, XFN, ...
  •  F’s
    • Design patterns with semantics
    • Content becomes ‘live’
    • Can replace custom APIs
    • A poorboy semantic web
    • XMDP profiles
    • GRDDL (W3C Draft - Last Call)
    •  F -> RDF
  • rel-license - Licenses
    • <a rel=&quot;license&quot; href=&quot; http://.../licenses &quot; > CC </a>
    • Target of URI is license for current page
  • rel-tag - Tags
    • <a rel=&quot;tag&quot; href=&quot; http://.../tag/microformats &quot; > uF’s </a>
    • Target of URI is tag for current page
    • Last URI path element is tag
    • Preceding URI string is tag space
  • XFN – Social Networks
    • Example: Ingrid’s blogroll:
    • <a href=&quot; http://.../... &quot; rel=&quot;friend met&quot; >Josh</a>
    • <a href=&quot; http://.../... &quot; rel=&quot;met acquaintance&quot; >Kat</a>
    • <a href=&quot; http://.../... &quot; rel=&quot;co-worker friend met&quot; >Mary</a>
    • <a href=&quot; http://.../... &quot;> Nick </a>
    • Target of URI is typically blog or personal site
    • List of rel attributes indicates personal relationship
  • XFN (i)
  • XFN (ii)
    • #1
    • #4
    • #2
    • #3
  • hCard - Addresses
    • <div class=&quot;vcard&quot; >
    • <a class=&quot;url fn&quot; href=&quot; http://.../... &quot; > Tony Hammond </a>
    • <span class=&quot;org&quot; > Nature Publishing Group </span>
    • <span class=&quot;tel&quot; >
    • <span class=&quot;type&quot; > work </span>
    • <span class=&quot;value&quot; > +44-20-7843-4659 </span>
    • </span>
    • </div>
    • Use vCard (RFC 2426) as basis
    • Nest vCard objects into nested XHTML
    • Make vCard object/property names lcase
  • hCalendar - Events
    • <div class=&quot;vevent&quot; >
    • <a class=&quot;url&quot; href=&quot; http://.../... &quot; >
    • <span class=&quot;summary&quot; > Future of ... </span>
    • <abbr class=&quot;dtstart&quot; title=&quot; 2007-03-08 &quot; > March 8 </abbr>
    • <abbr class=&quot;dtend&quot; title=&quot; 2007-03-08 &quot; > March 8 </abbr>
    • at
    • <span class=“location&quot; > Google, Inc. </span>
    • </a>
    • </div>
    • Use iCalendar (RFC 2445) as basis
    • Nest iCalendar objects into nested XHTML
    • Make iCalendar object/property names lcase
  • hReview - Reviews
    • <li class=&quot;hreview&quot; >
    • <h3 class=&quot;item summary&quot; ><a href=&quot;/reviews/programming/web+standards&quot; class=&quot;fn&quot; rel=&quot;self bookmark&quot; > Web standards </a></h3>
    • <div class=&quot;reviewer vcard&quot; >
    • <p class=&quot;icon&quot; >
    • <a href=&quot;/users/katemonkey&quot;><img src=&quot;/images/icons/katemonkey.png&quot; class=&quot;photo&quot;/></a>
    • </p>
    • <p class=&quot;description&quot; > Web standards help designers and developers create the pedantic web. </p>
    • <p class=&quot;by-line&quot; >
    • a <a href=&quot;/reviews/programming&quot;> programming </a> review by
    • <a href=&quot;/users/katemonkey&quot; class=&quot;fn url&quot; > katemonkey </a>
    • that was written
    • <a title=&quot;2007-01-27 11:09:21&quot; class=&quot;dtreviewed&quot; href=&quot;/reviews/date/2007/01/27/&quot;> on 27 th January </a> and has been rated by 3 users as a good review.
    • </p>
    • </div>
    • </li>
  • xFolk - Bookmarks
    • <div class=&quot;folkentry&quot; >
    • <div>
    • <a class=&quot;taggedlink&quot; href=&quot; http://.../... &quot; > bookmark </a>
    • </div>
    • <div class=&quot;description&quot; > A description ... </div>
    • <div class=&quot;meta&quot; >
    • <a rel=&quot;tag&quot; href=&quot; http://.../tag/tag &quot; > tag </a>
    • </div>
    • </div>
  • hcite - Citations
    • <li class=&quot;hcite&quot; xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>
    • <div class=&quot;publisher vcard&quot; > <!-- publisher data as hCard -->
    • <span class=&quot;fn org&quot; > ABC Publishing Co. </span>
    • <span class=&quot;country-name&quot; > United Kingdom </span>
    • ...
    • </div>
    • <div class=&quot;creator vcard&quot; > <!-- author(s) data as hCard -->
    • <span class=&quot;fn n&quot; >
    • <span class=&quot;given-name&quot; > John <span class=&quot;family-name&quot; > Doe </span></span>
    • ...
    • </div>
    • <span class=&quot;fn&quot; > Foobar! </span>
    • <span class=&quot;description&quot; > World Class Book about foobar </span>
    • <span class=&quot;volume&quot; > 1 </span>
    • <span class=&quot;issue&quot; > 1 </span>
    • <span class=&quot;pages&quot; > 1-10 </span>
    • <span class=&quot;format&quot; > article </span>
    • <span class=&quot;identifier&quot; > 12345678 </span>
    • <a class=&quot;keyword&quot; rel=&quot;tag&quot; href=&quot; /tags/foo &quot;> foo </a>
    • Published <abbr class=&quot;dtpublished&quot; title=&quot; 20060101 &quot;> January 1st 2006 </abbr>
    • Copyright <abbr class=&quot;copyright&quot; title=&quot; 20060101 &quot;> 2006 </abbr>
    • </li>
  • Tagging
    • Tags as simple labels
    • Tags as personal ‘aides-memoire’
    • Bottom-up rather than top-down
    • Just-in-time vs just-in-case
    • Folksonomies
      • user categories
      • group tag clouds, clustering
  • Tag Namespaces
    • Tags as simple text tokens
    • Tags as globally unique URIs
    • Naming authority issues
      • DNS- & Registry-based authorities
      • Persistence
    • Per application namespaces
    • Per user, per application namespaces
  • Tag Terms
    • Any lessons from dynamic vs static typed programming languages?
    • Static compilation provides for type safety
    • Dynamic compilation allows typing on demand
    • Unit tests substitute for type checking at compilation time
  • Flickr / Photo Clusters
  • Connotea / Many Eyes
  • Unalog / Starlight
    • Tag “python”
    • Tag “iceland”
  • Tagging Tools
    • Let’s look at some cases:
    • del.icio.us – general tagging tool
    • Flickr – photo tagging tool
    • CiteULike – scolarly tagging
    • Connotea – scholarly tagging
    • Unalog – library tagging tool
    • HubMed – an interface to PubMed
  • del.icio.us
    • <item rdf:about=&quot; http://orlabs.oclc.org/Identities/ &quot;>
    • <title> WorldCat Identities </title>
    • <link> http://orlabs.oclc.org/Identities/ </link>
    • <description> pages for people </description>
    • <dc:creator> hublicious </dc:creator>
    • <dc:date> 2007-02-14T10:37:46Z </dc:date>
    • <dc:subject> person </dc:subject>
    • <dc:subject> identifier </dc:subject>
    • <dc:subject> oclc </dc:subject>
    • <taxo:topics>
    • <rdf:Bag>
    • <rdf:li resource=&quot; http://del.icio.us/tag/person &quot;/>
    • <rdf:li resource=&quot; http://del.icio.us/tag/identifier &quot;/>
    • <rdf:li resource=&quot; http://del.icio.us/tag/oclc &quot;/>
    • </rdf:Bag>
    • </taxo:topics>
    • </item>
  • Flickr
    • <entry>
    • <title> The Eclipsified Moon </title>
    • <link rel=&quot;alternate&quot; type=&quot;text/html“ href=&quot; http://www.flickr.com/photos/alf/409522855/ &quot;/>
    • <id> tag:flickr.com,2005:/photo/409522855 </id>
    • <published> 2007-03-04T04:53:33Z </published>
    • <updated> 2007-03-04T04:53:33Z </updated>
    • <dc:date.Taken> 2007-03-03T23:34:23-08:00 </dc:date.Taken>
    • <content type=&quot;html”> ... </content>
    • <author>
    • <name> balloon in a sock </name>
    • <uri> http://www.flickr.com/people/alf/ </uri>
    • </author>
    • <link rel=&quot;license&quot; type=&quot;text/html&quot; href=&quot; http://.../licenses/by-nc/2.0/ &quot; />
    • <link rel=&quot;enclosure&quot; type=&quot;image/jpeg“ href=&quot; http://.../133/409522855_6ed97bbd2a_o.jpg &quot; />
    • <category term=&quot; moon &quot; scheme=&quot; http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/ &quot; />
    • <category term=&quot; eclipse &quot; scheme=&quot; http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/ &quot; />
    • </entry>
  • Cite U Like CiteULike (i)
  • Cite U Like CiteULike (ii)
    • <item rdf:about= http://www.citeulike.org/user/timflutre/article/1139879 >
    • <title> Dating the tree of life. </title>
    • <link> http://www.citeulike.org/user/timflutre/article/1139879 </link>
    • <description> ... </description>
    • <dc:title> Dating the tree of life. </dc:title>
    • <dc:creator> MJ Benton </dc:creator>
    • <dc:creator> FJ Ayala </dc:creator>
    • <dc:identifier> doi:10.1126/science.1077795 </dc:identifier>
    • <dc:source> Science, Vol. 300, No. 5626. (13 June 2003), pp. 1698-1700. </dc:source>
    • <prism:publicationName> Science </prism:publicationName>
    • <prism:issn> 1095-9203 </prism:issn>
    • <prism:volume> 300 </prism:volume>
    • <prism:number> 5626 </prism:number>
    • <prism:startingPage> 1698 </prism:startingPage>
    • <prism:endingPage> 1700 </prism:endingPage>
    • <category> evolution </category>
    • <category> molecular_clock </category>
    • </item>
  • Connotea (i)
    • <item rdf:about=&quot; http://.../user/penguin/uri/ceac242dfd66979fe07ac5ebf8381afc &quot;>
    • <title> Induction of IL-10 suppressors in lung transplant patients by CD4+25+ regulatory T cells through CTLA-4 signaling. </title>
    • <link> http://.../user/penguin/uri/ceac242dfd66979fe07ac5ebf8381afc </link>
    • <description> Posted by penguin to test on Wed Feb 21 2007 </description>
    • <dc:creator> penguin </dc:creator>
    • <dc:date> 2007-02-21T10:22:00Z </dc:date>
    • <dc:subject> test </dc:subject>
    • <slash:comments> 0 </slash:comments>
    • <content:encoded><![CDATA[ ... ]]></content:encoded>
    • <connotea:uri>
    • <dcTerms:URI/>
    • </connotea:uri>
    • <annotate:reference rdf:resource=&quot; http://.../comments/uri/ceac242dfd66979fe07ac5ebf8381afc &quot;/>
    • </item>
  • Connotea (ii)
    • <dcterms:URI rdf:about=&quot; http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=17015751 &quot;>
    • <dc:title> Induction of IL-10 suppressors in lung transplant patients by CD4+25+ regulatory T cells through CTLA-4 signaling. </dc:title>
    • <dc:creator> Ankit Bharat </dc:creator>
    • <dc:creator> Ryan Fields </dc:creator>
    • <dc:creator> Elbert Trulock </dc:creator>
    • <dc:creator> G Patterson </dc:creator>
    • <dc:creator> Thalachallour Mohanakumar </dc:creator>
    • <dc:identifier> info:pmid/17015751 </dc:identifier>
    • <dc:date> 2006-10-15 </dc:date>
    • <prism:publicationName> Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) </prism:publicationName>
    • <prism:issn></prism:issn>
    • <prism:volume> 177 </prism:volume>
    • <prism:number> 8 </prism:number>
    • <prism:startingPage> 5631 </prism:startingPage>
    • <prism:endingPage> 5638 </prism:endingPage>
    • </dcterms:URI>
  • Unalog (i)
  • Unalog (ii)
    • <mods>
    • <titleInfo><title> 3quarksdaily </title></titleInfo>
    • <typeOfResource> text </typeOfResource>
    • <physicalDescription>
    • <form authority=&quot;marcform&quot;> electronic </form>
    • </physicalDescription>
    • <location>
    • <url> http://.../2006/07/random_walks_he.html </url>
    • </location>
    • <note> Mode of access: Internet. </note>
    • <subject>
    • <topic> jackchick </topic>
    • <topic> fear </topic>
    • <topic> altercall </topic>
    • </subject>
    • <recordInfo> ... </recordInfo>
    • </mods>
  • HubMed (i) <item rdf:about=&quot; info:pmid/17015751 &quot;> <rdf:type rdf:resource=&quot; http://purl.oclc.org/NET/nknouf/ns/bibtex#Article &quot;/> <title> Induction of IL-10 suppressors in lung transplant patients by CD4+25+ regulatory T cells through CTLA-4 signaling. </title> <link> http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=17015751 </link> <description> stored by aorchid </description> <dc:date> 2006 </dc:date> <dc:title> Induction of IL-10 suppressors in lung transplant patients by CD4+25+ regulatory T cells through CTLA-4 signaling. </dc:title> <dc:subject> bos </dc:subject> <dc:subject> treg </dc:subject> </item> <tags:Tagging> ... <tags:taggedResource rdf:resource=&quot; info:pmid/17015751 &quot;/> ... </tags:Tagging>
  • HubMed (ii)
    • <tags:Tagging rdf:about=&quot; http://.../tags/users/aorchid/item/17015751 &quot;>
    • <tags:taggedBy rdf:resource=&quot; http://.../tags/users#aorchid &quot;/>
    • <tags:taggedOn></tags:taggedOn>
    • <tags:taggedResource rdf:resource=&quot; info:pmid/17015751 &quot;/>
    • <tags:taggedWithTag>
    • <tags:Tag rdf:about=&quot; http://.../tags/users/aorchid/tags#bos &quot;>
    • <tags:tagName> bos </tags:tagName>
    • </tags:Tag>
    • </tags:taggedWithTag>
    • <tags:taggedWithTag>
    • <tags:Tag rdf:about=&quot; http://.../tags/users/aorchid/tags#treg &quot;>
    • <tags:tagName> treg </tags:tagName>
    • </tags:Tag>
    • </tags:taggedWithTag>
    • </tags:Tagging>
  • Collaborative Filtering
    • Amazon
    • Wikipedia
    • Last.fm
    • Technorati
    • Digg
    • Postgenomic
    • Dissect Medicine
  • Postgenomic
  • Chemical blogspace
  • Dissect Medicine
  • Dissect Medicine
  • Social Networking
    • MySpace
    • YouTube
    • Facebook
    • Friendster
    • LinkedIn
    • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Nature Network
  • Text Mining
    • OTMI
  • OTMI
    • Open Text Mining Interface
    • [email_address]
    • nature.com/otmi
      • Repository
        • *.tar.gz, *.otmi - content
        • *.opml - navigation
    • opentextmining.org/
      • Wiki
      • Resources (draft spec, scripts)
  • OTMI - Goals
    • Publish machine-readable full text to
    • Enable text mining
    • Allow document categorization
    • Allow domain entities (e.g. chemical compounds, genomes, etc) to be mapped
    • Entity maps can be published in turn and related back to original document
  • OTMI – Details
    • OTMI = Atom <entry> document
    • OTMI += document sections
    • OTMI += vectors (word frequencies)
    • OTMI += ‘snippets’ (nonlinear full text)
    • OTMI += references (with DOI)
    • OTMI filters stopwords (e.g. NLM)
  • OTMI – Entry (i)
    • <atom:entry xmlns:otmi=‘...’ xmlns:prism=‘...‘ xmlns:atom=‘...'>
    • <atom:title>Structural biology Dangerous liaisons on neurons</atom:title>
    • <atom:author>
    • <atom:name>Giampietro Schiavo</atom:name>
    • </atom:author>
    • <atom:id>info:doi/10.1038/nature05410</atom:id>
    • <atom:link href='http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05410' />
    • <atom:link href='http://.../nature/journal/v444/n7122/otmi/nature05410.otmi‘ rel='self' />
    • <atom:link href='http://opentextmining.org/' rel='related' />
    • <atom:published>2006-12-21T00:00:00Z</atom:published>
    • <atom:updated>2006-12-21T00:00:00Z</atom:updated>
    • <atom:rights type='html'>(c) 2006 Nature Publishing Group</atom:rights>
    • <prism:publicationName>Nature</prism:publicationName>
    • <prism:volume>444</prism:volume>
    • <prism:number>7122</prism:number>
    • <prism:startingPage>1019</prism:startingPage>
    • <prism:endingPage>1020</prism:endingPage>
    • <prism:issn>0028-0836</prism:issn>
    • <prism:eIssn />
    • <otmi:data/>
    • </atom:entry>
  • OTMI – Entry (ii)
    • <otmi:data>
    • <otmi:stoplist href='http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7122/otmi/otmi-stoplist.xml' />
    • <otmi:section name='body'>
    • <otmi:section name='other'>
    • <otmi:vectors>
    • ...
    • </otmi:vectors>
    • <otmi:snippets>
    • ...
    • </otmi:snippets>
    • </otmi:section>
    • </otmi:section>
    • <otmi:figure>
    • ...
    • </otmi:figure>
    • <otmi:references>
    • ...
    • </otmi:references>
    • </otmi:data>
  • OTMI – Entry (ii) / Vectors
    • <otmi:vectors>
    • <otmi:split-regex>(?-mix:s+W+|W+s+|s+|/)</otmi:split-regex>
    • ...
    • <otmi:vector count='9'>vesicles</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='8'>al</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='8'>et</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='8'>protein</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='8'>synaptic</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='8'>vesicle</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='7'>chain</otmi:vector>
    • <otmi:vector count='7'>neuron</otmi:vector>
    • ...
    • </otmi:vectors>
  • OTMI – Entry (iii)
    • <otmi:data>
    • <otmi:stoplist href='http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7122/otmi/otmi-stoplist.xml' />
    • <otmi:section name='body'>
    • <otmi:section name='other'>
    • <otmi:vectors>
    • ...
    • </otmi:vectors>
    • <otmi:snippets>
    • ...
    • </otmi:snippets>
    • </otmi:section>
    • </otmi:section>
    • <otmi:figure>
    • ...
    • </otmi:figure>
    • <otmi:references>
    • ...
    • </otmi:references>
    • </otmi:data>
  • OTMI – Entry (iii) / Snippets
    • <otmi:snippets>
    • <otmi:split-regex>(?-mix:.s+(?=[A-Z]))</otmi:split-regex>
    • ...
    • <otmi:snippet>The amino acids lining this cleft are very similar to those found in BoNT/G (ref. 10 ), but differ in the other toxin family members, which explains why different BoNTs recognize distinct protein receptors</otmi:snippet>
    • <otmi:snippet>The model predicts that the interaction of BoNTs with both PSGs and protein receptors is necessary to explain their awesome potency , with a different protein receptor being recognized by each BoNT</otmi:snippet>
    • <otmi:snippet>The rigid character of this interaction might be further enhanced by the association of the toxins heavy chain with nearby negatively charged lipid molecules, which play an accessory role in stabilizing the toxin on membranes </otmi:snippet>
    • <otmi:snippet>The simplest possibility is that BoNT/B binds to PSGs and synaptotagmin within the lumen of a synaptic vesicle that is fused to the neuron membrane</otmi:snippet>
    • <otmi:snippet>The toxins then escape from the vesicle lumen when the vesicles are acidified as they reload with neurotransmitters</otmi:snippet>
    • <otmi:snippet>The two binding sites would firmly anchor the tip of BoNT/B to the vesicles inner surface, constraining the toxins mobility</otmi:snippet>
    • ...
    • </otmi:snippets>
  • OTMI – Entry (iv)
    • <otmi:data>
    • <otmi:stoplist href='http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7122/otmi/otmi-stoplist.xml' />
    • <otmi:section name='body'>
    • <otmi:section name='other'>
    • <otmi:vectors>
    • ...
    • </otmi:vectors>
    • <otmi:snippets>
    • ...
    • </otmi:snippets>
    • </otmi:section>
    • </otmi:section>
    • <otmi:figure>
    • ...
    • </otmi:figure>
    • <otmi:references>
    • ...
    • </otmi:references>
    • </otmi:data>
  • OTMI – Entry (iv) / Figs
    • <otmi:figure>
    • <otmi:title>
    • <otmi:reduced-text>Possible binding sites botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B) neurons. Crystal studies Jin et al . Chai et al . suggest BoNT/B invades neurons stowing away carriers known synaptic vesicles. forming complex lipid molecules (polysialogangliosides, PSGs) vesicle protein ( synaptotagmin or synaptotagmin II) neuronal membrane. complex stabilized interactions neighbouring acidic lipid molecules (orange). BoNT/B enter open vesicles neurons membrane, one three possible sequences. , BoNT/B enters vesicle directly forms required complex. b , BoNT/B binds first PSGs membrane, transferred synaptic vesicle containing synaptotagmin. c , BoNT/B forms full complex membrane, synaptotagmin left behind inaccurate vesicle recycling. transferred lumen vesicle.</otmi:reduced-text>
    • </otmi:title>
    • <otmi:caption>
    • <otmi:reduced-text>Possible binding sites botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B) neurons. Crystal studies Jin et al . Chai et al . suggest BoNT/B invades neurons stowing away carriers known synaptic vesicles. forming complex lipid molecules (polysialogangliosides, PSGs) vesicle protein ( synaptotagmin or synaptotagmin II) neuronal membrane. complex stabilized interactions neighbouring acidic lipid molecules (orange). BoNT/B enter open vesicles neurons membrane, one three possible sequences. , BoNT/B enters vesicle directly forms required complex. b , BoNT/B binds first PSGs membrane, transferred synaptic vesicle containing synaptotagmin. c , BoNT/B forms full complex membrane, synaptotagmin left behind inaccurate vesicle recycling. transferred lumen vesicle.</otmi:reduced-text>
    • </otmi:caption>
    • </otmi:figure>
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  • OTMI – Entry (v) / Refs
    • <otmi:references>
    • <otmi:ref-id>info:doi/10.1038/nature05387</otmi:ref-id>
    • <otmi:ref-id>info:doi/10.1038/nature05411</otmi:ref-id>
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    • <otmi:ref-id>info:doi/10.1083/jcb.200305098</otmi:ref-id>
    • <otmi:ref-id>info:doi/10.1074/jbc.M403945200</otmi:ref-id>
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    • <otmi:refs-noid>3</otmi:refs-noid>
    • </otmi:references>
  • snoitpircseD eligA Tony Hammond Nature Publishing Group [email_address]