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  • 1. The PocketDeclaration ofIndependence andConstitution of theUnited States The Liberty Alliance
  • 2. The Pocket Declaration of Independenceand Constitution of the United StatesPublished by The Liberty Alliance.www.LibertyAlliance.com© 2012 The Liberty Alliance. All Rights reserved.Printed in the United States.ISBN: 978-1-4507-6118-5NOTE: Spelling and capitalization have been modern-ized for contemporary audiences. Notes within brackets,indicating particular parts of the Constitution that havebeen amended, are not in the original.
  • 3. Contents SThe Declaration of Independence 5The Constitution of the United States 15The Amendments to the Constitution The Bill of Rights 45 Amendments 11–27 51
  • 4. The Declaration of independence S In Congress, July 4, 1776 The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of AmericaW hen in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people todissolve the political bands which have connect-ed them with another, and to assume among thepowers of the earth, the separate and equal sta-tion to which the laws of nature and of nature’sGod entitle them, a decent respect to the opinionsof mankind requires that they should declare thecauses which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, thatall men are created equal, that they are endowedby their Creator with certain unalienable rights,that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit 5
  • 5. The Declaration of Independenceof happiness—that to secure these rights, gov-ernments are instituted among men, derivingtheir just powers from the consent of the gov-erned, that whenever any form of governmentbecomes destructive of these ends, it is the rightof the people to alter or to abolish it, and to in-stitute new government, laying its foundationon such principles, and organizing its powersin such form, as to them shall seem most likelyto effect their safety and happiness. Prudence,indeed, will dictate that governments long es-tablished should not be changed for light andtransient causes; and accordingly all experiencehath shown, that mankind are more disposedto suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to rightthemselves by abolishing the forms to whichthey are accustomed. But when a long train ofabuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably thesame object, evinces a design to reduce themunder absolute despotism, it is their right, it istheir duty, to throw off such government, andto provide new guards for their future security.Such has been the patient sufferance of thesecolonies; and such is now the necessity which 6
  • 6. The Declaration of Independenceconstrains them to alter their former systemsof government. The history of the present Kingof Great Britain is a history of repeated injuriesand usurpations, all having in direct object theestablishment of an absolute tyranny over thesestates. To prove this, let facts be submitted to acandid world. He has refused his assent to laws, the mostwholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his governors to pass lawsof immediate and pressing importance, un-less suspended in their operation till his assentshould be obtained; and when so suspended, hehas utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other laws for the ac-commodation of large districts of people, unlessthose people would relinquish the right of repre-sentation in the legislature, a right inestimable tothem, and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies atplaces unusual, uncomfortable, and distant fromthe depository of their public records, for thesole purpose of fatiguing them into compliancewith his measures. 7
  • 7. The Declaration of Independence He has dissolved representative houses re-peatedly, for opposing with manly firmness, hisinvasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dis-solutions, to cause others to be elected; wherebythe legislative powers, incapable of annihilation,have returned to the people at large for their ex-ercise; the state remaining in the mean time ex-posed to all the dangers of invasions from with-out, and convulsions within. He has endeavored to prevent the popula-tion of these states; for that purpose obstructingthe laws for naturalization of foreigners; refus-ing to pass others to encourage their migrationshither, and raising the conditions of new appro-priations of lands. He has obstructed the administration of jus-tice, by refusing his assent to laws for establish-ing judiciary powers. He has made judges dependent on his willalone, for the tenure of their offices, and theamount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of new offices,and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our 8
  • 8. The Declaration of Independencepeople and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of peace,standing armies, without the consent of our leg-islatures. He has affected to render the military inde-pendent of and superior to the civil power. He has combined with others to subject usto a jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, andunacknowledged by our laws; giving his assentto their acts of pretended legislation: • For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: • For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states: • For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world: • For imposing taxes on us without our consent: • For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury: 9
  • 9. The Declaration of Independence • For transporting us beyond the seas to be tried for pretended offenses: • For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establish- ing therein arbitrary government, and en- larging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for in- troducing the same absolute rule into these colonies: • For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fun- damentally the forms of our governments: • For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated government here, by de-claring us out of his protection and waging waragainst us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged ourcoasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the livesof our people. He is, at this time, transporting large armiesof foreign mercenaries to complete the works 10
  • 10. The Declaration of Independenceof death, desolation, and tyranny, already begunwith circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarce-ly paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and to-tally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. He has constrained our fellow-citizens tak-en captive on the high seas to bear arms againsttheir country, to become the executioners oftheir friends and brethren, or to fall themselvesby their hands. He has excited domestic insurrectionsamongst us, and has endeavored to bring on theinhabitants of our frontier, the merciless Indiansavages, whose known rule of warfare, is an un-distinguished destruction, of all ages, sexes andconditions. In every stage of these oppressions we havepetitioned for redress in the most humble terms:our repeated petitions have been answered onlyby repeated injury. A prince, whose character isthus marked by every act which may define a ty-rant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have we been wanting in attentionsto our British brethren. We have warned themfrom time to time of attempts by their legislature 11
  • 11. The Declaration of Independenceto extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.We have reminded them of the circumstancesof our emigration and settlement here. We haveappealed to their native justice and magnanim-ity, and we have conjured them by the ties of ourcommon kindred, to disavow these usurpations,which, would inevitably interrupt our connec-tions and correspondence. They too have beendeaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity,which denounces our separation, and hold them,as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war,in peace, friends. We, therefore, the representatives of the Unit-ed States of America, in General Congress, as-sembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of theworld for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in thename, and by the authority of the good people ofthese colonies, solemnly publish and declare, thatthese United Colonies are, and of right ought tobe, free and independent states: that they are ab-solved from all allegiance to the British crown, andthat all political connection between them and thestate of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally 12
  • 12. The Declaration of Independence dissolved; and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this decla- ration, with a firm reliance on the protection of di- vine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. John Hancock President of the Continental Congress & Delegate from Massachusetts New Hampshire Josiah Bartlett Matthew Thornton William Whipple Massachusetts Bay John Adams Samuel Adams Elbridge Gerry Robert Treat Paine Rhode Island William Ellery Stephen Hopkins Connecticut Samuel Huntington Roger Sherman William Williams Oliver Wolcott New York William Floyd Francis Lewis Phillip Livingston Lewis Morris 13
  • 13. The Declaration of Independence New Jersey Abraham Clark John Hart Francis Hopkinson Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Pennsylvania George Clymer Benjamin Franklin Robert Morris John Morton George Ross Benjamin Rush James Smith George Taylor James Wilson Delaware Thomas McKean George Read Caesar Rodney Maryland Charles Carroll Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Virginia Carter Braxton Benjamin Harrison Thomas Jefferson Francis Lightfoot Lee Richard Henry Lee Thomas Nelson, Jr. George Wythe North Carolina Joseph Hewes William Hooper John Penn South Carolina Thomas Hayward, Jr. Thomas Lynch, Jr. Arthur Middleton Edward Rutledge Georgia Button Gwinnett Lyman Hall George Walton 14
  • 14. The Constitution of the United States SW e the People of the United States, in or- der to form a more perfect union, estab-lish Justice, ensure domestic tranquility, providefor the common defense, promote the generalwelfare, and secure the blessings of liberty toourselves and our posterity, do ordain and es-tablish this constitution for the United States ofAmerica. Article I Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall bevested in a Congress of the United States, whichshall consist of a Senate and House of Represen-tatives. Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be com-posed of members chosen every second year by 15
  • 15. The Constitution of the United Statesthe people of the several states, and the electorsin each state shall have the qualifications requi-site for electors of the most numerous branch ofthe state legislature. No person shall be a Representative whoshall not have attained to the age of twenty-fiveyears, and been seven years a citizen of the Unit-ed States, and who shall not, when elected, bean inhabitant of that state in which he shall bechosen. Representatives and direct taxes shall be ap-portioned among the several states which may beincluded within this Union, according to their re-spective numbers, which shall be determined byadding to the whole number of free persons, in-cluding those bound to service for a term of years,and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths ofall other persons. [The previous sentence was su-perseded by Amendment XIV.]The actual enu-meration shall be made within three years afterthe first meeting of the Congress of the UnitedStates, and within every subsequent term often years, in such manner as they shall by lawdirect. The number of representatives shall not 16
  • 16. The Constitution of the United Statesexceed one for every thirty thousand, but eachstate shall have at least one representative; anduntil such enumeration shall be made, the stateof New Hampshire shall be entitled to choosethree, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island andProvidence Plantations one, Connecticut five,New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvaniaeight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,North Carolina five, South Carolina five, andGeorgia three. When vacancies happen in the represen-tation from any state, the executive authoritythereof shall issue writs of election to fill suchvacancies. The House of Representatives shall choosetheir Speaker and other officers; and shall havethe sole power of impeachment. Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be com-posed of two senators from each state, chosen bythe legislature thereof, [The preceding five wordswere superseded by Amendment XVII.] for sixyears; and each senator shall have one vote. 17
  • 17. The Constitution of the United States Immediately after they shall be assembled inconsequence of the first election, they shall bedivided as equally as may be into three classes.The seats of the senators of the first class shall bevacated at the expiration of the second year, ofthe second class at the expiration of the fourthyear, and of the third class at the expiration of thesixth year, so that one-third may be chosen everysecond year; and if vacancies happen by resigna-tion, or otherwise, during the recess of the legisla-ture of any state, the executive thereof may maketemporary appointments until the next meetingof the legislature, which shall then fill such va-cancies. [The words in italics were superseded byAmendment XVII.] No person shall be a senator who shall nothave attained to the age of thirty years, and beennine years a citizen of the United States, and whoshall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of thatstate for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shallbe President of the Senate, but shall have no vote,unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall choose their other officers, 18
  • 18. The Constitution of the United Statesand also a President pro tempore, in the absenceof the Vice President, or when he shall exercisethe office of President of the United States. the Senate shall have the sole power to try allimpeachments. When sitting for that purpose,they shall be on oath or affirmation. When thePresident of the United States is tried, the ChiefJustice shall preside: and no person shall be con-victed without the concurrence of two-thirds ofthe members present. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall notextend further than to removal from office, anddisqualification to hold and enjoy any office ofhonor, trust or profit under the United States:but the party convicted shall nevertheless be li-able and subject to indictment, trial, judgmentand punishment, according to law. Section 4. The times, places and manner of holdingelections for Senators and Representatives, shallbe prescribed in each state by the legislaturethereof; but the Congress may at any time by lawmake or alter such regulations, except as to the 19
  • 19. The Constitution of the United Statesplaces of choosing senators. The Congress shall assemble at least oncein every year, and such meeting shall be on thefirst Monday in December, unless they shall bylaw appoint a different day. [The words in italicswere superseded by Amendment XX.] Section 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elec-tions, returns and qualifications of its own mem-bers, and a majority of each shall constitute aquorum to do business; but a smaller numbermay adjourn from day to day, and may be autho-rized to compel the attendance of absent mem-bers, in such manner, and under such penaltiesas each House may provide. Each House may determine the rules of itsproceedings, punish its members for disorderlybehaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. Each House shall keep a journal of its pro-ceedings, and from time to time publish thesame, excepting such parts as may in their judg-ment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of 20
  • 20. The Constitution of the United Statesthe members of either House on any questionshall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present,be entered on the journal. Neither House, during the session of Con-gress, shall, without the consent of the other, ad-journ for more than three days, nor to any otherplace than that in which the two Houses shall besitting. Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall re-ceive a compensation for their services, to beascertained by law, and paid out of the treasuryof the United States. They shall in all cases, ex-cept treason, felony and breach of the peace, beprivileged from arrest during their attendance atthe session of their respective Houses, and in go-ing to and returning from the same; and for anyspeech or debate in either House, they shall notbe questioned in any other place. No Senator or Representative shall, duringthe time for which he was elected, be appointedto any civil office under the authority of the Unit-ed States, which shall have been created, or the 21
  • 21. The Constitution of the United Statesemoluments whereof shall have been increasedduring such time; and no person holding any of-fice under the United States, shall be a memberof either House during his continuance in office. Section 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originatein the House of Representatives; but the Senatemay propose or concur with amendments as onother bills. Every bill which shall have passed the Houseof Representatives and the Senate, shall, beforeit become a law, be presented to the President ofthe United States: If he approve he shall sign it,but if not he shall return it, with his objections tothat House in which it shall have originated, whoshall enter the objections at large on their journal,and proceed to reconsider it. If after such recon-sideration two-thirds of that House shall agreeto pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with theobjections, to the other House, by which it shalllikewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But inall such cases the votes of both Houses shall be 22
  • 22. The Constitution of the United Statesdetermined by yeas and nays, and the names ofthe persons voting for and against the bill shall beentered on the journal of each House respectively.If any bill shall not be returned by the Presidentwithin ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shallhave been presented to him, the same shall be alaw, in like manner as if he had signed it, unlessthe Congress by their adjournment prevent its re-turn, in which case it shall not be a law. Every order, resolution, or vote to which theconcurrence of the Senate and House of Repre-sentatives may be necessary (except on a ques-tion of adjournment) shall be presented to thePresident of the United States; and before thesame shall take effect, shall be approved by him,or being disapproved by him, shall be repassedby two-thirds of the Senate and House of Repre-sentatives, according to the rules and limitationsprescribed in the case of a bill. Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay andcollect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to paythe debts and provide for the common defence 23
  • 23. The Constitution of the United Statesand general welfare of the United States; butall duties, imposts and excises shall be uniformthroughout the United States; To borrow money on the credit of the UnitedStates; To regulate commerce with foreign nations,and among the several states, and with the In-dian tribes; To establish a uniform rule of naturalization,and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptciesthroughout the United States; To coin money, regulate the value there-of, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard ofweights and measures; To provide for the punishment of counter-feiting the securities and current coin of theUnited States; To establish post offices and post roads; To promote the progress of science and use-ful arts, by securing for limited times to authorsand inventors the exclusive right to their respec-tive writings and discoveries; To constitute tribunals inferior to the Su-preme Court; 24
  • 24. The Constitution of the United States To define and punish piracies and feloniescommitted on the high seas, and offenses againstthe law of nations; To declare war, grant letters of marque andreprisal, and make rules concerning captures onland and water; To raise and support armies, but no appro-priation of money to that use shall be for a longerterm than two years; To provide and maintain a navy; To make rules for the government and regu-lation of the land and naval forces; To provide for calling forth the militia to ex-ecute the laws of the union, suppress insurrec-tions and repel invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and dis-ciplining the militia, and for governing such partof them as may be employed in the service ofthe United States, reserving to the states respec-tively, the appointment of the officers, and theauthority of training the militia according to thediscipline prescribed by Congress; To exercise exclusive legislation in all caseswhatsoever, over such District (not exceeding 25
  • 25. The Constitution of the United Statesten miles square) as may, by cession of particularstates, and the acceptance of Congress, becomethe seat of the government of the United States,and to exercise like authority over all places pur-chased by the consent of the legislature of thestate in which the same shall be, for the erectionof forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, andother needful buildings;—and To make all laws which shall be necessary andproper for carrying into execution the foregoingpowers, and all other powers vested by this Con-stitution in the government of the United States,or in any department or officer thereof. Section 9. The migration or importation of such per-sons as any of the states now existing shall thinkproper to admit, shall not be prohibited by theCongress prior to the year one thousand eighthundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be im-posed on such importation, not exceeding tendollars for each person. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpusshall not be suspended, unless when in cases of 26
  • 26. The Constitution of the United Statesrebellion or invasion the public safety may re-quire it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shallbe passed. No capitation, or other direct, tax shall belaid, unless in proportion to the census or enu-meration herein before directed to be taken.(Modified by Amendment XVI.) No tax or duty shall be laid on articles ex-ported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regu-lation of commerce or revenue to the ports ofone state over those of another; nor shall vesselsbound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter,clear, or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the treasury,but in consequence of appropriations made bylaw; and a regular statement and account of thereceipts and expenditures of all public moneyshall be published from time to time. No title of nobility shall be granted by theUnited States: and no person holding any officeof profit or trust under them, shall, without theconsent of the Congress, accept of any present, 27
  • 27. The Constitution of the United Statesemolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever,from any king, prince, or foreign state. Section 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance,or confederation; grant letters of marque and re-prisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in pay-ment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex postfacto law, or law impairing the obligation of con-tracts, or grant any title of nobility. No state shall, without the consent of theCongress, lay any imposts or duties on importsor exports, except what may be absolutely nec-essary for executing its inspection laws: and thenet produce of all duties and imposts, laid by anystate on imports or exports, shall be for the useof the treasury of the United States; and all suchlaws shall be subject to the revision and controlof the Congress. No state shall, without the consent of Con-gress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, orships of war in time of peace, enter into anyagreement or compact with another state, or 28
  • 28. The Constitution of the United Stateswith a foreign power, or engage in war, unlessactually invaded, or in such imminent danger aswill not admit of delay. Article II Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in aPresident of the United States of America. Heshall hold his office during the term of four years,and, together with the Vice President, chosen forthe same term, be elected, as follows: Each state shall appoint, in such manner asthe legislature thereof may direct, a number ofelectors, equal to the whole number of senatorsand representatives to which the state may beentitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Rep-resentative, or person holding an office of trustor profit under the United States, shall be ap-pointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respectivestates, and vote by ballot for two persons, ofwhom one at least shall not be an inhabitant ofthe same state with themselves. And they shall 29
  • 29. The Constitution of the United Statesmake a list of all the persons voted for, and of thenumber of votes for each; which list they shall signand certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of thegovernment of the United States, directed to thePresident of the Senate. The President of the Sen-ate shall, in the presence of the Senate and Houseof Representatives, open all the certificates, andthe votes shall then be counted. The person hav-ing the greatest number of votes shall be thePresident, if such number be a majority of thewhole number of electors appointed; and if therebe more than one who have such majority, andhave an equal number of votes, then the Houseof Representatives shall immediately choose byballot one of them for President; and if no per-son have a majority, then from the five highest onthe list the said House shall in like manner choosethe President. But in choosing the President, thevotes shall be taken by states, the representationfrom each state having one vote; a quorum forthis purpose shall consist of a member or mem-bers from two thirds of the states, and a majorityof all the states shall be necessary to a choice. Inevery case, after the choice of the President, the 30
  • 30. The Constitution of the United Statesperson having the greatest number of votes of theelectors shall be the Vice President. But if thereshould remain two or more who have equal votes,the Senate shall choose from them by ballot theVice President. [The clause in italics was super-seded by Amendment XII.] The Congress may determine the time ofchoosing the electors, and the day on which theyshall give their votes; which day shall be the samethroughout the United States. No person except a natural born citizen, ora citizen of the United States, at the time of theadoption of this constitution, shall be eligible tothe office of President; neither shall any person beeligible to that office who shall not have attainedto the age of thirty five years, and been fourteenyears a resident within the United States. In case of the removal of the President fromoffice, or of his death, resignation, or inability todischarge the powers and duties of the said office,the same shall devolve on the Vice President, andthe Congress may by law provide for the case ofremoval, death, resignation or inability, both ofthe President and Vice President, declaring what 31
  • 31. The Constitution of the United Statesofficer shall then act as President, and such of-ficer shall act accordingly, until the disability beremoved, or a president shall be elected. [Thisclause has been modified by Amendment XXand Amendment XXV.] The President shall, at stated times, receive forhis services, a compensation, which shall neitherbe increased nor diminished during the period forwhich he shall have been elected, and he shall notreceive within that period any other emolumentfrom the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the execution of his office,he shall take the following oath or affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faith-fully execute the office of President of the UnitedStates, and will to the best of my ability, preserve,protect and defend the Constitution of the Unit-ed States.” Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chiefof the Army and Navy of the United States, andof the militia of the several states, when calledinto the actual service of the United States; he 32
  • 32. The Constitution of the United Statesmay require the opinion, in writing, of the princi-pal officer in each of the executive departments,upon any subject relating to the duties of theirrespective offices, and he shall have power togrant reprieves and pardons for offenses againstthe United States, except in cases of impeach-ment. He shall have power, by and with the adviceand consent of the Senate, to make treaties, pro-vided two-thirds of the senators present concur;and he shall nominate, and by and with the adviceand consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambas-sadors, other public ministers and consuls, judgesof the Supreme Court, and all other officers ofthe United States, whose appointments are notherein otherwise provided for, and which shall beestablished by law: but the Congress may by lawvest the appointment of such inferior officers, asthey think proper, in the President alone, in thecourts of law, or in the heads of departments. The President shall have power to fill up allvacancies that may happen during the recess ofthe Senate, by granting commissions which shallexpire at the end of their next session. 33
  • 33. The Constitution of the United States Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Con-gress information of the state of the union, andrecommend to their consideration such mea-sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;he may, on extraordinary occasions, conveneboth Houses, or either of them, and in case ofdisagreement between them, with respect to thetime of adjournment, he may adjourn them tosuch time as he shall think proper; he shall re-ceive ambassadors and other public ministers;he shall take care that the laws be faithfully ex-ecuted, and shall commission all the officers ofthe United States. Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civilofficers of the United States, shall be removedfrom office on impeachment for, and convictionof, treason, bribery, or other high crimes andmisdemeanors. 34
  • 34. The Constitution of the United States Article III Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shallbe vested in one Supreme Court, and in suchinferior courts as the Congress may from timeto time ordain and establish. The judges, both ofthe supreme and inferior courts, shall hold theiroffices during good behavior, and shall, at statedtimes, receive for their services a compensation,which shall not be diminished during their con-tinuance in office. Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases,in law and equity, arising under this Constitu-tion, the laws of the United States, and treatiesmade, or which shall be made, under their au-thority;—to all cases affecting ambassadors,other public ministers and consuls;—to all casesof admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;—to con-troversies to which the United States shall be aparty;—to controversies between two or morestates;— between a state and citizens of anotherstate,—between citizens of different states,—be- 35
  • 35. The Constitution of the United Statestween citizens of the same state claiming landsunder grants of different states, and between astate, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states,citizens or subjects. [This section modified byAmendment XI.] In all cases affecting ambassadors, otherpublic ministers and consuls, and those in whicha state shall be party, the Supreme Court shallhave original jurisdiction. In all the other casesbefore mentioned, the Supreme Court shall haveappellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact,with such exceptions, and under such regula-tions as the congress shall make. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of im-peachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shallbe held in the state where the said crimes shallhave been committed; but when not committedwithin any state, the trial shall be at such place orplaces as the Congress may by law have directed. Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall con-sist only in levying war against them, or in adher-ing to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 36
  • 36. The Constitution of the United StatesNo person shall be convicted of treason unless onthe testimony of two witnesses to the same overtact, or on confession in open court. The Congress shall have power to declare thepunishment of treason, but no attainder of trea-son shall work corruption of blood, or forfeitureexcept during the life of the person attainted. Article IV Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial pro-ceedings of every other state. And the Congressmay by general laws prescribe the manner inwhich such acts, records and proceedings shallbe proved, and the effect thereof. Section 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled toall privileges and immunities of citizens in theseveral states. A person charged in any state with trea-son, felony, or other crime, who shall flee fromjustice, and be found in another state, shall on 37
  • 37. The Constitution of the United Statesdemand of the executive authority of the statefrom which he fled, be delivered up, to be re-moved to the state having jurisdiction of thecrime. No person held to service or labor in onestate, under the laws thereof, escaping into an-other, shall, in consequence of any law or regula-tion therein, be discharged from such service orlabor, but shall be delivered up on claim of theparty to whom such service or labor may be due.[This clause superseded by Amendment XIII.] Section 3. New states may be admitted by the Congressinto this union; but no new state shall be formedor erected within the jurisdiction of any otherstate; nor any state be formed by the junctionof two or more states, or parts of states, withoutthe consent of the legislatures of the states con-cerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have power to disposeof and make all needful rules and regulationsrespecting the territory or other property be-longing to the United States; and nothing in this 38
  • 38. The Constitution of the United Statesconstitution shall be so construed as to prejudiceany claims of the United States, or of any par-ticular state. Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to everystate in this union a republican form of govern-ment, and shall protect each of them against in-vasion; and on application of the legislature, orof the executive (when the legislature cannot beconvened), against domestic violence. Article V The Congress, whenever two-thirds of bothHouses shall deem it necessary, shall proposeamendments to this constitution, or, on the ap-plication of the legislatures of two-thirds of theseveral states, shall call a convention for propos-ing amendments, which, in either case, shall bevalid to all intents and purposes, as part of thisconstitution, when ratified by the legislaturesof three-fourths of the several states, or by con-ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one orthe other mode of ratification may be proposed 39
  • 39. The Constitution of the United Statesby the Congress; provided that no amendmentwhich may be made prior to the year one thou-sand eight hundred and eight shall in any man-ner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninthSection of the first Article; and that no state,without its consent, shall be deprived of its equalsuffrage in the Senate. Article VI All debts contracted and engagements en-tered into, before the adoption of this constitu-tion, shall be as valid against the United Statesunder this constitution, as under the confedera-tion. This constitution, and the laws of the UnitedStates which shall be made in pursuance thereof;and all treaties made, or which shall be made,under the authority of the United States, shall bethe supreme law of the land; and the judges inevery state shall be bound thereby, any thing inthe constitution or laws of any state to the con-trary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before 40
  • 40. The Constitution of the United Statesmentioned, and the members of the several statelegislatures, and all executive and judicial offi-cers, both of the United States and of the severalstates, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, tosupport this constitution; but no religious testshall ever be required as a qualification to anyoffice or public trust under the United States. Article VII The ratification of the conventions of ninestates, shall be sufficient for the establishment ofthis constitution between the states so ratifyingthe same. Done in convention by the unanimous con-sent of the states present the seventeenth day ofSeptember in the year of our Lord one thousandseven hundred and eighty-seven and of the in-dependence of the United States of America thetwelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto sub-scribed our names, 41
  • 41. The Constitution of the United States George Washington President and deputy from VirginiaDelaware South CarolinaGeorge Read John RutledgeGunning Bedford, Jr. Charles CotesworthJohn Dickinson PinckneyRichard Bassett Charles PinckneyJacob Broom Pierce ButlerMaryland GeorgiaJames McHenry William FewDaniel of Abraham Baldwin St. Thomas Jenifer New HampshireDaniel Carroll John LangdonVirginia Nicholas GilmanJohn Blair MassachusettsJames Madison, Jr. Nathaniel GorhamNorth Carolina Rufus KingWilliam Blount ConnecticutRichard Dobbs Spaight William Samuel JohnsonHugh Williamson Roger Sherman 42
  • 42. The Constitution of the United StatesNew Jersey PennsylvaniaWilliam Livingston Benjamin FranklinDavid Brearley Thomas MifflinWilliam Paterson Robert MorrisJonathan Dayton George ClymerNew York Thomas FitzSimonsAlexander Hamilton Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris Attest: William Jackson, Secretary. 43
  • 43. The Amendments to the U.S. Constitution S The Bill of Rights The PreambleCongress of the United States begun and held atthe city of New York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine.T HE conventions of a number of the states, having at the time of their adopting theConstitution, expressed a desire, in order toprevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers,that further declaratory and restrictive clausesshould be added: and as extending the groundof public confidence in the government, will bestensure the beneficent ends of its institution. Resolved by the Senate and House of Rep-resentatives of the United States of America, inCongress assembled, two thirds of both Houses 45
  • 44. The Bill of Rightsconcurring, that the following articles be pro-posed to the legislatures of the several states, asamendments to the Constitution of the UnitedStates, all, or any of which articles, when rati-fied by three fourths of the said legislatures, tobe valid to all intents and purposes, as part of thesaid Constitution; viz. Articles in addition to, and amendment ofthe Constitution of the United States of Amer-ica, proposed by Congress, and ratified by thelegislatures of the several states, pursuant to thefifth Article of the original Constitution. Amendment ICongress shall make no law respecting an estab-lishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer-cise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,or of the press; or the right of the people peace-ably to assemble, and to petition the governmentfor a redress of grievances. Amendment IIA well regulated militia, being necessary to thesecurity of a free state, the right of the people to 46
  • 45. The Bill of Rightskeep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment IIINo soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered inany house, without the consent of the owner, norin time of war, but in a manner to be prescribedby law. Amendment IVThe right of the people to be secure in their per-sons, houses, papers, and effects, against un-reasonable searches and seizures, shall not beviolated, and no warrants shall issue, but uponprobable cause, supported by oath or affirma-tion, and particularly describing the place to besearched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment VNo person shall be held to answer for a capital,or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a pre-sentment or indictment of a grand jury, exceptin cases arising in the land or naval forces, or inthe militia, when in actual service in time of war 47
  • 46. The Bill of Rightsor public danger; nor shall any person be subjectfor the same offense to be twice put in jeopar-dy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in anycriminal case to be a witness against himself, norbe deprived of life, liberty, or property, withoutdue process of law; nor shall private property betaken for public use, without just compensation. Amendment VIIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shallenjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by animpartial jury of the state and district whereinthe crime shall have been committed, which dis-trict shall have been previously ascertained bylaw, and to be informed of the nature and causeof the accusation; to be confronted with the wit-nesses against him; to have compulsory processfor obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to havethe assistance of counsel for his defence. Amendment VII In suits at common law, where the value incontroversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the rightof trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 48
  • 47. The Bill of Rightstried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined inany court of the United States, than according tothe rules of the common law. Amendment VIIIExcessive bail shall not be required, nor exces-sive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual pun-ishments inflicted. Amendment IXThe enumeration in the Constitution, of certainrights, shall not be construed to deny or dispar-age others retained by the people. Amendment XThe powers not delegated to the United Statesby the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to thestates, are reserved to the states respectively, orto the people. 49
  • 48. Amendments 11–27 to the U.S. Constitution S Amendment XI Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.NOTE: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modi-fied by the 11th amendment.The judicial power of the United States shall notbe construed to extend to any suit in law or equi-ty, commenced or prosecuted against one of theUnited States by citizens of another State, or bycitizens or subjects of any foreign state. Amendment XII Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.NOTE: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitutionwas superseded by the 12th amendment. The electors shall meet in their respectivestates and vote by ballot for President and Vice 51
  • 49. The Amendments to the ConstitutionPresident, one of whom, at least, shall not be aninhabitant of the same state with themselves; theyshall name in their ballots the person voted for asPresident, and in distinct ballots the person votedfor as Vice President, and they shall make distinctlists of all persons voted for as President, and ofall persons voted for as Vice President, and of thenumber of votes for each, which lists they shallsign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seatof the government of the United States, directedto the President of the Senate;—the President ofthe Senate shall, in the presence of the Senateand House of Representatives, open all the cer-tificates and the votes shall then be counted. Theperson having the greatest number of votes forPresident, shall be the President, if such numberbe a majority of the whole number of electors ap-pointed; and if no person have such majority, thenfrom the persons having the highest numbers notexceeding three on the list of those voted for asPresident, the House of Representatives shallchoose immediately, by ballot, the President. Butin choosing the President, the votes shall be takenby states, the representation from each state hav- 52
  • 50. The Amendments to the Constitutioning one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall con-sist of a member or members from two-thirds ofthe states, and a majority of all the states shall benecessary to a choice. And if the House of Repre-sentatives shall not choose a President wheneverthe right of choice shall devolve upon them, beforethe fourth day of March next following, then theVice President shall act as President, as in case theof the death or other constitutional disability of thePresident. [The previous sentence was superseded bysection 3 of the 20th amendment.] The person hav-ing the greatest number of votes as Vice Presi-dent, shall be the Vice President, if such numberbe a majority of the whole number of electors ap-pointed, and if no person have a majority, thenfrom the two highest numbers on the list, theSenate shall choose the Vice President; a quorumfor the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of thewhole number of senators, and a majority of thewhole number shall be necessary to a choice. Butno person constitutionally ineligible to the officeof President shall be eligible to that of Vice Presi-dent of the United States. 53
  • 51. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XIII Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.NOTE: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitu-tion was superseded by the 13th amendment.Section 1: Neither slavery nor involuntary ser-vitude, except as a punishment for crime where-of the party shall have been duly convicted, shallexist within the United States, or any place sub-ject to their jurisdiction.Section 2: Congress shall have power to en-force this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868NOTE: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modi-fied by section 2 of the 14th amendment.Section 1: All persons born or naturalized inthe United States, and subject to the jurisdic-tion thereof, are citizens of the United States andof the state wherein they reside. No state shallmake or enforce any law which shall abridge the 54
  • 52. The Amendments to the Constitutionprivileges or immunities of citizens of the UnitedStates; nor shall any state deprive any person oflife, liberty, or property, without due process oflaw; nor deny to any person within its jurisdic-tion the equal protection of the laws.Section 2: Representatives shall be appor-tioned among the several States according totheir respective numbers, counting the wholenumber of persons in each State, excluding Indi-ans not taxed. But when the right to vote at anyelection for the choice of electors for Presidentand Vice President of the United States, Repre-sentatives in Congress, the executive and judicialofficers of a state, or the members of the legisla-ture thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabit-ants of such state, being twenty-one years of age,[The 26th amendment lowered the voting age to eigh-teen.] and citizens of the United States, or in anyway abridged, except for participation in rebel-lion, or other crime, the basis of representationtherein shall be reduced in the proportion whichthe number of such male citizens shall bear to thewhole number of male citizens twenty-one years 55
  • 53. The Amendments to the Constitutionof age in such state. [Words in italics were altered bythe 19th and 26th amendments.]Section 3: No person shall be a Senator orRepresentative in Congress, or Elector of Presi-dent and Vice President, or hold any office, civilor military, under the United States, or underany state, who, having previously taken an oath,as a member of Congress, or as an officer ofthe United States, or as a member of any statelegislature, or as an executive or judicial officerof any state, to support the Constitution of theUnited States, shall have engaged in insurrec-tion or rebellion against the same, or given aidor comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congressmay by a vote of two-thirds of each House, re-move such disability.Section 4: The validity of the public debt of theUnited States, authorized by law, including debtsincurred for payment of pensions and bountiesfor services in suppressing insurrection or re-bellion, shall not be questioned. But neither theUnited States nor any state shall assume or payany debt or obligation incurred in aid of insur- 56
  • 54. The Amendments to the Constitutionrection or rebellion against the United States,or any claim for the loss or emancipation of anyslave; but all such debts, obligations and claimsshall be held illegal and void.Section 5: The Congress shall have the powerto enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provi-sions of this article. Amendment XV Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.Section 1: The right of citizens of the UnitedStates to vote shall not be denied or abridgedby the United States or by any State on ac-count of race, color, or previous condition ofservitude.Section 2: The Congress shall have the powerto enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 57
  • 55. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XVI Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.NOTE: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modi-fied by the 16th amendment.The Congress shall have power to lay and col-lect taxes on incomes, from whatever source de-rived, without apportionment among the severalstates, and without regard to any census or enu-meration. Amendment XVII Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.NOTE: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modi-fied by the 17th amendment.The Senate of the United States shall be com-posed of two senators from each state, elected bythe people thereof, for six years; and each sena-tor shall have one vote. The electors in each stateshall have the qualifications requisite for electorsof the most numerous branch of the state legis-latures. 58
  • 56. The Amendments to the Constitution When vacancies happen in the representa-tion of any state in the Senate, the executive au-thority of such state shall issue writs of electionto fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legis-lature of any state may empower the executivethereof to make temporary appointments untilthe people fill the vacancies by election as thelegislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construedas to affect the election or term of any senatorchosen before it becomes valid as part of theConstitution. Amendment XVIII Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919.NOTE: Repealed by the 21st amendment.Section 1: After one year from the ratificationof this article the manufacture, sale, or trans-portation of intoxicating liquors within, theimportation thereof into, or the exportationthereof from the United States and all territorysubject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage 59
  • 57. The Amendments to the Constitutionpurposes is hereby prohibited.Section 2: The Congress and the several statesshall have concurrent power to enforce this ar-ticle by appropriate legislation.Section 3: This article shall be inoperative un-less it shall have been ratified as an amendmentto the Constitution by the legislatures of the sev-eral states, as provided in the Constitution, withinseven years from the date of the submission here-of to the states by the Congress. Amendment XIX Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.The right of citizens of the United States to voteshall not be denied or abridged by the UnitedStates or by any state on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this ar-ticle by appropriate legislation. 60
  • 58. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XX Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.NOTE: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modi-fied by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portionof the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.Section 1: The terms of the President and theVice President shall end at noon on the 20th dayof January, and the terms of Senators and Rep-resentatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, ofthe years in which such terms would have endedif this article had not been ratified; and the termsof their successors shall then begin.Section 2: The Congress shall assemble at leastonce in every year, and such meeting shall be-gin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless theyshall by law appoint a different day.Section 3: If, at the time fixed for the begin-ning of the term of the President, the Presidentelect shall have died, the Vice President electshall become President. If a President shall nothave been chosen before the time fixed for thebeginning of his term, or if the President elect 61
  • 59. The Amendments to the Constitutionshall have failed to qualify, then the Vice Presi-dent elect shall act as President until a Presi-dent shall have qualified; and the Congress mayby law provide for the case wherein neither aPresident elect nor a Vice President shall havequalified, declaring who shall then act as Presi-dent, or the manner in which one who is to actshall be selected, and such person shall act ac-cordingly until a President or Vice Presidentshall have qualified.Section 4: The Congress may by law providefor the case of the death of any of the personsfrom whom the House of Representatives maychoose a President whenever the right of choiceshall have devolved upon them, and for the caseof the death of any of the persons from whomthe Senate may choose a Vice President when-ever the right of choice shall have devolved uponthem.Section 5: Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect onthe 15th day of October following the ratificationof this article.Section 6: This article shall be inoperative un- 62
  • 60. The Amendments to the Constitutionless it shall have been ratified as an amendmentto the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven yearsfrom the date of its submission. Amendment XXI Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.Section 1: The eighteenth article of amend-ment to the Constitution of the United States ishereby repealed.Section 2: The transportation or importationinto any state, territory, or possession of theUnited States for delivery or use therein of intox-icating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, ishereby prohibited.Section 3: This article shall be inoperative un-less it shall have been ratified as an amendmentto the Constitution by conventions in the severalstates, as provided in the Constitution, withinseven years from the date of the submissionhereof to the states by the Congress. 63
  • 61. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XXII Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.Section 1: No person shall be elected to theoffice of the President more than twice, and noperson who has held the office of President, oracted as President, for more than two years ofa term to which some other person was electedPresident shall be elected to the office of Presi-dent more than once. But this article shall notapply to any person holding the office of Presi-dent when this article was proposed by Con-gress, and shall not prevent any person who maybe holding the office of President, or acting asPresident, during the term within which this ar-ticle becomes operative from holding the officeof President or acting as President during the re-mainder of such term.Section 2: This article shall be inoperative unlessit shall have been ratified as an amendment to theConstitution by the legislatures of three-fourths ofthe several states within seven years from the dateof its submission to the states by the Congress. 64
  • 62. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XXIII Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.Section 1: The District constituting the seat ofgovernment of the United States shall appoint insuch manner as Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and VicePresident equal to the whole number of senatorsand representatives in Congress to which theDistrict would be entitled if it were a state, butin no event more than the least populous state;they shall be in addition to those appointed bythe states, but they shall be considered, for thepurposes of the election of President and VicePresident, to be electors appointed by a state;and they shall meet in the District and performsuch duties as provided by the twelfth article ofamendment.Section 2: The Congress shall have power toenforce this article by appropriate legislation. 65
  • 63. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XXIV Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23,1964.Section 1: The right of citizens of the UnitedStates to vote in any primary or other electionfor President or Vice President, for Electors forPresident or Vice President, or for Senator orRepresentative in Congress, shall not be deniedor abridged by the United States or any State byreason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.Section 2: The Congress shall have power toenforce this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XXV Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.NOTE: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was af-fected by the 25th amendment.Section 1: In case of the removal of the Presi-dent from office or of his death or resignation,the Vice President shall become President.Section 2: Whenever there is a vacancy in theoffice of the Vice President, the President shall 66
  • 64. The Amendments to the Constitutionnominate a Vice President who shall take officeupon confirmation by a majority vote of bothHouses of Congress.Section 3: Whenever the President transmitsto the President pro tempore of the Senate andthe Speaker of the House of Representativeshis written declaration that he is unable to dis-charge the powers and duties of his office, anduntil he transmits to them a written declarationto the contrary, such powers and duties shallbe discharged by the Vice President as actingPresident.Section 4: Whenever the Vice President and amajority of either the principal officers of the ex-ecutive departments or of such other body as Con-gress may by law provide, transmit to the Presi-dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker ofthe House of Representatives their written decla-ration that the President is unable to discharge thepowers and duties of his office, the Vice Presidentshall immediately assume the powers and dutiesof the office as acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to 67
  • 65. The Amendments to the Constitutionthe President pro tempore of the Senate and theSpeaker of the House of Representatives his writ-ten declaration that no inability exists, he shallresume the powers and duties of his office unlessthe Vice President and a majority of either theprincipal officers of the executive department orof such other body as Congress may by law pro-vide, transmit within four days to the Presidentpro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of theHouse of Representatives their written declara-tion that the President is unable to discharge thepowers and duties of his office. Thereupon Con-gress shall decide the issue, assembling withinforty-eight hours for that purpose if not in ses-sion. If the Congress, within twenty-one daysafter receipt of the latter written declaration, or,if Congress is not in session, within twenty-onedays after Congress is required to assemble, de-termines by two-thirds vote of both Houses thatthe President is unable to discharge the powersand duties of his office, the Vice President shallcontinue to discharge the same as acting Presi-dent; otherwise, the President shall resume thepowers and duties of his office. 68
  • 66. The Amendments to the Constitution Amendment XXVI Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.NOTE: The 14th amendment, section 2, of the Constitu-tion was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.Section 1: The right of citizens of the UnitedStates, who are eighteen years of age or older, tovote shall not be denied or abridged by the Unit-ed States or by any state on account of age.Section 2: The Congress shall have power toenforce this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XXVII Originally proposed September 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.No law, varying the compensation for the servic-es of the senators and representatives, shall takeeffect, until an election of representatives shallhave intervened. 69