Raise A Grade Session Settlement


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Raise A Grade Session Settlement

  1. 1. Geography Raise a Grade session: Settlement
  2. 2. Reasons for Growth <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Defence </li></ul><ul><li>Routeways </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Railway towns </li></ul><ul><li>Ports </li></ul><ul><li>Market centres </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing centres </li></ul><ul><li>Resorts and spas </li></ul><ul><li>Educational centres </li></ul><ul><li>Religious centres </li></ul><ul><li>Planned towns </li></ul>
  3. 3. Models – The Burgess Model 1920s – based on Chicago CBD Inner City Inner Suburbs Outer Suburbs
  4. 4. The Hoyt Model <ul><li>1939 – Improved version of Burgess Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on 142 cities in USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Still not a perfect model, but takes into account lines of growth. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology CBD - Core – focus for transport. - Expensive – lack of space (built up) - Low residential population. - Accessibility issue Inner City – Mixed land use. - Small industries. - Can become run down (urban renewal) Inner Suburbs – Housing (1900s) - Terraced (yards, no parking) - Corner shops, parallel roads. Outer Suburbs – Housing (1930s +) - Semi-detached, gardens, off-street parking. - Council estates. - Retail parks. Commuter Zones – Countryside.
  6. 6. Changes… CBD - Lack of accessibility. Inner City – Redevelopment/regeneration. Brownfield. Inner Suburbs – Redevelopment. Outer Suburbs – Retail parks. Commuter Zones – In-migration. Reasons for changes… <ul><li>Transport influence (cars vs public transport): </li></ul><ul><li>Location of industry (move from inner city to outer suburbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Retail (move from CBD to outer suburbs) </li></ul>
  7. 7. UK Case Study: Birmingham
  8. 8. UK Case Study: Birmingham <ul><li>Generally regarded as the second city (London, Manchester and Birmingham have highest populations. </li></ul><ul><li>3 universities, 8 colleges, 457 schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Central location – roads, railways and coaches. </li></ul><ul><li>80 minutes from London via train. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Traffic: </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion, pollution, centre – pedestrianised. </li></ul><ul><li>M6 – Northbound. 60km tailbacks common (relief road) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: </li></ul><ul><li>Important in the industrial revolution. Cadburys, Rover. </li></ul><ul><li>Some traditional industries remain. </li></ul><ul><li>Science and business parks growing. </li></ul><ul><li>Business: </li></ul><ul><li>International Convention Centre (1991). NEC. National Outdoor Arena. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: </li></ul><ul><li>Declining by 9% per decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of suburbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants from 50s – one of most significant ethnic minorities in UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Changing image from dirty and industrial to progressive, innovative and forward-thinking. </li></ul>
  10. 10. UK - Bristol
  11. 11. UK - Winchcombe
  12. 12. UK - Winchcombe <ul><li>1997 survey – half people moved into area in last 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>This increased house prices resulting in a lack of affordable housing. </li></ul><ul><li>53,000 more houses needed by 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are made on different levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National – Government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Council – Gloucestershire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District Council – Tewkesbury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local people. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. UK - Cambridge
  14. 14. UK - Cambridge <ul><li>Boom area at the end of the 19 th Century. </li></ul><ul><li>Wages high – skills shortage. </li></ul><ul><li>Move towards commuting = congestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport unable to cope. </li></ul><ul><li>Many functions – university and tourism. </li></ul>
  15. 15. EU – Randstad (Holland)
  16. 16. EU – Randstad (Holland) <ul><li>Ring of cities in the Netherlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce/industry/finance/government/culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues – housing in cities, land shortage, congestion and pollution, growth over green belt. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions – brownfield infill, improve transport, green buffer zones, renovation, preservation. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LEDCs Mexico City, Mexico. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  18. 18. LEDCs <ul><li>Barra – new town on outskirts of Rio. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage rural-urban migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Build satellite towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pollution (fines etc.) </li></ul>Solutions <ul><li>Housing – population growth + shanty towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport congestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime – street children. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution – traffic + waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry – 65% earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Environment – old cars etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Housing – high BR, falling DR. Shanty towns. </li></ul>Issues Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Mexico City (Mexico)
  19. 19. Past Paper question May 2000
  20. 20. Past Paper question May 2000 <ul><li>Foundation Tier </li></ul><ul><li>State 2 differences between villages A and B (2) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Which village is more likely to have had an increase population in recent years? </li></ul><ul><li>ii) What evidence did you use to reach your answer? (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest 2 reasons why one village has grown more than the other. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how services in villages A and B may have changed over the last 20 years. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>i) name and locate a town or city you have studied. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Describe how changes other than housing are taking place at the edge of the town or city. </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Suggest how these changes are affecting people’s lives. (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Tier </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the two villages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggest, with 2 pieces of evidence from the photograph, which of the two villages has grown in recent years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggest 2 reasons why villages like these grow at different rates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of using air photographs to study settlement change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For a named settlement you have studied, explain the issues and conflicts arising from changes at the edge of the settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>(8) </li></ul>