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  • This famous painting of the signing <br /> of the Constitution on September 17, <br /> 1787, was commissioned by Congress <br /> and completed by Howard Chandler <br /> Christy in 1940. It is a 20 3 30-foot <br /> oil on canvas and hangs in the U.S. <br /> Capitol. (Only part of the painting is <br /> shown here.) <br />
  • General George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette visit suffering soldiers in <br /> the encampment of the Continental Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, during the <br /> winter of 1777–1778. Congress’s inability to provision the army with adequate food <br /> and clothing undermined the war effort. <br />
  • On January 25, 1787, Daniel Shays and his rebels attacked the armory at <br /> Springfield, Massachusetts, which was successfully defended by local militia. <br /> This violent effort to undermine lawful authority prepared the public mind for <br /> a stronger national government. <br />
  • FIGURE 2-1 The United States was the first constitutional democracy. In most of the world at the time, the people had little say in how <br /> they were governed. <br />
  • The Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House, later renamed <br /> Independence Hall, is where the Second Continental Congress debated and <br /> approved the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, and where the <br /> Constitutional Convention fashioned the Constitution in the summer of 1787. <br />
  • Sometimes called the “Father of the Constitution,” James Madison <br /> of Virginia is more responsible than any other single person for <br /> replacing the defective Articles of Confederation with a more <br /> powerful and effective national government. His efforts were vital <br /> to the calling of the Convention, to the drafting of the Constitution <br /> at Philadelphia, to the success of the ratification contest, and to the <br /> addition of a sound Bill of Rights. <br />
  • Alexander Hamilton, a brilliant 32-year-old lawyer and former aide <br /> to General Washington in the Revolutionary War, gave a famous <br /> speech at the Constitutional Convention on June 18 calling for <br /> a central government even stronger than that proposed in the <br /> Virginia Plan. Later, he worked tirelessly to secure ratification by <br /> New York by writing most of the Federalist essays and leading the <br /> pro-Constitution forces in the state ratifying convention. <br />
  • James Wilson of Pennsylvania, an eminent expert on law, was <br /> a signer of the Declaration of Independence, highly influential <br /> member of the Constitutional Convention (perhaps second only to <br /> Madison in importance), and one of the six original members of the <br /> U.S. Supreme Court. He became the nation’s second professor of <br /> law at an academic institution. <br />
  • Although not well known to modern Americans, Gouverneur Morris <br /> of New York and Pennsylvania was one of the most influential <br /> members of the Constitutional Convention. He gave the most <br /> speeches, was a vigorous proponent of a strong national executive <br /> power, and as a member of the Committee of Style was responsible <br /> for giving the final form and polish to the Constitution. He is <br /> credited with drafting the Constitution’s now famous Preamble. <br />
  • The British House of Commons wields the effective lawmaking power in the British <br /> Parliament, with the House of Lords limited to advising and proposing amendments to <br /> legislation. In the House of Commons, the opposition parties sit facing each other, with their <br /> leaders in the front row. Nonleaders are called “backbenchers.” <br />
  • This is the chair in which George <br /> Washington sat while presiding over the <br /> Constitutional Convention. <br />
  • This is how the famous Federalist 10 essay appeared in the New <br /> York Daily Advertiser on November 22, 1787. <br />
  • FIGURE 2-2 Of the four possible ways to amend the Constitution, two have never <br /> been used, and another has been used only once. Under the Constitution, Congress <br /> decides on the method of ratification. <br />
  • This newspaper advertisement for newly arrived slaves from Africa <br /> appeared in the South Carolina Gazette in the 1740s. <br />

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