Published on

Published in: News & Politics
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Chapter Nine Interest Groups American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
  2. 2. Chapter Nine: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define what interest groups are </li></ul><ul><li>Explain different ways by which they take form and sustain themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish economic and policy groups, and discuss their role in deliberative democracy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Nine: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify ways in which interest groups attempt to influence public policy </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze potential tensions between citizenship and interest group politics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Are there differences between special interests and interest groups? </li></ul><ul><li>What roles do interest groups play in a deliberative democracy? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Creating and Sustaining Interest Groups <ul><li>Why do interest groups form? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic changes </li></ul><ul><li>Social changes </li></ul><ul><li>Political changes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Creating and Sustaining Interest Groups <ul><li>The free rider problem is one barrier to group formation. One way groups overcome the free rider problem is by offering selective incentives . </li></ul><ul><li>What are some selective incentives groups may offer to gain members? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>Lincoln and special interests </li></ul><ul><li>Both conservative and liberal interest groups have claimed Abraham Lincoln would have supported their causes based on quotes mistakenly attributed to Lincoln. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economic Interests <ul><li>Types of economic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Business firms </li></ul><ul><li>Trade and professional associations </li></ul><ul><li>Organized labor </li></ul>
  9. 9. International Perspectives <ul><li>Union membership </li></ul><ul><li>The labor movement has been weaker in the United States as compared to other developed nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you believe the labor movement has been weak in America? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Policy Groups <ul><li>Policy groups are different than economic groups. They are sometimes called ideological interest groups or public interest groups . </li></ul><ul><li>How are policy groups different from economic groups? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Policy Groups <ul><li>Types of policy groups </li></ul><ul><li>501 (c)(3) groups </li></ul><ul><li>Political action committees </li></ul><ul><li>Section 527 groups </li></ul>
  12. 12. Membership and Funding <ul><li>Interest groups have, in the past, focused on grassroots organization in order to grow, but group formation is changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, many groups have formed through soliciting money from foundations or individuals. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Policy Groups and Political Controversies <ul><li>Some of the most well-known policy groups focus on controversial issues such as firearms policy, abortion policy, civil rights, and civil liberties. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and economic groups are just one way citizens may participate in deliberation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Methods of Influence <ul><li>How do interest groups try to achieve their political goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the techniques of influence used by interest groups contribute to deliberative democracy? How? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Methods of Influence <ul><li>Methods of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Direct lobbying </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots, air wars and grasstops </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign finance </li></ul>
  16. 16. Methods of Influence <ul><li>Methods of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign finance </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropy </li></ul><ul><li>Legal action </li></ul>
  17. 17. Methods of Influence <ul><li>Methods of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Protest </li></ul>Courtesy of Students for a Free Tibet;
  18. 18. Methods of Influence: Direct Lobbying <ul><li>Direct lobbying </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between in-house and contract lobbyists ? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the revolving door concept </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>Code of ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The American League of Lobbyists adopted a code of ethics in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe it is important for lobbyists to abide by the code? Why? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Methods of Influence: Grassroots, Air Wars, and Grasstops <ul><li>Grassroots, air wars, and grasstops </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between grassroots and grasstops lobbying? </li></ul><ul><li>What are air wars ? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods of Influence: Campaign Finance <ul><li>Campaign finance </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between a connected PAC and a nonconnected PAC ? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain bundling and why groups do it </li></ul><ul><li>What were problems with soft money ? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Methods of Influence: Philanthropy and Legal Action <ul><li>Philanthropy </li></ul><ul><li>Why would an interest group participate in philanthropic activities? </li></ul><ul><li>Legal action </li></ul><ul><li>What are amicus curiae briefs? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of Influence: Protest <ul><li>Protest </li></ul><ul><li>Do protests contribute to deliberative democracy in a positive or negative way? Explain. </li></ul>Joe Raedle/Getty Images News/Getty Images
  24. 24. Interest Groups and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>Foreign governments have hired lobbyists to influence American policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Does lobbying by foreign governments undermine the idea that a purpose of deliberative democracy is to serve the common interests of Americans? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Interest Groups and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>What do critics of interest groups have to say about interest group activity and deliberative democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>What do supporters of interest groups have to say about interest group activity and deliberative democracy? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Students as interest groups </li></ul><ul><li>Students are affected by many policy issues and have been involved in interest group activity, especially related to education policy. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Summary <ul><li>Interest groups try to influence policy </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of groups – economic and policy </li></ul><ul><li>Groups use many techniques of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Debates continue about role of groups in a deliberative democracy </li></ul>