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  • 1. Chapter Nine Interest Groups American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
  • 2. Chapter Nine: Learning Objectives
    • Define what interest groups are
    • Explain different ways by which they take form and sustain themselves
    • Distinguish economic and policy groups, and discuss their role in deliberative democracy
  • 3. Chapter Nine: Learning Objectives
    • Identify ways in which interest groups attempt to influence public policy
    • Analyze potential tensions between citizenship and interest group politics
  • 4. Introduction
    • Are there differences between special interests and interest groups?
    • What roles do interest groups play in a deliberative democracy?
  • 5. Creating and Sustaining Interest Groups
    • Why do interest groups form?
    • Economic changes
    • Social changes
    • Political changes
  • 6. Creating and Sustaining Interest Groups
    • The free rider problem is one barrier to group formation. One way groups overcome the free rider problem is by offering selective incentives .
    • What are some selective incentives groups may offer to gain members?
  • 7. Myths and Misinformation
    • Lincoln and special interests
    • Both conservative and liberal interest groups have claimed Abraham Lincoln would have supported their causes based on quotes mistakenly attributed to Lincoln.
  • 8. Economic Interests
    • Types of economic groups
    • Business firms
    • Trade and professional associations
    • Organized labor
  • 9. International Perspectives
    • Union membership
    • The labor movement has been weaker in the United States as compared to other developed nations.
    • Why do you believe the labor movement has been weak in America?
  • 10. Policy Groups
    • Policy groups are different than economic groups. They are sometimes called ideological interest groups or public interest groups .
    • How are policy groups different from economic groups?
  • 11. Policy Groups
    • Types of policy groups
    • 501 (c)(3) groups
    • Political action committees
    • Section 527 groups
  • 12. Membership and Funding
    • Interest groups have, in the past, focused on grassroots organization in order to grow, but group formation is changing.
    • Today, many groups have formed through soliciting money from foundations or individuals.
  • 13. Policy Groups and Political Controversies
    • Some of the most well-known policy groups focus on controversial issues such as firearms policy, abortion policy, civil rights, and civil liberties.
    • Policy and economic groups are just one way citizens may participate in deliberation.
  • 14. Methods of Influence
    • How do interest groups try to achieve their political goals?
    • Do the techniques of influence used by interest groups contribute to deliberative democracy? How?
  • 15. Methods of Influence
    • Methods of influence
    • Direct lobbying
    • Grassroots, air wars and grasstops
    • Campaign finance
  • 16. Methods of Influence
    • Methods of influence
    • Campaign finance
    • Philanthropy
    • Legal action
  • 17. Methods of Influence
    • Methods of influence
    • Protest
    Courtesy of Students for a Free Tibet;
  • 18. Methods of Influence: Direct Lobbying
    • Direct lobbying
    • What are the differences between in-house and contract lobbyists ?
    • Explain the revolving door concept
  • 19. Pledges and Promises
    • Code of ethics
    • The American League of Lobbyists adopted a code of ethics in 2003.
    • Do you believe it is important for lobbyists to abide by the code? Why?
  • 20. Methods of Influence: Grassroots, Air Wars, and Grasstops
    • Grassroots, air wars, and grasstops
    • What are the differences between grassroots and grasstops lobbying?
    • What are air wars ?
  • 21. Methods of Influence: Campaign Finance
    • Campaign finance
    • What are the differences between a connected PAC and a nonconnected PAC ?
    • Explain bundling and why groups do it
    • What were problems with soft money ?
  • 22. Methods of Influence: Philanthropy and Legal Action
    • Philanthropy
    • Why would an interest group participate in philanthropic activities?
    • Legal action
    • What are amicus curiae briefs?
  • 23. Methods of Influence: Protest
    • Protest
    • Do protests contribute to deliberative democracy in a positive or negative way? Explain.
    Joe Raedle/Getty Images News/Getty Images
  • 24. Interest Groups and Deliberative Democracy
    • Foreign governments have hired lobbyists to influence American policy.
    • Does lobbying by foreign governments undermine the idea that a purpose of deliberative democracy is to serve the common interests of Americans?
  • 25. Interest Groups and Deliberative Democracy
    • What do critics of interest groups have to say about interest group activity and deliberative democracy?
    • What do supporters of interest groups have to say about interest group activity and deliberative democracy?
  • 26. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
    • Students as interest groups
    • Students are affected by many policy issues and have been involved in interest group activity, especially related to education policy.
  • 27. Summary
    • Interest groups try to influence policy
    • Two categories of groups – economic and policy
    • Groups use many techniques of influence
    • Debates continue about role of groups in a deliberative democracy