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    Chapter8 Chapter8 Presentation Transcript

    • American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Eight Public Opinion and Political Participation
    • Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives
      • Define the concept of public opinion and tell how researchers measure it
      • Discuss the distinction between short-term reactions to issues and more deliberative opinions
    • Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives
      • Explain the core beliefs that separate different ideologies in the United States
      • Identify the major influences on public opinion about politics
    • Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives
      • Name different forms of political participation and analyze how they contribute to deliberation
      • Understand inequalities in political participation
    • Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives
      • Discuss political participation as a responsibility of citizenship
      AP Photo/Jeff Roberson
    • Introduction
      • What is public opinion?
      • What are some ways for Americans to make their opinions about politics known?
    • Measuring Opinion: Polls and Respondents
      • Public opinion polls (or surveys) are one way to measure public opinion.
      • It is not feasible to speak with every person in a population, so public opinion polls are often based on a random sample .
    • Measuring Opinion: Questions
      • Do you believe the way a question is worded may make a difference in the response given?
      • Those who create public opinion polls must be aware of the way they word the questions as well as question order as both may affect responses.
    • Types of Polls
      • Types of polls include
      • Tracking polls
      • Exit polls
      • What are the differences between tracking and exit polls?
    • Problems with Polls
      • What are some potential problems with public opinion polls?
      • What can researchers do to prevent or overcome problems with public opinion polls?
    • Knowledge and Deliberative Opinion
      • How can political leaders understand and distinguish between fleeting opinions and lasting judgments?
      • What are some consequences for political leaders if they do not fully understand the differences between fleeting opinions and lasting judgments?
    • Knowledge and Deliberative Opinion: Politicians and Deliberative Opinion
      • Two ways elected officials use public opinion
      • Consider merits of issues, not just poll numbers
      • Understand that public opinion has nuances
    • Pledges and Promises
      • The pledge paradox
      • Americans typically do not trust promises from politicians.
      • The gap between what we expect politicians to do and what they actually do is called the pledge paradox .
    • Deliberation and Ideology
      • What is political ideology?
      • What beliefs separate the different political ideologies in America?
    • Deliberation and Ideology
      • Political ideologies in America
      • Liberals
      • Conservatives
      • Libertarians
      • Populists
    • Deliberation and Ideology
      • In order to better understand the different ideologies, it is useful to consider their positions on three issues
      • Economics
      • Social issues
      • International relations
    • Deliberation and Ideology: Liberals
      • Economics
      • Favor policies that reduce economic inequality
      • Social issues
      • Focus on individual choice
      • International relations
      • Emphasis on diplomacy
    • Deliberation and Ideology: Conservatives
      • Economics
      • Want less government power in economy
      • Social issues
      • Government to promote traditional behavior
      • International relations
      • More willing to assert national power
    • Deliberation and Ideology: Libertarians
      • On economic issues, libertarians usually agree with conservatives and want to cut taxes and reduce government spending.
      • On social issues, libertarians usually agree with liberals and oppose government intervention in social policy.
    • Deliberation and Ideology: Populists
      • On both economic and social issues, populists usually favor strong government intervention.
      • Libertarianism and populism have not found a firm base in American politics.
    • International Perspectives
      • The political spectrum
      • Many other democracies have more diverse ideologies, but that may be changing.
      • Why have American ideological beliefs been exceptional?
    • What Influences Our Opinions About Politics?
      • What influences your opinions about politics?
      Carlos Barria/Reuters/Landov John Gress/Reuters /Landov
    • What Influences Our Opinions About Politics? Political Socialization
      • Agents of political socialization
      • Family
      • Education
      • Life changes (marriage, career, peer groups)
      • Historical events
    • What Influences Our Opinions About Politics? Political Persuasion
      • Do you practice selective exposure ?
      • Aristotle’s three methods of persuasion
      • Ethos
      • Pathos
      • Logos
    • Opinions in Action
      • How does participation in politics foster deliberation?
      • Does political participation matter? Why or why not?
      • How do you participate in politics?
    • Opinions in Action: Types of Participation
      • What are different types of participation?
      • Talking about politics
      • Supporting a political campaign
      • Using the Internet to support a campaign or contact elected officials
    • Opinions in Action: Types of Participation
    • Myths and Misinformation
      • Internet petitions
      • Many internet petitions have been hoaxes.
      • Politicians and advocacy groups have started to use internet petitions to create lists of people that support their causes.
    • Opinions in Action: Deliberation and Impact
      • Do some forms of participation make more of an impact on the political system than others?
      • What forms of participation do you believe may be more influential?
      Schwadron, Harley/Cartoon Stock
    • Opinions in Action: Deliberation and Impact Source: From Internet and American Life Project. Copyright © 2009. Reprinted with permission.
    • Who Votes? Expansion of Suffrage
      • In the early days of the nation, many groups did not have the right to vote.
      • Barriers to voting included
      • Property ownership requirements
      • Poll taxes
      • Literacy tests
    • Who Votes? Expansion of Suffrage
      • Suffrage was expanded through
      • Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
      • Nineteenth Amendment (1920)
      • Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964)
      • Voting Rights Act (1965)
    • Who Votes? Registration
      • The 1993 National Voter Registration Act ( Motor Voter ) was passed to make it easier to register to vote.
      • States are responsible for maintaining the lists of registered voters.
    • Who Votes? Understanding Turnout
      • How to measure voter turnout
      • Divide the number of votes in an election by the number of registered voters
      • Do you see potential problems with this method?
    • Who Votes? Understanding Turnout
      • How to measure voter turnout
      • Divide the number of votes in an election by the voting age population
      • Why do you believe some scholars prefer this method of measurement?
    • Who Votes? Understanding Turnout Source: Copyright © 2009 by Michael McDonald. Reprinted with permission.
    • Who Votes? Understanding Turnout
      • Why is voter turnout so low in the United States?
      • What are some costs and benefits of voting?
      • Is voting important to deliberative democracy? Why?
    • Who Votes? Voter Demographics
      • In general, voters tend to be older, have higher levels of education, and are more affluent than the general population.
      • Figure 8-4 on page 264 provides more information about who votes
    • Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Deliberative Democracy
      • How should political leaders use public opinion to make decisions?
      • Deliberative democracy requires a dialogue between elected officials and the public.
    • Deliberation, Citizenship and You
      • E-Activism
      • How has the Internet changed political participation?
      • What are some advantages or disadvantages of using the Internet for political participation?
    • Summary
      • Public opinion is important in a democracy
      • Political ideology may affect opinions
      • Public opinion translates into policy through political participation