Published on

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Eight Public Opinion and Political Participation
  2. 2. Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define the concept of public opinion and tell how researchers measure it </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the distinction between short-term reactions to issues and more deliberative opinions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain the core beliefs that separate different ideologies in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major influences on public opinion about politics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Name different forms of political participation and analyze how they contribute to deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Understand inequalities in political participation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter Eight: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss political participation as a responsibility of citizenship </li></ul>AP Photo/Jeff Roberson
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>What is public opinion? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some ways for Americans to make their opinions about politics known? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Measuring Opinion: Polls and Respondents <ul><li>Public opinion polls (or surveys) are one way to measure public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not feasible to speak with every person in a population, so public opinion polls are often based on a random sample . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Measuring Opinion: Questions <ul><li>Do you believe the way a question is worded may make a difference in the response given? </li></ul><ul><li>Those who create public opinion polls must be aware of the way they word the questions as well as question order as both may affect responses. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Polls <ul><li>Types of polls include </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking polls </li></ul><ul><li>Exit polls </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between tracking and exit polls? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with Polls <ul><li>What are some potential problems with public opinion polls? </li></ul><ul><li>What can researchers do to prevent or overcome problems with public opinion polls? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Knowledge and Deliberative Opinion <ul><li>How can political leaders understand and distinguish between fleeting opinions and lasting judgments? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some consequences for political leaders if they do not fully understand the differences between fleeting opinions and lasting judgments? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Knowledge and Deliberative Opinion: Politicians and Deliberative Opinion <ul><li>Two ways elected officials use public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Consider merits of issues, not just poll numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that public opinion has nuances </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>The pledge paradox </li></ul><ul><li>Americans typically do not trust promises from politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between what we expect politicians to do and what they actually do is called the pledge paradox . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Deliberation and Ideology <ul><li>What is political ideology? </li></ul><ul><li>What beliefs separate the different political ideologies in America? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Deliberation and Ideology <ul><li>Political ideologies in America </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarians </li></ul><ul><li>Populists </li></ul>
  16. 16. Deliberation and Ideology <ul><li>In order to better understand the different ideologies, it is useful to consider their positions on three issues </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul><ul><li>International relations </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deliberation and Ideology: Liberals <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Favor policies that reduce economic inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual choice </li></ul><ul><li>International relations </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on diplomacy </li></ul>
  18. 18. Deliberation and Ideology: Conservatives <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Want less government power in economy </li></ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Government to promote traditional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>International relations </li></ul><ul><li>More willing to assert national power </li></ul>
  19. 19. Deliberation and Ideology: Libertarians <ul><li>On economic issues, libertarians usually agree with conservatives and want to cut taxes and reduce government spending. </li></ul><ul><li>On social issues, libertarians usually agree with liberals and oppose government intervention in social policy. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Deliberation and Ideology: Populists <ul><li>On both economic and social issues, populists usually favor strong government intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarianism and populism have not found a firm base in American politics. </li></ul>
  21. 21. International Perspectives <ul><li>The political spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Many other democracies have more diverse ideologies, but that may be changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Why have American ideological beliefs been exceptional? </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Influences Our Opinions About Politics? <ul><li>What influences your opinions about politics? </li></ul>Carlos Barria/Reuters/Landov John Gress/Reuters /Landov
  23. 23. What Influences Our Opinions About Politics? Political Socialization <ul><li>Agents of political socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Life changes (marriage, career, peer groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical events </li></ul>
  24. 24. What Influences Our Opinions About Politics? Political Persuasion <ul><li>Do you practice selective exposure ? </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle’s three methods of persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul>
  25. 25. Opinions in Action <ul><li>How does participation in politics foster deliberation? </li></ul><ul><li>Does political participation matter? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you participate in politics? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Opinions in Action: Types of Participation <ul><li>What are different types of participation? </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about politics </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting a political campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Internet to support a campaign or contact elected officials </li></ul>
  27. 27. Opinions in Action: Types of Participation
  28. 28. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>Internet petitions </li></ul><ul><li>Many internet petitions have been hoaxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Politicians and advocacy groups have started to use internet petitions to create lists of people that support their causes. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Opinions in Action: Deliberation and Impact <ul><li>Do some forms of participation make more of an impact on the political system than others? </li></ul><ul><li>What forms of participation do you believe may be more influential? </li></ul>Schwadron, Harley/Cartoon Stock
  30. 30. Opinions in Action: Deliberation and Impact Source: From Internet and American Life Project. Copyright © 2009. Reprinted with permission.
  31. 31. Who Votes? Expansion of Suffrage <ul><li>In the early days of the nation, many groups did not have the right to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to voting included </li></ul><ul><li>Property ownership requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Poll taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy tests </li></ul>
  32. 32. Who Votes? Expansion of Suffrage <ul><li>Suffrage was expanded through </li></ul><ul><li>Fifteenth Amendment (1870) </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteenth Amendment (1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act (1965) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Who Votes? Registration <ul><li>The 1993 National Voter Registration Act ( Motor Voter ) was passed to make it easier to register to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>States are responsible for maintaining the lists of registered voters. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Who Votes? Understanding Turnout <ul><li>How to measure voter turnout </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the number of votes in an election by the number of registered voters </li></ul><ul><li>Do you see potential problems with this method? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Who Votes? Understanding Turnout <ul><li>How to measure voter turnout </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the number of votes in an election by the voting age population </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you believe some scholars prefer this method of measurement? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Who Votes? Understanding Turnout Source: Copyright © 2009 by Michael McDonald. Reprinted with permission.
  37. 37. Who Votes? Understanding Turnout <ul><li>Why is voter turnout so low in the United States? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some costs and benefits of voting? </li></ul><ul><li>Is voting important to deliberative democracy? Why? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Who Votes? Voter Demographics <ul><li>In general, voters tend to be older, have higher levels of education, and are more affluent than the general population. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 8-4 on page 264 provides more information about who votes </li></ul>
  39. 39. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>How should political leaders use public opinion to make decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberative democracy requires a dialogue between elected officials and the public. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Deliberation, Citizenship and You <ul><li>E-Activism </li></ul><ul><li>How has the Internet changed political participation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some advantages or disadvantages of using the Internet for political participation? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Summary <ul><li>Public opinion is important in a democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Political ideology may affect opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion translates into policy through political participation </li></ul>