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  1. 1. Chapter Six Civil Liberties American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
  2. 2. Chapter Six: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the kinds of rights secured in the Constitution of 1787, the Bill of Rights, the Civil War amendments, and subsequent amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the process and rationale by which the federal Bill of Rights became applicable to state and local governments </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Six: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between protected and unprotected speech under the First Amendment, and indicate how the Supreme Court has ruled on government restrictions of political speech </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Six: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe ways in which American government recognizes God or religion, and give examples of how the Court has limited such acts </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the Court has reacted to government regulation of morality and sexual behavior </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter Six: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Summarize the key constitutional rights of criminal defendants in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Describe in some detail how the government has restricted civil liberties in wartime, and explain how the Court has addressed such restrictions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter Six: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the history of civil liberties in the United States demonstrates that constitutional rights are not absolute </li></ul>Justin Sullivan/Getty Images
  7. 7. Civil Rights versus Civil Liberties <ul><li>What are the differences between civil rights and civil liberties? </li></ul>INSADCO Photography/Alamy
  8. 8. Americans’ Constitutional Rights <ul><li>What are some of the rights guaranteed to citizens by the Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rights Protected by the Constitution” on pages 163-164 provides a detailed list of the rights of citizens. </li></ul>
  9. 9. International Perspectives <ul><li>Other declarations of rights include </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta </li></ul><ul><li>English Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>(United Nations) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Nationalization of the Bill of Rights <ul><li>Does the Bill of Rights limit the states? </li></ul><ul><li>Barron v. Baltimore (1833) </li></ul><ul><li>14 th Amendment and the incorporation doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Palko v. Connecticut (1937) </li></ul><ul><li>Selective incorporation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Religious Freedom <ul><li>What is meant by the idea that the First Amendment created a “wall of separation” between church and state? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any circumstances where government may regulate behavior that individuals claim is justified by their religious beliefs? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Religious Freedom: Two Stipulations <ul><li>Two stipulations to First Amendment religious freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment clause </li></ul><ul><li>Free exercise clause </li></ul>
  13. 13. Religious Freedom: Two Stipulations <ul><li>The establishment clause in the First Amendment states that Congress may not establish a national religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The free exercise clause in the First Amendment states that Congress may not prohibit Americans from practicing their religion. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Religious Freedom: Establishment Clause <ul><li>Jefferson stated that there was a “wall of separation between church and state.” </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that there have been some inconsistencies with that interpretation of the establishment clause in the First Amendment and actions of the government? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Religious Freedom: Establishment Clause Source: (Left) Copyright © 2009 by American Atheists. Reprinted with permission. (Right) “’Freedom Rally’ to Dispel Separation Myth” by Allie Martin, April 17, 2006, archive/4/172006c.asp. Copyright © 2008 Agape Press—ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Reprinted with permission.
  16. 16. Religious Freedom: Establishment Clause <ul><li>How high is the “wall of separation”? </li></ul><ul><li>Engel v. Vitale (1962) </li></ul><ul><li>Abington School District v. Schempp (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Lee v. Weisman (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Religious Freedom: Establishment Clause <ul><li>Is the wall of separation impermeable? </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily as some religious organizations have been granted the same privileges as non-religious organizations at public schools and universities. </li></ul><ul><li>As Stephen Carter stated, the establishment clause “is designed to limit what the state can do, not what the church can do.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Religious Freedom: Free Exercise <ul><li>What happens when the free exercise of religion violates other laws? </li></ul><ul><li>Reynolds v. U.S. (1879) </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Division v. Smith (1990) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Freedom of Speech and Press <ul><li>Do you believe that there are ever any circumstances under which the government should have the power to regulate speech? </li></ul>Popperfoto/Getty Images
  20. 20. Freedom of Speech and Press: Protected and Unprotected Speech <ul><li>There was disagreement amongst the founders in their interpretation of the First Amendment and what would be considered protected speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Some believed that government could not exercise prior restraint and prevent publication of speech, rather punishment could only occur after publication. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Freedom of Speech and Press: Protected and Unprotected Speech <ul><li>What is considered unprotected speech? </li></ul><ul><li>Speech that is libelous, obscene, and has a potential to incite violence is not protected </li></ul><ul><li>Schenck v. United States (1919) </li></ul><ul><li>Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Freedom of Speech and Press: Protected and Unprotected Speech <ul><li>Regulating political speech in peacetime </li></ul><ul><li>Gitlow v. New York (1925) </li></ul><ul><li>Near v. Minnesota (1931) </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis v. United States (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Yates v. United States (1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Freedom of Speech and Press: Symbolic Speech and Expressive Conduct <ul><li>Sometimes people express themselves non-verbally. Do you believe those actions of symbolic speech should be protected by the First Amendment? </li></ul>Bettmann/CORBIS
  24. 24. Freedom of Speech and Press: Symbolic Speech and Expressive Conduct <ul><li>Symbolic speech and the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>United States v. O’Brien (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas v. Johnson (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia v. Black (2003) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Freedom of Speech and Press: Libel and Slander <ul><li>What is the difference between libel and slander? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the Supreme Court’s decision in New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) affected how libel and slander laws are applied to public officials? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Morality and Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Should the government have a role in regulating morality or sexuality? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the government regulated moral or sexual behavior throughout history? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Morality and Sexual Behavior: Abortion and Privacy Rights <ul><li>Supreme Court decisions have dealt with abortion and privacy rights </li></ul><ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzales v. Carhart (2007) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Morality and Sexual Behavior: Homosexuality <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court regulated homosexuality? </li></ul><ul><li>Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Romer v. Evans (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Lawrence v. Texas (2003) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Morality and Sexual Behavior: Pornography, Obscenity and Censorship <ul><li>Obscene materials are not protected by the First Amendment, but prior to the 1950s much of the regulation was left up to local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you believe the federal government left most of the regulation of obscenity to local governments? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Morality and Sexual Behavior: Pornography, Obscenity and Censorship <ul><li>Supreme Court decisions on obscenity </li></ul><ul><li>Roth v. United States (1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Miller v. California (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>New York v. Ferber (1982) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Rights of Criminal Defendants <ul><li>How has the Constitution protected the rights of those accused or convicted of crimes? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the Supreme Court interpreted the constitutional protections of those accused or convicted of crimes? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Rights of Criminal Defendants <ul><li>Constitutional protections of those accused or convicted of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>No bills of attainder </li></ul><ul><li>No ex post facto laws </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by jury in criminal cases </li></ul><ul><li>Convictions for treason </li></ul>
  33. 33. Rights of Criminal Defendants <ul><li>Constitutional protections of those accused or convicted of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Eighth Amendment </li></ul>
  34. 34. Rights of Criminal Defendants <ul><li>Two reasons why attention was paid to the rights of criminal defendants: </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in due process of law </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying rights of criminals would be necessary to prevent tyranny or unjust acts </li></ul>
  35. 35. Rights of Criminal Defendants: Search and Seizure <ul><li>The Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable search and seizure and requires warrants to be based on probable cause. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court’s decision in Mapp v. Ohio (1961) created the exclusionary rule . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Rights of Criminal Defendants: Self-Incrimination and Miranda Warnings <ul><li>The Fifth Amendment protects individuals from self-incrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court’s decision in Miranda v. Arizona (1966) created the Miranda warnings. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Rights of Criminal Defendants: Right to Counsel <ul><li>The Sixth Amendment states that accused criminals have a right to counsel. </li></ul><ul><li>In Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), the Supreme Court ruled that in all felony cases criminals that cannot afford an attorney will be granted legal counsel by the state. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Rights of Criminal Defendants: Cruel and Unusual Punishment <ul><li>The Eight Amendment states that “cruel and unusual punishment” may not be inflicted upon criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court has made numerous decisions related to this issue (see page 189). </li></ul>
  39. 39. Civil Liberties in Wartime <ul><li>How has the government restricted civil liberties during times of war? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Supreme Court’s response to such limitations? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Civil Liberties in Wartime: Alien and Sedition Acts <ul><li>Sedition Act of 1798 </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal to be critical of government in ways that would undermine support and respect </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Resolutions and Kentucky Resolutions criticized this legislation </li></ul>
  41. 41. Civil Liberties in Wartime: Martial Law and General Andrew Jackson <ul><li>Martial law was declared at the end of the War of 1812. </li></ul><ul><li>General Andrew Jackson’s decision was challenged by a writer and a judge who later fined Jackson after martial law was revoked. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Civil Liberties in Wartime: The Civil War <ul><li>Controversies over civil liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Does Congress or the president have the power to suspend habeas corpus? </li></ul><ul><li>Ex parte Merryman </li></ul><ul><li>Ex parte Vallandigham </li></ul><ul><li>Ex parte Milligan </li></ul>
  43. 43. Civil Liberties in Wartime: World War I <ul><li>How were civil liberties restricted? </li></ul><ul><li>Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Schenck v. United States (1919) </li></ul><ul><li>Debs v. United States (1919) </li></ul><ul><li>Abrams v. United States (1919) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Civil Liberties in Wartime: World War II <ul><li>Japanese internment was a major civil liberties controversy during this era. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court intervened </li></ul><ul><li>Ex parte Quirin (1942) </li></ul><ul><li>Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>Korematsu v. United States (1944) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Civil Liberties in Wartime: The Vietnam War and Freedom of Press <ul><li>The freedom of the press to report war information was of great controversy. </li></ul><ul><li>In New York Times v. United States (1971), the Supreme Court declared that the government has a “heavy burden” to justify prior restraint. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Civil Liberties in Wartime: War on Terrorism <ul><li>The September 11 attacks brought the debate over civil liberties during wartime back to the political agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA Patriot Act (2001, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Boumediene v. Bush (2008) </li></ul>
  47. 47. Civil Liberties and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>All three branches of government have been involved in the debates over the expansion of personal liberties for Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal judiciary has had an important role in the deliberation about civil liberties Americans enjoy. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Civil liberties during extreme emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Should we limit civil liberties during times of national emergencies such as terrorist attacks? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the three branches of government work together to come to such a decision? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Summary <ul><li>There is a difference between civil liberties and civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>The Bill of Rights did not have a significant impact on government and politics until the 20 th century </li></ul>
  50. 50. Summary <ul><li>Government may not advance nor inhibit religion </li></ul><ul><li>Government may place some restrictions on speech </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court has protected the rights of accused criminals </li></ul>
  51. 51. Summary <ul><li>During times of war, there is a delicate balance between national security and protecting civil liberties </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of citizens are not absolute </li></ul>
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