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  • 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Four E Pluribus Unum: American Citizenship
  • 2. Chapter Four: Learning Objectives
    • Describe the role of ideas and beliefs in what it means to be an American citizen
    • Explain how immigration policy has changed over time and the controversies over assimilation that larger-scale immigration has spawned
  • 3. Chapter Four: Learning Objectives
    • Explain how controversies over citizenship affected free blacks before the Civil War and Native Americans
    • Identify the requirements that Congress has imposed for the naturalization of foreigners
  • 4. Chapter Four: Learning Objectives
    • Describe the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of U.S. citizenship
    Steve Helber/AP Photo
  • 5. E Pluribus Unum: “From Many, One”
    • Do you believe the ideas behind “From Many, One” have changed to reflect changes in America since the founding?
    Bettmann/CORBIS
  • 6. E Pluribus Unum: Early Americans
    • Characteristics of early America
    • Vast, fertile land
    • Common ancestry and religious background
    • Shared language, customs, and manners
    • Commitment to shared political beliefs
  • 7. E Pluribus Unum: Modern Americans
    • Characteristics of modern America
    • Diverse ethnic background and origin
    • Multiple languages spoken, English dominates
    • Diversity in religion, Christianity most prevalent
    • Continued commitment to shared political beliefs
  • 8. Immigration: By the Numbers Source: Immigration and Naturalization Service, “Immigrants, Fiscal Year 2000,” Table 1, at www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/statistics/IMM00yrbk/IMM2000list.htm, accessed July 28, 2002.
  • 9. Immigration: Issues at the Founding
    • America – restrict access or open for all?
    • Madison – prosperity linked to open immigration
    • Franklin – concerned about the effects of immigration in American communities
    • Jefferson –unrestricted immigration may undermine important American political values
  • 10. Immigration: Unrestricted Access
    • Why unrestricted immigration until 1875?
    • More land and jobs than residents
    • Large influx of European immigrants
    • Nativism movement and Know Nothing Party emerged in the 1840s and 1850s
  • 11. Immigration: Restricted Access
  • 12. Immigration: Restricted Access
    • What do you believe were reasons why our political leaders wanted to restrict immigration beginning in the late 18 th century?
    • Do you believe restricting immigration reflects the principles upon which our country was founded?
  • 13. Immigration: Modern Issues
    • Features of modern immigration
    • More immigration from Asia than ever before
    • National origin quotas abolished in 1960s
    • Recent decrease in number of refugees
  • 14. Immigration: Modern Issues
    • Do you believe there are problems with legal immigration? If so, what?
    • Do you believe there are problems with illegal immigration? If so, what
  • 15. Immigration: Modern Issues
    • Issues related to illegal immigration
    • As Table 4-4 demonstrates, illegal immigration occurs along all borders, although primarily along the Southern border
    • How should the U.S. work to strengthen our borders and relationship with our neighboring countries to solve the problems of illegal immigration?
  • 16. Table 4-4
  • 17. Immigration: Modern Issues
    • Legal solutions to illegal immigration
    • Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
    • Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
    • REAL ID Act of 2005
    • Secure Fence Act of 2006
  • 18. Early Citizenship Controversies
    • As the Constitution did not clearly define citizenship in the early years of our country, controversies emerged over the citizenship status of two groups:
    • 1. Free blacks before the Civil War
    • 2. Native Americans
  • 19. Early Citizenship Controversies
    • Free blacks before the Civil War
    • How was citizenship for free blacks defined through the following actions of government?
    • Missouri Compromise (1820)
    • Seamen’s protection certificates
    • Scott v. Sanford (1857)
  • 20. Early Citizenship Controversies
    • Native Americans
    • Treatment by British was based on situation
    • The national government has always had the power to manage “all affairs with the Indians”
  • 21. Early Citizenship Controversies
    • What was the legal status of Native American tribes?
    • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
    • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
    • Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
    • Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903)
    • Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
  • 22. Acquiring American Citizenship
    • There are two ways to become an American citizen:
    • Through laws or treaties
    • Through naturalization
  • 23. Acquiring American Citizenship
    • Citizenship through laws or treaties
    • Louisiana Purchase Treaty (1803)
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
    • Practice has been upheld by the Supreme Court
  • 24. Acquiring American Citizenship
    • Citizenship through naturalization
    • Naturalization Act of 1790 first law
    • Some changes to requirements since 1795
    • -Eliminated race as a restriction
    • -Language restrictions changed
    • -Citizenship oath created
  • 25. Pledges and Promises
    • The citizenship oath
    • Official oath adopted in 1929
    • Applicants for citizenship sign oath in a public ceremony
    • Plan to update the oath in 2003 to simplify language was not approved
  • 26. Acquiring American Citizenship
    • What do you believe are some of the rights and responsibilities of American citizenship?
    • The U.S.C.I.S. has defined some responsibilities of citizenship (page 120)
  • 27. Myths and Misinformation
    • Are Puerto Ricans American citizens?
    • In a 2004 survey 41% of Americans correctly stated that Puerto Ricans are American citizens
    • Puerto Ricans have been citizens since 1917
    • Puerto Rico functions much like a state – should it be granted statehood?
  • 28. Expatriation
    • How to become a non-citizen
    • Voluntarily through expatriation
    • Involuntarily through a variety of actions (page 123)
  • 29. Assimilation: Competing Ideas
    • Two competing ideas in assimilation:
    • 1. The melting pot
    • 2. Multiculturalism
  • 30. Assimilation: The Melting Pot
    • The melting pot
    • Leave behind old identity
    • Adopt new, common American identity
    • What are some positive or negative aspects of the melting pot approach to assimilation?
  • 31. Assimilation: Multiculturalism
    • Multiculturalism
    • Emphasizes traditions from different cultures
    • American culture benefits from diversity
    • What are some positive or negative aspects of the multiculturalism approach to assimilation?
  • 32. Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy
    • What are some expectations of citizens?
    • Loyalty to country and government
    • Respect of laws and fellow citizens
    • Obligation to participate in political process
  • 33. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
    • Dual citizenship
    • Dual citizenship prohibited until mid-twentieth century
    • Four ways to claim dual citizenship (page 128)
    • Do you believe dual citizenship should be allowed? Why or why not?
  • 34. Summary
    • Citizenship has rights and responsibilities
    • Defining citizenship in the U.S. has not always been clear-cut
    • There have been and will continue to be debates over the assimilation of immigrants