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    Chapter4 Chapter4 Presentation Transcript

    • American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Four E Pluribus Unum: American Citizenship
    • Chapter Four: Learning Objectives
      • Describe the role of ideas and beliefs in what it means to be an American citizen
      • Explain how immigration policy has changed over time and the controversies over assimilation that larger-scale immigration has spawned
    • Chapter Four: Learning Objectives
      • Explain how controversies over citizenship affected free blacks before the Civil War and Native Americans
      • Identify the requirements that Congress has imposed for the naturalization of foreigners
    • Chapter Four: Learning Objectives
      • Describe the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of U.S. citizenship
      Steve Helber/AP Photo
    • E Pluribus Unum: “From Many, One”
      • Do you believe the ideas behind “From Many, One” have changed to reflect changes in America since the founding?
    • E Pluribus Unum: Early Americans
      • Characteristics of early America
      • Vast, fertile land
      • Common ancestry and religious background
      • Shared language, customs, and manners
      • Commitment to shared political beliefs
    • E Pluribus Unum: Modern Americans
      • Characteristics of modern America
      • Diverse ethnic background and origin
      • Multiple languages spoken, English dominates
      • Diversity in religion, Christianity most prevalent
      • Continued commitment to shared political beliefs
    • Immigration: By the Numbers Source: Immigration and Naturalization Service, “Immigrants, Fiscal Year 2000,” Table 1, at, accessed July 28, 2002.
    • Immigration: Issues at the Founding
      • America – restrict access or open for all?
      • Madison – prosperity linked to open immigration
      • Franklin – concerned about the effects of immigration in American communities
      • Jefferson –unrestricted immigration may undermine important American political values
    • Immigration: Unrestricted Access
      • Why unrestricted immigration until 1875?
      • More land and jobs than residents
      • Large influx of European immigrants
      • Nativism movement and Know Nothing Party emerged in the 1840s and 1850s
    • Immigration: Restricted Access
    • Immigration: Restricted Access
      • What do you believe were reasons why our political leaders wanted to restrict immigration beginning in the late 18 th century?
      • Do you believe restricting immigration reflects the principles upon which our country was founded?
    • Immigration: Modern Issues
      • Features of modern immigration
      • More immigration from Asia than ever before
      • National origin quotas abolished in 1960s
      • Recent decrease in number of refugees
    • Immigration: Modern Issues
      • Do you believe there are problems with legal immigration? If so, what?
      • Do you believe there are problems with illegal immigration? If so, what
    • Immigration: Modern Issues
      • Issues related to illegal immigration
      • As Table 4-4 demonstrates, illegal immigration occurs along all borders, although primarily along the Southern border
      • How should the U.S. work to strengthen our borders and relationship with our neighboring countries to solve the problems of illegal immigration?
    • Table 4-4
    • Immigration: Modern Issues
      • Legal solutions to illegal immigration
      • Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
      • Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
      • REAL ID Act of 2005
      • Secure Fence Act of 2006
    • Early Citizenship Controversies
      • As the Constitution did not clearly define citizenship in the early years of our country, controversies emerged over the citizenship status of two groups:
      • 1. Free blacks before the Civil War
      • 2. Native Americans
    • Early Citizenship Controversies
      • Free blacks before the Civil War
      • How was citizenship for free blacks defined through the following actions of government?
      • Missouri Compromise (1820)
      • Seamen’s protection certificates
      • Scott v. Sanford (1857)
    • Early Citizenship Controversies
      • Native Americans
      • Treatment by British was based on situation
      • The national government has always had the power to manage “all affairs with the Indians”
    • Early Citizenship Controversies
      • What was the legal status of Native American tribes?
      • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
      • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
      • Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
      • Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903)
      • Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
    • Acquiring American Citizenship
      • There are two ways to become an American citizen:
      • Through laws or treaties
      • Through naturalization
    • Acquiring American Citizenship
      • Citizenship through laws or treaties
      • Louisiana Purchase Treaty (1803)
      • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
      • Practice has been upheld by the Supreme Court
    • Acquiring American Citizenship
      • Citizenship through naturalization
      • Naturalization Act of 1790 first law
      • Some changes to requirements since 1795
      • -Eliminated race as a restriction
      • -Language restrictions changed
      • -Citizenship oath created
    • Pledges and Promises
      • The citizenship oath
      • Official oath adopted in 1929
      • Applicants for citizenship sign oath in a public ceremony
      • Plan to update the oath in 2003 to simplify language was not approved
    • Acquiring American Citizenship
      • What do you believe are some of the rights and responsibilities of American citizenship?
      • The U.S.C.I.S. has defined some responsibilities of citizenship (page 120)
    • Myths and Misinformation
      • Are Puerto Ricans American citizens?
      • In a 2004 survey 41% of Americans correctly stated that Puerto Ricans are American citizens
      • Puerto Ricans have been citizens since 1917
      • Puerto Rico functions much like a state – should it be granted statehood?
    • Expatriation
      • How to become a non-citizen
      • Voluntarily through expatriation
      • Involuntarily through a variety of actions (page 123)
    • Assimilation: Competing Ideas
      • Two competing ideas in assimilation:
      • 1. The melting pot
      • 2. Multiculturalism
    • Assimilation: The Melting Pot
      • The melting pot
      • Leave behind old identity
      • Adopt new, common American identity
      • What are some positive or negative aspects of the melting pot approach to assimilation?
    • Assimilation: Multiculturalism
      • Multiculturalism
      • Emphasizes traditions from different cultures
      • American culture benefits from diversity
      • What are some positive or negative aspects of the multiculturalism approach to assimilation?
    • Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy
      • What are some expectations of citizens?
      • Loyalty to country and government
      • Respect of laws and fellow citizens
      • Obligation to participate in political process
    • Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
      • Dual citizenship
      • Dual citizenship prohibited until mid-twentieth century
      • Four ways to claim dual citizenship (page 128)
      • Do you believe dual citizenship should be allowed? Why or why not?
    • Summary
      • Citizenship has rights and responsibilities
      • Defining citizenship in the U.S. has not always been clear-cut
      • There have been and will continue to be debates over the assimilation of immigrants