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  • 1. Chapter Three Federalism American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
  • 2. Chapter Three: Learning Objectives
    • Describe briefly how the federal-state balance of power has shifted over the years
    • Explain why this balance has often tipped in favor of the federal government
  • 3. Chapter Three: Learning Objectives
    • Lay out the advantages and disadvantages of America’s complex system of federalism
    • Analyze how federalism affects policy deliberation
  • 4. Chapter Three: Learning Objectives
    • Understand ways in which federalism may encourage or hamper active citizenship
  • 5. Introduction
    • In the United States we have a federal system.
    • Alternatives to a federal system include
    • Unitary system
    • Confederal system
  • 6. International Perspectives
    • Unitary system
    • Power is vested in a central government which grants power to other levels of government
    • Confederal system
    • Power is vested in sovereign states that grant limited powers to the central government
  • 7. Growth and Change
    • How has the balance of power shifted over the years?
    • Do you believe that shift has been positive or negative?
  • 8. Growth and Change: At the Founding
    • The Constitution grants the government certain enumerated powers .
    • Through the Tenth Amendment the states and the people possess reserved powers .
  • 9. Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney
    • In this era of dual federalism , two important Supreme Court cases dealt with issues of federalism.
    • 1. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    • 2. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
  • 10. Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney
    • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    • Necessary and proper clause
    • Implied powers
    • Supremacy clause
  • 11. Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney
    • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
    • Commerce clause
    • Supremacy clause
  • 12. Pledges and Promises
    • Supporting the Constitution
    • Article VI requires federal and state officials to be bound by oath or affirmation to the Constitution
    • There has been controversy over oaths and the actions of federal and state officials which appear to conflict with the Constitution
  • 13. Growth and Change: The Civil War and National Identity
    • The Civil War’s effects on federalism
    • Ended discussion of secession and nullification
    • Strengthened the federal government
  • 14. Growth and Change: The Civil War and National Identity
    • The Civil War’s effects on federalism
    • Civil War Amendments limited the power of the states
    • Changed the way Americans saw their country
  • 15. Growth and Change: Federalism in Flux
    • American federalism in the early twentieth century
    • Sixteenth Amendment
    • Seventeenth Amendment
    • Eighteenth Amendment
    • Twenty-first Amendment
  • 16. Growth and Change: New Deal, War, and New Power for the Federal Government
    • During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration the powers of the national government grew.
    • The federal government expanded its powers in regulating commerce and noncommercial activities through the decision in Wickard v. Filburn (1942).
  • 17. Growth and Change: The Federal Government Assumes a Dominant Position
    • During the 1960s the federal government gave more funding for programs to state and local governments through categorical grants , which allowed the federal government to give specific instructions for the use of grant funds.
  • 18. Growth and Change: The Federal Government Assumes a Dominant Position Source: and
  • 19. Growth and Change: New Federalism: Revival and Turmoil
    • New Federalism created new tools of fiscal federalism
    • General revenue sharing
    • Block grants
    • Mandates and unfunded mandates
  • 20. Growth and Change: New Federalism: Revival and Turmoil Source: United States Offi ce of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government Fiscal Year 2009 at
  • 21. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Of Two Minds: Devolution and Preemption
    • In the 1990s, devolution became a common term to refer to the shift of power from the federal government to state and local governments.
    • Congress moved away from devolution through enacting preemption statutes .
  • 22. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Regulation
    • There have been several policy areas where federalism debates have been prevalent.
    • Regulation
    • Garcia v. SAMTA (1976)
  • 23. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Welfare and Education
    • Welfare and education
    • 1996 end of AFDC
    • No Child Left Behind Act
  • 24. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Crime
    • Crime
    • United States v. Lopez (1995)
    • Printz v. United States (1996)
    • United States v. Morrison (2000)
  • 25. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Life, Death, and Health
    • Life, death, and health
    • Oregon Death with Dignity Act
    • California ballot measure to legalize marijuana
    JASON REED/Reuters /Landov
  • 26. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Lawsuits and Same-Sex Marriage
    • Lawsuits
    • Eleventh Amendment
    • Same-sex marriage
    • Full faith and credit clause
  • 27. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: The National Guard
    • The National Guard
    • Who should have power over the national guard – the president or state governors?
    Alex Wong/Getty Images
  • 28. Debating Federalism
    • What are some advantages or disadvantages of federalism?
    • Do you believe a federal system allows for a double layer of protection for citizens’ rights?
  • 29. Debating Federalism
    • Do you believe federalism creates a “race to the bottom”?
    • Do you believe federalism brings government closer to the people? Why or why not?
  • 30. Myths and Misinformation
    • Knowledge of state governments
    • In a 2007 survey, only 66% of Americans could state their governor’s name
    • Americans also lack knowledge about their state’s legislative branch and fiscal situation
    • Why do you believe Americans know so little about their state governments?
  • 31. Federalism and Deliberative Democracy
    • In a federal system states are like laboratories of democracy. States allow for policy innovation based on the needs of their residents.
    • Successful state policies may influence national policy.
  • 32. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
    • States and immigration
    • Federal lawmakers have yet to come to a consensus about immigration reform, but some state governments have.
    • What are your state’s laws on immigration?
  • 33. Summary
    • The federal system is complicated
    • There has been a trend toward centralization of power
    • States still retain much power
    • The federalism debate continues