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    Chapter3 Chapter3 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Three Federalism American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
    • Chapter Three: Learning Objectives
      • Describe briefly how the federal-state balance of power has shifted over the years
      • Explain why this balance has often tipped in favor of the federal government
    • Chapter Three: Learning Objectives
      • Lay out the advantages and disadvantages of America’s complex system of federalism
      • Analyze how federalism affects policy deliberation
    • Chapter Three: Learning Objectives
      • Understand ways in which federalism may encourage or hamper active citizenship
      BRIAN BAER/MCT/Landov
    • Introduction
      • In the United States we have a federal system.
      • Alternatives to a federal system include
      • Unitary system
      • Confederal system
    • International Perspectives
      • Unitary system
      • Power is vested in a central government which grants power to other levels of government
      • Confederal system
      • Power is vested in sovereign states that grant limited powers to the central government
    • Growth and Change
      • How has the balance of power shifted over the years?
      • Do you believe that shift has been positive or negative?
    • Growth and Change: At the Founding
      • The Constitution grants the government certain enumerated powers .
      • Through the Tenth Amendment the states and the people possess reserved powers .
    • Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney
      • In this era of dual federalism , two important Supreme Court cases dealt with issues of federalism.
      • 1. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
      • 2. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
    • Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney
      • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
      • Necessary and proper clause
      • Implied powers
      • Supremacy clause
    • Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney
      • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
      • Commerce clause
      • Supremacy clause
    • Pledges and Promises
      • Supporting the Constitution
      • Article VI requires federal and state officials to be bound by oath or affirmation to the Constitution
      • There has been controversy over oaths and the actions of federal and state officials which appear to conflict with the Constitution
    • Growth and Change: The Civil War and National Identity
      • The Civil War’s effects on federalism
      • Ended discussion of secession and nullification
      • Strengthened the federal government
    • Growth and Change: The Civil War and National Identity
      • The Civil War’s effects on federalism
      • Civil War Amendments limited the power of the states
      • Changed the way Americans saw their country
    • Growth and Change: Federalism in Flux
      • American federalism in the early twentieth century
      • Sixteenth Amendment
      • Seventeenth Amendment
      • Eighteenth Amendment
      • Twenty-first Amendment
    • Growth and Change: New Deal, War, and New Power for the Federal Government
      • During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration the powers of the national government grew.
      • The federal government expanded its powers in regulating commerce and noncommercial activities through the decision in Wickard v. Filburn (1942).
    • Growth and Change: The Federal Government Assumes a Dominant Position
      • During the 1960s the federal government gave more funding for programs to state and local governments through categorical grants , which allowed the federal government to give specific instructions for the use of grant funds.
    • Growth and Change: The Federal Government Assumes a Dominant Position Source: www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2009/sheets/hist03z1.xls and www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2009/sheets/hist15z3.xls
    • Growth and Change: New Federalism: Revival and Turmoil
      • New Federalism created new tools of fiscal federalism
      • General revenue sharing
      • Block grants
      • Mandates and unfunded mandates
    • Growth and Change: New Federalism: Revival and Turmoil Source: United States Offi ce of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government Fiscal Year 2009 at www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/sheets/8_3.xls
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Of Two Minds: Devolution and Preemption
      • In the 1990s, devolution became a common term to refer to the shift of power from the federal government to state and local governments.
      • Congress moved away from devolution through enacting preemption statutes .
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Regulation
      • There have been several policy areas where federalism debates have been prevalent.
      • Regulation
      • Garcia v. SAMTA (1976)
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Welfare and Education
      • Welfare and education
      • 1996 end of AFDC
      • No Child Left Behind Act
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Crime
      • Crime
      • United States v. Lopez (1995)
      • Printz v. United States (1996)
      • United States v. Morrison (2000)
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Life, Death, and Health
      • Life, death, and health
      • Oregon Death with Dignity Act
      • California ballot measure to legalize marijuana
      JASON REED/Reuters /Landov
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Lawsuits and Same-Sex Marriage
      • Lawsuits
      • Eleventh Amendment
      • Same-sex marriage
      • Full faith and credit clause
      BRIAN BAER/MCT/Landov
    • Contemporary Issues in Federalism: The National Guard
      • The National Guard
      • Who should have power over the national guard – the president or state governors?
      Alex Wong/Getty Images
    • Debating Federalism
      • What are some advantages or disadvantages of federalism?
      • Do you believe a federal system allows for a double layer of protection for citizens’ rights?
    • Debating Federalism
      • Do you believe federalism creates a “race to the bottom”?
      • Do you believe federalism brings government closer to the people? Why or why not?
    • Myths and Misinformation
      • Knowledge of state governments
      • In a 2007 survey, only 66% of Americans could state their governor’s name
      • Americans also lack knowledge about their state’s legislative branch and fiscal situation
      • Why do you believe Americans know so little about their state governments?
    • Federalism and Deliberative Democracy
      • In a federal system states are like laboratories of democracy. States allow for policy innovation based on the needs of their residents.
      • Successful state policies may influence national policy.
    • Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
      • States and immigration
      • Federal lawmakers have yet to come to a consensus about immigration reform, but some state governments have.
      • What are your state’s laws on immigration?
    • Summary
      • The federal system is complicated
      • There has been a trend toward centralization of power
      • States still retain much power
      • The federalism debate continues