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  1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Two The American Constitution
  2. 2. Chapter Two: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the lessons the early Americans learned about establishing effective democratic government during the first decade of independence </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the key debates at the Constitutional Convention </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Two: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Sketch the process that resulted in ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the key issues in the debate between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Two: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe how the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution and what dangers Madison and others succeeded in avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the authors of the Constitution compromised with slavery </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Framing the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The process took approximately a decade </li></ul><ul><li>The process was relatively peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>Important lessons learned in early America shaped the document </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Lessons of the First Decade: State Constitutions <ul><li>Features of state constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and balances </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively weak executives </li></ul><ul><li>Property restrictions on voting and holding office </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Lessons of the First Decade: Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>First national constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Weak national government </li></ul><ul><li>See page 34 for key provisions of Articles </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Lessons of the First Decade: Problems Within the States <ul><li>Problems within the states included </li></ul><ul><li>Shays’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies of state laws </li></ul><ul><li>Rage for paper money </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about majority rule </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Lessons of the First Decade: The Road to Philadelphia <ul><li>The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation were apparent in the early days of the document. </li></ul><ul><li>At the Annapolis Convention in 1786 delegates urged Congress to call a constitutional convention. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>What were some of the key debates at the Constitutional Convention? </li></ul>Cornstock/Getty Images
  11. 11. The Constitutional Convention: The Nationalists Set the Agenda <ul><li>Key features of the Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>National executive and judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Each state government would be republican </li></ul><ul><li>See page 40 for more information </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Constitutional Convention: The Small States Counterattack <ul><li>Key features of the New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>National executive and judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy of federal law </li></ul><ul><li>See page 41 for more information </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Constitutional Convention: Hamilton’s Plan <ul><li>Key features of Hamilton’s Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Chief executive and Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Officials subject to impeachment </li></ul><ul><li>See page 41 for more information </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Constitutional Convention: The Great Compromise <ul><li>Key features of the Great Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Representation in the House based on state population </li></ul><ul><li>Each state has equal representation in Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Bills for raising and spending money must originate in the House </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Constitutional Convention: Completing the Constitution <ul><li>The five person Committee of Detail was responsible for drafting a constitution based on the ideas that were agreed upon by delegates to the Constitutional Convention. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Constitutional Convention: Presidency <ul><li>A significant debate about the presidency was over who would elect that official. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution - the electoral college </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Constitutional Convention: Congress <ul><li>House </li></ul><ul><li>Representation based on population </li></ul><ul><li>Direct election </li></ul><ul><li>Serve two year terms </li></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Each state has equal representation </li></ul><ul><li>Election by state legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Serve six year terms </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Constitutional Convention: Judiciary <ul><li>There was little controversy over the creation of the federal judiciary. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal judges serve for life and are subject to impeachment for misbehavior. </li></ul>
  19. 19. International Perspectives <ul><li>What are some differences between a presidential government and a parliamentary government ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some consequences of divided government ? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>Oaths and the U.S. Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>There are three places in the Constitution where oaths for public officials are discussed </li></ul><ul><li>It was believed that, by taking an oath, officeholders would be more likely to perform their jobs in a proper manner </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ratifying the Constitution: The Course for Ratification <ul><li>In order for the Constitution to be ratified it required approval from nine state ratifying conventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratification by popularly elected ratifying conventions brought public opinion and deliberation to the debate over constitutional ratification. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution <ul><li>Two groups emerged in the debate </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Supported ratifying the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted a strong national government </li></ul><ul><li>Authored The Federalist Papers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution <ul><li>Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed ratifying the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about the national government having too much power </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized the lack of a bill of rights </li></ul>
  25. 25. Adding a Bill of Rights <ul><li>How many amendments were added to the Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the addition of a Bill of Rights so important to citizens? </li></ul>Christy, Howard Chandler/The Bridgeman Art Library
  26. 26. Adding a Bill of Rights
  27. 27. Adding a Bill of Rights: Protecting Rights in the Original Constitution <ul><li>Rights protected by the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Writ of habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of attainder </li></ul><ul><li>Ex post facto law </li></ul>
  28. 28. Adding a Bill of Rights: Fashioning the Bill of Rights <ul><li>Debates over the Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Seven states proposed 157 amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Several reasons for a lack of a bill of rights </li></ul><ul><li>Madison proposed amendments that would become the Bill of Rights </li></ul>
  29. 29. Slavery and the Constitution <ul><li>How did the framers address the issue of slavery in the Constitution? </li></ul>MPI/Getty Images
  30. 30. Slavery and the Constitution: The Compromises of the Constitution <ul><li>Slavery addressed in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Three-fifths clause </li></ul><ul><li>Importation of slaves clause </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitive slave clause </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Constitution and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>John Adams stated that the effort to draft the Constitution was “the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution is a result of deliberation at the national Constitutional Convention and state ratifying conventions. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Convening a New Constitutional Convention? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that there are constitutional issues that need to be resolved today through a constitutional convention? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>The Articles of Confederation were weak </li></ul><ul><li>Many debates at the Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of a Bill of Rights ended opposition to the Constitution </li></ul>