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  • 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Two The American Constitution
  • 2. Chapter Two: Learning Objectives
    • Describe the lessons the early Americans learned about establishing effective democratic government during the first decade of independence
    • Describe the key debates at the Constitutional Convention
  • 3. Chapter Two: Learning Objectives
    • Sketch the process that resulted in ratification of the Constitution
    • Explain the key issues in the debate between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists
  • 4. Chapter Two: Learning Objectives
    • Describe how the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution and what dangers Madison and others succeeded in avoiding
    • Explain how the authors of the Constitution compromised with slavery
  • 5. Introduction
    • Framing the Constitution
    • The process took approximately a decade
    • The process was relatively peaceful
    • Important lessons learned in early America shaped the document
  • 6. The Lessons of the First Decade: State Constitutions
    • Features of state constitutions
    • Separation of powers
    • Checks and balances
    • Relatively weak executives
    • Property restrictions on voting and holding office
  • 7. The Lessons of the First Decade: Articles of Confederation
    • Articles of Confederation
    • First national constitution
    • Weak national government
    • See page 34 for key provisions of Articles
  • 8. The Lessons of the First Decade: Problems Within the States
    • Problems within the states included
    • Shays’s Rebellion
    • Deficiencies of state laws
    • Rage for paper money
    • Questions about majority rule
  • 9. The Lessons of the First Decade: The Road to Philadelphia
    • The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation were apparent in the early days of the document.
    • At the Annapolis Convention in 1786 delegates urged Congress to call a constitutional convention.
  • 10. The Constitutional Convention
    • What were some of the key debates at the Constitutional Convention?
    Cornstock/Getty Images
  • 11. The Constitutional Convention: The Nationalists Set the Agenda
    • Key features of the Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral legislature
    • National executive and judicial branch
    • Each state government would be republican
    • See page 40 for more information
  • 12. The Constitutional Convention: The Small States Counterattack
    • Key features of the New Jersey Plan
    • Unicameral legislature
    • National executive and judicial branch
    • Supremacy of federal law
    • See page 41 for more information
  • 13. The Constitutional Convention: Hamilton’s Plan
    • Key features of Hamilton’s Plan
    • Bicameral legislature
    • Chief executive and Supreme Court
    • Officials subject to impeachment
    • See page 41 for more information
  • 14. The Constitutional Convention: The Great Compromise
    • Key features of the Great Compromise
    • Representation in the House based on state population
    • Each state has equal representation in Senate
    • Bills for raising and spending money must originate in the House
  • 15. The Constitutional Convention: Completing the Constitution
    • The five person Committee of Detail was responsible for drafting a constitution based on the ideas that were agreed upon by delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
  • 16. The Constitutional Convention: Presidency
    • A significant debate about the presidency was over who would elect that official.
    • Solution - the electoral college
  • 17. The Constitutional Convention: Congress
    • House
    • Representation based on population
    • Direct election
    • Serve two year terms
    • Senate
    • Each state has equal representation
    • Election by state legislatures
    • Serve six year terms
  • 18. The Constitutional Convention: Judiciary
    • There was little controversy over the creation of the federal judiciary.
    • Federal judges serve for life and are subject to impeachment for misbehavior.
  • 19. International Perspectives
    • What are some differences between a presidential government and a parliamentary government ?
    • What are some consequences of divided government ?
  • 20. Pledges and Promises
    • Oaths and the U.S. Constitution
    • There are three places in the Constitution where oaths for public officials are discussed
    • It was believed that, by taking an oath, officeholders would be more likely to perform their jobs in a proper manner
  • 21. Ratifying the Constitution: The Course for Ratification
    • In order for the Constitution to be ratified it required approval from nine state ratifying conventions.
    • Ratification by popularly elected ratifying conventions brought public opinion and deliberation to the debate over constitutional ratification.
  • 22. Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution
    • Two groups emerged in the debate
    • Federalists
    • Anti-Federalists
  • 23. Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution
    • Federalists
    • Supported ratifying the Constitution
    • Wanted a strong national government
    • Authored The Federalist Papers
  • 24. Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution
    • Anti-Federalists
    • Opposed ratifying the Constitution
    • Concerned about the national government having too much power
    • Criticized the lack of a bill of rights
  • 25. Adding a Bill of Rights
    • How many amendments were added to the Constitution?
    • Why was the addition of a Bill of Rights so important to citizens?
    Christy, Howard Chandler/The Bridgeman Art Library
  • 26. Adding a Bill of Rights
  • 27. Adding a Bill of Rights: Protecting Rights in the Original Constitution
    • Rights protected by the Constitution
    • Writ of habeas corpus
    • Bill of attainder
    • Ex post facto law
  • 28. Adding a Bill of Rights: Fashioning the Bill of Rights
    • Debates over the Bill of Rights
    • Seven states proposed 157 amendments
    • Several reasons for a lack of a bill of rights
    • Madison proposed amendments that would become the Bill of Rights
  • 29. Slavery and the Constitution
    • How did the framers address the issue of slavery in the Constitution?
    MPI/Getty Images
  • 30. Slavery and the Constitution: The Compromises of the Constitution
    • Slavery addressed in the Constitution
    • Three-fifths clause
    • Importation of slaves clause
    • Fugitive slave clause
  • 31. The Constitution and Deliberative Democracy
    • John Adams stated that the effort to draft the Constitution was “the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen.”
    • The Constitution is a result of deliberation at the national Constitutional Convention and state ratifying conventions.
  • 32. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
    • Convening a New Constitutional Convention?
    • Do you believe that there are constitutional issues that need to be resolved today through a constitutional convention?
  • 33. Summary
    • The Articles of Confederation were weak
    • Many debates at the Constitutional Convention
    • Addition of a Bill of Rights ended opposition to the Constitution