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    Chapter2 Chapter2 Presentation Transcript

    • American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Two The American Constitution
    • Chapter Two: Learning Objectives
      • Describe the lessons the early Americans learned about establishing effective democratic government during the first decade of independence
      • Describe the key debates at the Constitutional Convention
    • Chapter Two: Learning Objectives
      • Sketch the process that resulted in ratification of the Constitution
      • Explain the key issues in the debate between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists
    • Chapter Two: Learning Objectives
      • Describe how the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution and what dangers Madison and others succeeded in avoiding
      • Explain how the authors of the Constitution compromised with slavery
    • Introduction
      • Framing the Constitution
      • The process took approximately a decade
      • The process was relatively peaceful
      • Important lessons learned in early America shaped the document
    • The Lessons of the First Decade: State Constitutions
      • Features of state constitutions
      • Separation of powers
      • Checks and balances
      • Relatively weak executives
      • Property restrictions on voting and holding office
    • The Lessons of the First Decade: Articles of Confederation
      • Articles of Confederation
      • First national constitution
      • Weak national government
      • See page 34 for key provisions of Articles
    • The Lessons of the First Decade: Problems Within the States
      • Problems within the states included
      • Shays’s Rebellion
      • Deficiencies of state laws
      • Rage for paper money
      • Questions about majority rule
    • The Lessons of the First Decade: The Road to Philadelphia
      • The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation were apparent in the early days of the document.
      • At the Annapolis Convention in 1786 delegates urged Congress to call a constitutional convention.
    • The Constitutional Convention
      • What were some of the key debates at the Constitutional Convention?
      Cornstock/Getty Images
    • The Constitutional Convention: The Nationalists Set the Agenda
      • Key features of the Virginia Plan
      • Bicameral legislature
      • National executive and judicial branch
      • Each state government would be republican
      • See page 40 for more information
    • The Constitutional Convention: The Small States Counterattack
      • Key features of the New Jersey Plan
      • Unicameral legislature
      • National executive and judicial branch
      • Supremacy of federal law
      • See page 41 for more information
    • The Constitutional Convention: Hamilton’s Plan
      • Key features of Hamilton’s Plan
      • Bicameral legislature
      • Chief executive and Supreme Court
      • Officials subject to impeachment
      • See page 41 for more information
    • The Constitutional Convention: The Great Compromise
      • Key features of the Great Compromise
      • Representation in the House based on state population
      • Each state has equal representation in Senate
      • Bills for raising and spending money must originate in the House
    • The Constitutional Convention: Completing the Constitution
      • The five person Committee of Detail was responsible for drafting a constitution based on the ideas that were agreed upon by delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
    • The Constitutional Convention: Presidency
      • A significant debate about the presidency was over who would elect that official.
      • Solution - the electoral college
    • The Constitutional Convention: Congress
      • House
      • Representation based on population
      • Direct election
      • Serve two year terms
      • Senate
      • Each state has equal representation
      • Election by state legislatures
      • Serve six year terms
    • The Constitutional Convention: Judiciary
      • There was little controversy over the creation of the federal judiciary.
      • Federal judges serve for life and are subject to impeachment for misbehavior.
    • International Perspectives
      • What are some differences between a presidential government and a parliamentary government ?
      • What are some consequences of divided government ?
    • Pledges and Promises
      • Oaths and the U.S. Constitution
      • There are three places in the Constitution where oaths for public officials are discussed
      • It was believed that, by taking an oath, officeholders would be more likely to perform their jobs in a proper manner
    • Ratifying the Constitution: The Course for Ratification
      • In order for the Constitution to be ratified it required approval from nine state ratifying conventions.
      • Ratification by popularly elected ratifying conventions brought public opinion and deliberation to the debate over constitutional ratification.
    • Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution
      • Two groups emerged in the debate
      • Federalists
      • Anti-Federalists
    • Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution
      • Federalists
      • Supported ratifying the Constitution
      • Wanted a strong national government
      • Authored The Federalist Papers
    • Ratifying the Constitution: Debating the Constitution
      • Anti-Federalists
      • Opposed ratifying the Constitution
      • Concerned about the national government having too much power
      • Criticized the lack of a bill of rights
    • Adding a Bill of Rights
      • How many amendments were added to the Constitution?
      • Why was the addition of a Bill of Rights so important to citizens?
      Christy, Howard Chandler/The Bridgeman Art Library
    • Adding a Bill of Rights
    • Adding a Bill of Rights: Protecting Rights in the Original Constitution
      • Rights protected by the Constitution
      • Writ of habeas corpus
      • Bill of attainder
      • Ex post facto law
    • Adding a Bill of Rights: Fashioning the Bill of Rights
      • Debates over the Bill of Rights
      • Seven states proposed 157 amendments
      • Several reasons for a lack of a bill of rights
      • Madison proposed amendments that would become the Bill of Rights
    • Slavery and the Constitution
      • How did the framers address the issue of slavery in the Constitution?
      MPI/Getty Images
    • Slavery and the Constitution: The Compromises of the Constitution
      • Slavery addressed in the Constitution
      • Three-fifths clause
      • Importation of slaves clause
      • Fugitive slave clause
    • The Constitution and Deliberative Democracy
      • John Adams stated that the effort to draft the Constitution was “the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen.”
      • The Constitution is a result of deliberation at the national Constitutional Convention and state ratifying conventions.
    • Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
      • Convening a New Constitutional Convention?
      • Do you believe that there are constitutional issues that need to be resolved today through a constitutional convention?
    • Summary
      • The Articles of Confederation were weak
      • Many debates at the Constitutional Convention
      • Addition of a Bill of Rights ended opposition to the Constitution