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Chapter NineteenNational Security and Foreign Policy American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
Chapter Nineteen: Learning Objectives• Sketch the history of foreign policy and its relationship to citizenship• Describe the conflicting traditions of American foreign policy
Chapter Nineteen: Learning Objectives• Lay out the organizations that develop and execute foreign policy• Analyze the political struggle for control of foreign policy• Discuss how policymakers and citizens deliberate on foreign policy
IntroductionForeign policy is• Defense against immediate threats• Advancing democracy, economic freedom, and human rightsForeign policy requires deliberation and long-term planning.
A Brief History of U.S. Foreign and Defense PoliciesFounding to the twentieth century• Isolationism• Monroe Doctrine• Post Civil War America expanded activities in Latin America and Asia
A Brief History of U.S. Foreign and Defense PoliciesWorld Wars and the Cold War• World Wars I and II• Policy of containment and the Cold War• National Security Act of 1947
A Brief History of U.S. Foreign and Defense PoliciesIraq and terror• Military action against Iraq in 1990s and 2000s• September 11, 2001 terror attacks• Afghanistan and al Qaeda
Conflicting Traditions in National SecurityWhat competing ideas and sentiments influence American foreign policy?What is the role of citizen deliberation in American foreign policy?
Conflicting Traditions in National Security: Moralism versus PragmatismMoralismAmerican exceptionalism encompasses two ideas of moralism• Desire to defend nation’s way of life• Desire to remake the world
Conflicting Traditions in National Security: Moralism versus PragmatismPragmatism• Practical focus on costs and benefits of action• Throughout history, some presidents have avoided fighting “righteous fights” that the nation was unprepared to fight
International PerspectivesViews of U.S. influenceAccording to public opinion research, many foreign nations believe the United States has a negative influence on global affairs and that American foreign policy does not consider the interests of other nations.
Conflicting Traditions in National Security: Openness versus SecrecyOpenness in foreign policy allows more people to participate in deliberations.Secrecy is also necessary in some circumstances, especially when engaging in covert operations.
Pledges and PromisesSecrecyOaths are one way to protect secrets related to national security and foreign policy.
Conflicting Traditions in National Security: Unilateralism versus MultilateralismUnilateralism was prevalent through the early twentieth century.Multilateralism became prevalent because of World War II and its aftermath.
Organization and Coordination in the Executive BranchWho makes foreign policy, and how do they organize their deliberations?Do you believe that there is one actor that may be more important than other actors in foreign policy?
Organization and Coordination in the Executive Branch: The PresidentRole of the president• Key figure in foreign policy• War Powers Resolution to limit war making• Uses treaty power and appointment power to influence foreign and defense policy
Organization and Coordination in theExecutive Branch: National Security Council The National Security Council • Created in 1947 • NSC meetings allow deliberation among several political actors • National Security Adviser runs the NSC
Organization and Coordination in theExecutive Branch: Departments, AgenciesCivilian departments and agencies• State Department involved in foreign policy• Commerce, Treasury, and Agriculture departments also involved in international economic policy
Organization and Coordination in the Executive Branch: The MilitaryThe military• Department of Defense oversees military• Since 1972, military has been all volunteer forces• National Guard and Reservists may also be called to national duty
Organization and Coordination in the Executive Branch: IntelligenceThe intelligence community• Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)• National Security Agency (NSA)• National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)• Intelligence important for deliberation
Congress, Courts, Interest Groups, and Public OpinionHow should Congress, the courts, interest groups, and public opinion influence decisions on Kenneth Lambert, File/AP Photo foreign policy and national security?
Congress, Courts, Interest Groups, and Public Opinion: CongressCongressional influence• Budgetary power• Appointment power• Treaty powerAre there issues with congressional deliberation?
Congress, Courts, Interest Groups, and Public Opinion: CourtsInfluence of the courts• Courts sometime hesitant about foreign policy• 1952 Youngstown case• 1971 “Pentagon Papers” case• Two special courts deal with intelligence issues
Congress, Courts, Interest Groups, and Public Opinion: Interest GroupsInterest group influence• Business groups• Ethnic groups• Humanitarian groups Mandel Ngan AFP/Getty Images
Congress, Courts, Interest Groups, and Public Opinion: Public OpinionInfluence of public opinion and the media• Secrecy hinders public deliberation• Foreign policy opinions reflect partisan polarization• Media used to reach large audience
Congress, Courts, Interest Groups,and Public Opinion: Public Opinion
Foreign Policy, National Security, and Deliberative DemocracyWhy do Americans lack foreign policy knowledge?• The way world history is taught in schools• Popular culture lacks foreign representation• Americans are lacking in language skills
Myths and MisinformationThe public and foreign policyMany Americans donot understand worldpolitics which mayaffect foreign policypreferences. STAFF SGT ANTONIETA RICO/ASSOCIATED PRESS
Deliberation, Citizenship, and YouStudy abroadStudents are encouraged to participate in study abroad programs to increase their knowledge about international issues and improve deliberation.
Summary• United States grown to be great power• Conflicting ideas influence decisions• Presidents lead foreign policy• Other political actors attempt to influence foreign policy