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  • 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Seventeen Social Policy and the Welfare State
  • 2. Chapter Seventeen: Learning Objectives
    • Describe the importance of FDR’s approach to laying the foundations of the welfare state
    • Identify the major developments in American social policy from the New Deal through the present
  • 3. Chapter Seventeen: Learning Objectives
    • Explain why President Clinton and Congress reformed the welfare system in the 1990s
    • Describe President Bush’s proposed reform of Social Security, and explain why it did not pass
  • 4. Chapter Seventeen: Learning Objectives
    • Identify the key issues at stake in the debate over adding prescription drug coverage to Medicare in 2003
    • Describe the long-term funding issues that affect Social Security and Medicare
  • 5. Chapter Seventeen: Learning Objectives
    • Explain the current controversy over education vouchers in the United States, and identify other innovations of the school choice movement
    Pablo Martinez Monsivais, FILE/AP Photo
  • 6. Introduction
    • During the Great Depression , President Roosevelt redefined the relationship between the federal government and citizens.
    • The programs of the New Deal set forth a welfare state , which was a new development in American political life.
  • 7. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State
    • How has the welfare state grown since the early twentieth century?
    • What are its major programs, and why were they enacted?
    AP Photo
  • 8. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: FDR’s New Deal
    • New Deal programs
    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
    • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
    • Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
    • Social Security
  • 9. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: FDR’s New Deal
    • FDR also argued for a “second Bill of Rights” which would promote “security and prosperity…for all.”
    • What are the differences between negative rights and positive rights ?
  • 10. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: Truman’s Fair Deal
    • President Truman set forth social programs known as the Fair Deal , which would include national health insurance coverage.
    • Programs enacted included the National School Lunch Program and the Housing Act of 1949.
  • 11. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: Eisenhower’s Republicanism
    • Modern Republicanism under Eisenhower accepted the social welfare programs created by previous administrations, such as Social Security, unemployment insurance, labor laws, and agricultural programs.
  • 12. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: Johnson’s Great Society
    • President Johnson declared a war on poverty and was responsible for the Great Society programs that were designed to reduce poverty, improve urban America, and foster a sense of community.
  • 13. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: Johnson’s Great Society
    • Great Society programs
    • Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
    • Food Stamp Act of 1964
    • Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    • Medicaid
  • 14. The Growth and Rationale of the Welfare State: Modern Social Welfare Policy
    • Modern social welfare policies
    • Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
    • Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC0
    • What are the differences between means-tested programs and entitlements ?
  • 15. The Welfare Debate
    • Why did Congress replace the AFDC entitlement program with the TANF block grant?
    • What effect did the change have on welfare rolls?
  • 16. Myths and Misinformation
    • Spending for the poor
    • Data shows that over the past few decades, government spending on social welfare programs has steadily increased.
  • 17. The Welfare Debate: The End of the Welfare Entitlement
    • The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 replaced AFDC with TANF.
    • What have been some of the effects of this welfare reform?
    Stephen Jaffe/Reuters/Landov
  • 18. Pledges and Promises
    • Personal responsibility contracts
    • Under TANF, states have more authority in administering welfare programs. Most states require TANF recipients to sign a personal responsibility contract in order to receive benefits.
  • 19. The Welfare Debate: Effects of Welfare Reform
    • What are some effects of welfare reform?
    • Drop in welfare caseload numbers
    • Poverty rate has not dropped
  • 20. The Welfare Debate: Effects of Welfare Reform Source: Congressional Budget Offi ce, “Changes in Participation in Means Tested Programs,” April 20, 2005,, accessed Augusst 13, 2009.
  • 21. The Social Security Debate
    • Does the Social Security system face a crisis in the future?
    • What are the key issues in the debate over private accounts?
  • 22. The Social Security Debate Source: U.S. Social Security Administration, Offi ce of Policy, “Fast Facts & Figures about Social Security, 2008,” docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2008/fast_facts08.html#generalinfo, accessed January 29, 2009.
  • 23. The Social Security Debate: How Social Security is Funded
    • Contributions go into the Social Security trust fund .
    • With concerns about the program, the Greenspan Commission was formed to address funding issues.
  • 24. The Social Security Debate: Attempts and Social Security Reform
    • In 2005, President Bush suggested Social Security reforms, which would allow for the creation of personal accounts.
    • How did the public feel about the option of personal accounts?
  • 25. The Medicare Prescription Drug Debate
    • How did Congress expand the Medicare program in 2003?
    • What were the key issues in the debate before Congress, and why did the parties divide so sharply?
  • 26. The Medicare Prescription Drug Debate: Key Provisions of the Medicare Expansion
    • Changes in 2003
    • Helped with cost of prescription drugs
    • Created voluntary health savings accounts
    • Increased funding for rural health
    • Provided new coverage for preventative care
  • 27. The Medicare Prescription Drug Debate: Dissent Across Party Lines
    • Republicans supported the bill because the private sector would take on a larger role of the provision of services.
    • Democrats did not support the legislation because they did not want private companies involved with Medicare.
  • 28. The Medicare Prescription Drug Debate: Funding Medicare in the 21 st Century
    • Three ways to fund Medicare
    • Payroll taxes
    • General revenues
    • Premiums and co-pays by enrollees
  • 29. The School Choice Movement
    • What are the elements of the modern school choice movement?
    • What are the issues and controversies in the debate over school choice?
  • 30. The School Choice Movement: Types of School Voucher Programs
    • Different types of voucher programs in the United States
    • Low-income
    • Parents of disabled children that do not like public schools to which they are assigned
    • Families in rural areas far from public schools
  • 31. International Perspectives
    • School choice
    • How do other nations handle education policy and school choice programs?
    • What can the United States learn from such programs?
  • 32. The School Choice Movement: Other Kinds of School Choice
    • Other options for school choice
    • Tax credits for scholarships for low-income students
    • Tax credits for private school tuition
    • Charter and magnets schools, home schooling
  • 33. Social Policy and Deliberative Democracy
    • There was concern in early American history about creation of a welfare state.
    • Social policy in the twenty-first century
    • Helps those in need
    • Reduces risk in daily life
  • 34. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
    • Funding the welfare state in the twenty-first century
    • How would you design public forms to debate changes to social welfare entitlement programs?
    Ron Edmonds/AP Photo
  • 35. Summary
    • New Deal redefined relationship between citizens and government
    • Americans no longer deliberate on whether government should provide social welfare programs, rather deliberation occurs about how to create and fund such programs