American Government and Politics:  Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Sixteen Judiciary
Chapter Sixteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain why courts are so influential in the United States </li></ul><ul><li...
Chapter Sixteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the structure and functioning of the federal court system </li></ul...
Chapter Sixteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Summarize how the Supreme Court has affected government and politics through...
Chapter Sixteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the American people or their elected officials have tried to che...
Introduction <ul><li>Why are the courts so influential? </li></ul><ul><li>Because judges exercise  judicial review </li></...
Introduction Petteway, Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States
Constitutional and Legal Foundations: The Case for an Independent Judiciary <ul><li>As Montesquieu argued, courts need to ...
Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Constitution of 1787 <ul><li>Article III of the Constitution set forth an independen...
Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Judiciary Act of 1789 <ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Established  d...
Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Judiciary Act of 1789 Source: www.law.syr.edu/media/documents/2008/2/IntroCourts.pdf...
Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Judicial Review <ul><li>The practice of judicial review by the Supreme Court began w...
Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Trial by Jury <ul><li>Trial by jury is another important principle of the American l...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Federal court system structure </li></ul><ul><li>Distric...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Trial courts  that hea...
Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>The Meaning of “beyond a reasonable doubt” </li></ul><ul><li>These words are not in the C...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Courts of Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Hear cases on appeal ...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Nine justices on the Cou...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Hears cases on appeal by...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion of the...
International Perspectives <ul><li>The International Criminal Court </li></ul><ul><li>The ICC was created to prosecute “ge...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Special courts </li></ul><ul><li>These courts have been ...
The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Determining if a controversy exists requires considering...
The Courts and American Politics <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court influenced American politics throughout its history? </...
The Courts and American Politics <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court influenced American politics throughout its history? </...
The Courts and American Politics <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court influenced American politics throughout its history? </...
The Continuing Debate Over  Judicial Activism <ul><li>How much should the Supreme Court influence public policy? </li></ul...
The Continuing Debate Over  Judicial Activism <ul><li>The debate at the founding </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns over Court’s a...
The Continuing Debate Over  Judicial Activism <ul><li>The debate recurs </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition to power of judicial ...
The Continuing Debate Over  Judicial Activism <ul><li>The modern debate </li></ul><ul><li>Concern that justices relying on...
Checking the Courts <ul><li>Justices are encouraged to exercise  judicial self-restraint . </li></ul><ul><li>How do judges...
Checking the Courts <ul><li>Seven ways courts have been checked </li></ul><ul><li>Revising the laws </li></ul><ul><li>Amen...
Checking the Courts <ul><li>Seven ways courts have been checked </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the size of the Supreme Court <...
Checking the Courts <ul><li>Seven ways courts have been checked </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to enforce judicial decisions <...
The Supreme Court and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>Judges put a lot of effort into their decisions which inform the poli...
The Supreme Court and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>How are the courts different? </li></ul><ul><li>Courts do not represe...
Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Empathy and the task of judging </li></ul><ul><li>Should empathy or compassion ...
Summary <ul><li>Through judicial review, courts have an significant impact on many issues </li></ul><ul><li>Federal judici...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter16

1,998

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,998
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
170
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter16

  1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Sixteen Judiciary
  2. 2. Chapter Sixteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain why courts are so influential in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the argument for judicial review, a power not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Sixteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the structure and functioning of the federal court system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the Supreme Court hears and decides cases </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the federal courts determine what kinds of cases they will hear </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Sixteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Summarize how the Supreme Court has affected government and politics throughout American history </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the key issues and arguments in the debate over judicial activism </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter Sixteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the American people or their elected officials have tried to check the power of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how the Supreme Court contributes to deliberative democracy in the United States </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Why are the courts so influential? </li></ul><ul><li>Because judges exercise judicial review </li></ul><ul><li>Should justices practice judicial activism or follow strict construction by looking at the original intent of the founding fathers? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction Petteway, Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States
  8. 8. Constitutional and Legal Foundations: The Case for an Independent Judiciary <ul><li>As Montesquieu argued, courts need to be independent of legislatures and executives if the lives and property of citizens were to be secure. </li></ul><ul><li>While in the Articles of Confederation, there was no separate judiciary; the Constitution corrected that. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Constitution of 1787 <ul><li>Article III of the Constitution set forth an independent federal judiciary. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal judiciary has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction . </li></ul>Franz Jantzen, Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States
  10. 10. Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Judiciary Act of 1789 <ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Established district courts (U.S. District Courts) </li></ul><ul><li>Established circuit courts (U.S. Courts of Appeal) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Judiciary Act of 1789 Source: www.law.syr.edu/media/documents/2008/2/IntroCourts.pdf, accessed August 7, 2009.
  12. 12. Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Judicial Review <ul><li>The practice of judicial review by the Supreme Court began with Marbury v. Madison (1803). </li></ul><ul><li>The use of judicial review has been controversial throughout American history. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Constitutional and Legal Foundations: Trial by Jury <ul><li>Trial by jury is another important principle of the American legal system. </li></ul><ul><li>In Article III, trial by jury is guaranteed in federal criminal cases and the Seventh Amendment extends that right to federal civil cases. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Federal court system structure </li></ul><ul><li>District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Trial courts that hear criminal and civil cases </li></ul><ul><li>Federal prosecutor is the United States Attorney </li></ul><ul><li>Plaintiff brings the suit, defendant is one sued </li></ul><ul><li>Charges proved beyond a reasonable doubt </li></ul>
  16. 16. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>The Meaning of “beyond a reasonable doubt” </li></ul><ul><li>These words are not in the Constitution, but construed as an important element of due process. </li></ul><ul><li>What does that concept really mean? </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Courts of Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Hear cases on appeal from district courts </li></ul><ul><li>Appellant files brief, states legal error </li></ul><ul><li>Appellee files brief , defends lower court decision </li></ul><ul><li>Oral arguments held before judges </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Nine justices on the Court (number set in 1869) </li></ul><ul><li>Led by chief justice </li></ul><ul><li>No constitutional requirements to be a justice </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Hears cases on appeal by a writ of certiorari </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of four to determine which cases to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Amicus curiae briefs are one way for the Court to be influenced by outside parties </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion of the Court </li></ul><ul><li>Majority opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Dissenting opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Concurring opinion </li></ul><ul><li>When drafting decisions, justices rely on precedents and case law . </li></ul>
  21. 21. International Perspectives <ul><li>The International Criminal Court </li></ul><ul><li>The ICC was created to prosecute “genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.” </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 nations have ratified the treaty that established the ICC, but not the U.S. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Special courts </li></ul><ul><li>These courts have been created to deal with issues such as bankruptcy, international trade and customs and claims against the United States. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Structure and Functioning of the Federal Court System <ul><li>Determining if a controversy exists requires considering four characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Standing </li></ul><ul><li>Ripeness </li></ul><ul><li>Mootness </li></ul><ul><li>Political questions </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Courts and American Politics <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court influenced American politics throughout its history? </li></ul><ul><li>The foundations for national power </li></ul><ul><li>Race and reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the power of the government to regulate the economy </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Courts and American Politics <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court influenced American politics throughout its history? </li></ul><ul><li>Deferring to the political branches on economic matters </li></ul><ul><li>The rights revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The expansion of the remedial powers </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Courts and American Politics <ul><li>How has the Supreme Court influenced American politics throughout its history? </li></ul><ul><li>The growing importance of state supreme courts </li></ul><ul><li>The courts and the 2000 presidential election </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Continuing Debate Over Judicial Activism <ul><li>How much should the Supreme Court influence public policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the modern Court base its constitutional interpretations on the “original intent,” or “original meaning,” of the Constitution? </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Continuing Debate Over Judicial Activism <ul><li>The debate at the founding </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns over Court’s ability to interpret Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary was developed to be too weak to encroach on legislative power </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature could impeach and remove judges </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Continuing Debate Over Judicial Activism <ul><li>The debate recurs </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition to power of judicial review continued </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to national supremacy upheld by Court </li></ul><ul><li>Court set forth its own ideas about economic </li></ul><ul><li>policy and segregation issues </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Continuing Debate Over Judicial Activism <ul><li>The modern debate </li></ul><ul><li>Concern that justices relying on “extra-constitutional values” </li></ul><ul><li>Desire by some for justices to practice theory of originalism </li></ul><ul><li>Debate over original intent and original meaning </li></ul>
  31. 31. Checking the Courts <ul><li>Justices are encouraged to exercise judicial self-restraint . </li></ul><ul><li>How do judges exercise restraint? </li></ul><ul><li>Through the cases they choose to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Through practice of stare decisis </li></ul>
  32. 32. Checking the Courts <ul><li>Seven ways courts have been checked </li></ul><ul><li>Revising the laws </li></ul><ul><li>Amending the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the jurisdiction of the courts </li></ul>
  33. 33. Checking the Courts <ul><li>Seven ways courts have been checked </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the size of the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Impeaching and removing judges </li></ul>
  34. 34. Checking the Courts <ul><li>Seven ways courts have been checked </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to enforce judicial decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing certain kinds of judges </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Supreme Court and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>Judges put a lot of effort into their decisions which inform the political deliberations of the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Justices must use reason and logic to influence other political actors. </li></ul>Theodor Horydczak, Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States
  36. 36. The Supreme Court and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>How are the courts different? </li></ul><ul><li>Courts do not represent public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Justices typically have less expertise than other branches in specific policy areas </li></ul><ul><li>Courts don’t decide how to achieve common good through broad policy judgments </li></ul>
  37. 37. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Empathy and the task of judging </li></ul><ul><li>Should empathy or compassion be qualities we seek in judges? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Summary <ul><li>Through judicial review, courts have an significant impact on many issues </li></ul><ul><li>Federal judiciary insulated from politics </li></ul><ul><li>Few cases reach the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Courts may influence deliberative democracy through opinions </li></ul>
  1. Gostou de algum slide específico?

    Recortar slides é uma maneira fácil de colecionar informações para acessar mais tarde.

×