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  • 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Fourteen The Presidency
  • 2. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
    • Summarize the key developments in the history of the American presidency and describe their importance
    • Describe the organization of the executive branch and how it influences presidential deliberation
  • 3. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
    • Explain how the interaction of the presidency with the other branches affects the exercise of executive power and the functioning of the national government
    • Identify the ways in which presidents independently exercise authority
  • 4. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
    • Explain how presidents, Congress, and the courts have interacted, and sometimes clashed, in the area of foreign policy and war powers
    • Describe Congress’s power to hold presidents accountable for serious constitutional violations through impeachment and removal
  • 5. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
    • Explain how presidents contribute to public deliberation on national issues
    • Discuss how Americans judge presidential performance and what makes for presidential greatness
  • 6. Introduction
    • Presidents must deliberate with other governmental actors as well as the public in order to accomplish their goals.
    • Presidents have unique advantages as well as unique problems in deliberation.
  • 7. Historical Development of the Presidency: Creating the Presidency
    • Features of the presidency
    • Single person has executive power
    • President has a variety of powers
    • Legislature does not select president
    • Presidential term is four years
  • 8. International Perspectives
    • Presidents and prime ministers
    • Prime ministers share power with members of parliament that serve in the cabinet.
    • American presidents rise to power through elections, not congressional service.
  • 9. Historical Development of the Presidency: Citizenship and the Presidency
    • Article II, Section I sets forth the citizenship requirements for the presidency which require the presidency to be either “a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.”
  • 10. Historical Development of the Presidency: Washington and the Early Presidents
    • How did the following early presidents contribute to the office?
    • George Washington
    • John Adams
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • 11. Historical Development of the Presidency: Jackson and the Democratization
    • Jackson was the first president to
    • Speak directly to citizens, bypassing Congress
    • Interpret reelection as popular endorsement
    • Call himself the direct representative of citizens
  • 12. Historical Development of the Presidency: Lincoln and the Civil War
    • Lincoln faced many struggles during the Civil War and one of his more controversial actions was the suspension of habeas corpus.
    • Was the suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln constitutional? Why or why not?
  • 13. Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • Believed president was “a steward of the people”
    • Called the presidency a “bully pulpit”
    • Use of rhetoric to develop policy
    Bettmann/CORBIS
  • 14. Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • Scholar of American government (had a Ph.D.)
    • Made presidency center of policymaking
    • Shaped theory of modern presidency
  • 15. Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt
    • Added political skill and charisma to presidency
    • Elected to presidency four times
    • Dominant on the national political scene
    Bettmann/CORBIS
  • 16. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
    • Since FDR, most presidents have embraced the role of legislative leader.
    • Contemporary presidents use rhetoric to influence public opinion.
    Pete Souza/Mai /Landov
  • 17. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
    • Rethinking presidential power
    • The Vietnam War and Watergate made many Americans rethink presidential power.
    • Nixon’s successors had more low-key governing styles.
  • 18. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
    • Ronald Reagan
    • Reagan spoke against big government.
    • Reagan relied on rhetoric so much that he earned the nickname “The Great Communicator.”
  • 19. Myths and Misinformation
    • Reagan and the size of government
    • Reagan’s quote concerning the size of government has been misconstrued.
    • Reagan had a more flexible approach to government than some would admit.
  • 20. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
    • Reagan’s successors
    • Have had a significant impact on foreign and national security policy
    • Not as dominant in areas of domestic policy
    • Controversy over president’s powers renewed after 9/11
  • 21. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
    • Barack Obama
    • Refashioned national security policy
    • Passed a large stimulus plan through Congress
    • Led federal “bailout” of banking and auto industry
    • Pushing for major national health care reform
  • 22. Organization of the Executive Branch: The Vice Presidency
    • Nine vice presidents have become president.
    • Until recently, the vice president did not have many powers as the only constitutional duty of the office is serving as president of the Senate.
  • 23. Organization of the Executive Branch: Executive Office of the President
    • Created in 1939, the Executive Office of the President is the formal staff organization of the White House.
    • Presidents have delegated authority to these staffers in different ways.
  • 24. Executive Office of the Presidency: The Cabinet
    • The Cabinet is the president’s formal advisers.
    • There are 15 cabinet-level departments.
    • Presidents rely on their cabinet secretaries in many ways.
  • 25. Organization of the Executive Branch: The Special Case of National Security
    • The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947 to deliberate about national security and foreign policy.
    • Presidents typically prefer to make decisions related to national security based on deliberation with the NSC.
  • 26. Organization of the Executive Branch: White House Deliberation
    • Two obstacles in deliberation
    • Groupthink
    • Prestige of presidency may intimidate people to defer to his wishes
  • 27. The Presidency and the Other Branches
    • What effect does the interaction of the presidency with the other branches have on the exercise of executive power and the functioning of the national government?
  • 28. The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Two-Way Street of Persuasion
    • Presidents use a mix of deliberation and bargaining to influence Congress.
    • Congresspersons also want to influence the president’s policy decisions.
  • 29. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Vetoes
    • Presidents may influence legislation through vetoes.
    • Vetoes are typically more common in times of divided government, but the president does rely on his party to provide opposition to sustain vetoes.
  • 30. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Direct Authority
    • Tools of direct authority
    • Proclamations
    • Executive orders
    • Signing statements
    • Recess appointments
    • Executive agreements
  • 31. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power
    • Presidents work with their advisers to negotiate treaties with foreign countries and to make policies related to war and national defense.
    • The Constitution grants the power to declare war to Congress, but presidents exercise war power.
  • 32. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power
    • Throughout history, Congress has passed resolutions to support the president’s use of the armed forces for war actions.
    • The War Powers Resolution (1974) was passed by Congress to limit the president’s war making powers.
  • 33. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment
    • Presidents have exercised executive privilege to keep information confidential.
    • In U.S. v. Nixon (1974), the president’s right to exercise executive privilege was recognized by the Supreme Court.
  • 34. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment
    • Presidents may be forced out of office through the impeachment process.
    • The House draws up the articles of impeachment and the Senate conducts the trial.
  • 35. Pledges and Promises
    • The presidential oath of office
    • The presidential oath is different from other oaths.
    • The words of the oath have been important in impeachment battles.
  • 36. The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Judiciary
    • Presidents attempt to influence the judiciary through their appointments to the federal courts.
    • Presidents also appoint the solicitor general, who is responsible for government litigation in the Supreme Court.
  • 37. The Political Presidency
    • When and how do presidents deliberate with the general public?
    • Do you believe such deliberation is influential on presidential behavior? Why or why not?
  • 38. The Political Presidency: Links to Parties and Interest Groups
    • Presidents want to influence public opinion and may try to do so through party activists and interest groups.
    • There are limitations placed on the president’s use of government resources for political activities such as election campaigns.
  • 39. The Political Presidency: Communication and the White House
    • Contemporary presidents have emphasized communication with the public and to do that, they have employed press secretaries and speechwriters to assist them.
    • How does speechwriting foster deliberation?
  • 40. The Political Presidency: Presidents and Public Opinion
    • Many factors influence the public’s opinion of the president, but the economy and national security have greater impact.
    • What is the rally effect and how does that affect the president’s public opinion numbers?
  • 41. The Political Presidency: Presidents, Sacrifice, and Citizenship
    • During difficult times, the president often asks Americans to sacrifice.
    • Asking for sacrifice may have an impact on a president’s public opinion ratings.
  • 42. Presidential Greatness
    • Two factors in assessing presidential greatness
    • Time and chance
    • Courage and conviction
  • 43. Presidential Greatness Source: From Intercollegiate Review (Spring 1998). Copyright © 1988 by Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Inc. Reprinted with permission.
  • 44. The Presidency and Deliberative Democracy
    • How do presidents contribute to deliberative democracy?
    • Deliberate with advisers and aides
    • Work to influence Congress
    • Participate in national debate to influence public opinion
  • 45. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
    • Influencing public deliberation
    • Imagine you are the president’s speechwriter and he asks you to write a speech on a subject that deserves more national attention. What would you write about? Who is your audience?
  • 46. Summary
    • President protects nation, carries out laws
    • Presidents have been legislative leaders
    • Presidency is more than just one person
    • Presidents need to mobilize public support