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American Government and Politics:  Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Fourteen The Presidency
Chapter Fourteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Summarize the key developments in the history of the American presidency an...
Chapter Fourteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the interaction of the presidency with the other branches affec...
Chapter Fourteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how presidents, Congress, and the courts have interacted, and somet...
Chapter Fourteen:  Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how presidents contribute to public deliberation on national issues...
Introduction <ul><li>Presidents must deliberate with other governmental actors as well as the public in order to accomplis...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Creating the Presidency <ul><li>Features of the presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Sin...
International Perspectives <ul><li>Presidents and prime ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Prime ministers share power with membe...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Citizenship and the Presidency <ul><li>Article II, Section I sets forth the citi...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Washington and the Early Presidents <ul><li>How did the following early presiden...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Jackson and the Democratization <ul><li>Jackson was the first president to </li>...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Lincoln and the Civil War <ul><li>Lincoln faced many struggles during the Civil ...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency <ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Belie...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar o...
Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency <ul><li>Franklin D. Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Ad...
Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Since FDR, most presidents have embraced the...
Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Rethinking presidential power </li></ul><ul>...
Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Ronald Reagan </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan spoke...
Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>Reagan and the size of government </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan’s quote concerning the size of...
Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Reagan’s successors </li></ul><ul><li>Have h...
Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Barack Obama </li></ul><ul><li>Refashioned n...
Organization of the Executive Branch: The Vice Presidency <ul><li>Nine vice presidents have become president. </li></ul><u...
Organization of the Executive Branch: Executive Office of the President <ul><li>Created in 1939, the  Executive Office of ...
Executive Office of the Presidency: The Cabinet <ul><li>The  Cabinet  is the president’s formal advisers.  </li></ul><ul><...
Organization of the Executive Branch: The Special Case of National Security <ul><li>The  National Security Council (NSC)  ...
Organization of the Executive Branch: White House Deliberation <ul><li>Two obstacles in deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Gro...
The Presidency and the Other Branches <ul><li>What effect does the interaction of the presidency with the other branches h...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Two-Way Street of Persuasion <ul><li>Presidents use a mix of deliberation and b...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: Vetoes <ul><li>Presidents may influence legislation through vetoes. </li></ul><ul><...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: Direct Authority <ul><li>Tools of direct authority </li></ul><ul><li>Proclamations ...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power <ul><li>Presidents work with their advisers to neg...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power <ul><li>Throughout history, Congress has passed re...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment <ul><li>Presidents have exercised  execut...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment <ul><li>Presidents may be forced out of o...
Pledges and Promises <ul><li>The presidential oath of office </li></ul><ul><li>The presidential oath is different from oth...
The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Judiciary <ul><li>Presidents attempt to influence the judiciary through their a...
The Political Presidency <ul><li>When and how do presidents deliberate with the general public? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you b...
The Political Presidency:  Links to Parties and Interest Groups <ul><li>Presidents want to influence public opinion and ma...
The Political Presidency: Communication and the White House <ul><li>Contemporary presidents have emphasized communication ...
The Political Presidency:  Presidents and Public Opinion <ul><li>Many factors influence the public’s opinion of the presid...
The Political Presidency:  Presidents, Sacrifice, and Citizenship <ul><li>During difficult times, the president often asks...
Presidential Greatness <ul><li>Two factors in assessing presidential greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Time and chance </li></ul...
Presidential Greatness Source: From  Intercollegiate Review  (Spring 1998). Copyright © 1988 by Intercollegiate Studies In...
The Presidency and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>How do presidents contribute to deliberative democracy? </li></ul><ul><l...
Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Influencing public deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine you are the president...
Summary <ul><li>President protects nation, carries out laws </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents have been legislative leaders </l...
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  1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Fourteen The Presidency
  2. 2. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Summarize the key developments in the history of the American presidency and describe their importance </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the organization of the executive branch and how it influences presidential deliberation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the interaction of the presidency with the other branches affects the exercise of executive power and the functioning of the national government </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the ways in which presidents independently exercise authority </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how presidents, Congress, and the courts have interacted, and sometimes clashed, in the area of foreign policy and war powers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Congress’s power to hold presidents accountable for serious constitutional violations through impeachment and removal </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how presidents contribute to public deliberation on national issues </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how Americans judge presidential performance and what makes for presidential greatness </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Presidents must deliberate with other governmental actors as well as the public in order to accomplish their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents have unique advantages as well as unique problems in deliberation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Development of the Presidency: Creating the Presidency <ul><li>Features of the presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Single person has executive power </li></ul><ul><li>President has a variety of powers </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature does not select president </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential term is four years </li></ul>
  8. 8. International Perspectives <ul><li>Presidents and prime ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Prime ministers share power with members of parliament that serve in the cabinet. </li></ul><ul><li>American presidents rise to power through elections, not congressional service. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Historical Development of the Presidency: Citizenship and the Presidency <ul><li>Article II, Section I sets forth the citizenship requirements for the presidency which require the presidency to be either “a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Historical Development of the Presidency: Washington and the Early Presidents <ul><li>How did the following early presidents contribute to the office? </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul>
  11. 11. Historical Development of the Presidency: Jackson and the Democratization <ul><li>Jackson was the first president to </li></ul><ul><li>Speak directly to citizens, bypassing Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret reelection as popular endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>Call himself the direct representative of citizens </li></ul>
  12. 12. Historical Development of the Presidency: Lincoln and the Civil War <ul><li>Lincoln faced many struggles during the Civil War and one of his more controversial actions was the suspension of habeas corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln constitutional? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency <ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Believed president was “a steward of the people” </li></ul><ul><li>Called the presidency a “bully pulpit” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of rhetoric to develop policy </li></ul>Bettmann/CORBIS
  14. 14. Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar of American government (had a Ph.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Made presidency center of policymaking </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped theory of modern presidency </li></ul>
  15. 15. Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency <ul><li>Franklin D. Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Added political skill and charisma to presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Elected to presidency four times </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant on the national political scene </li></ul>Bettmann/CORBIS
  16. 16. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Since FDR, most presidents have embraced the role of legislative leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary presidents use rhetoric to influence public opinion. </li></ul>Pete Souza/Mai /Landov
  17. 17. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Rethinking presidential power </li></ul><ul><li>The Vietnam War and Watergate made many Americans rethink presidential power. </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon’s successors had more low-key governing styles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Ronald Reagan </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan spoke against big government. </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan relied on rhetoric so much that he earned the nickname “The Great Communicator.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>Reagan and the size of government </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan’s quote concerning the size of government has been misconstrued. </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan had a more flexible approach to government than some would admit. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Reagan’s successors </li></ul><ul><li>Have had a significant impact on foreign and national security policy </li></ul><ul><li>Not as dominant in areas of domestic policy </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over president’s powers renewed after 9/11 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency <ul><li>Barack Obama </li></ul><ul><li>Refashioned national security policy </li></ul><ul><li>Passed a large stimulus plan through Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Led federal “bailout” of banking and auto industry </li></ul><ul><li>Pushing for major national health care reform </li></ul>
  22. 22. Organization of the Executive Branch: The Vice Presidency <ul><li>Nine vice presidents have become president. </li></ul><ul><li>Until recently, the vice president did not have many powers as the only constitutional duty of the office is serving as president of the Senate. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Organization of the Executive Branch: Executive Office of the President <ul><li>Created in 1939, the Executive Office of the President is the formal staff organization of the White House. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents have delegated authority to these staffers in different ways. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Executive Office of the Presidency: The Cabinet <ul><li>The Cabinet is the president’s formal advisers. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 15 cabinet-level departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents rely on their cabinet secretaries in many ways. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Organization of the Executive Branch: The Special Case of National Security <ul><li>The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947 to deliberate about national security and foreign policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents typically prefer to make decisions related to national security based on deliberation with the NSC. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Organization of the Executive Branch: White House Deliberation <ul><li>Two obstacles in deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige of presidency may intimidate people to defer to his wishes </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Presidency and the Other Branches <ul><li>What effect does the interaction of the presidency with the other branches have on the exercise of executive power and the functioning of the national government? </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Two-Way Street of Persuasion <ul><li>Presidents use a mix of deliberation and bargaining to influence Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Congresspersons also want to influence the president’s policy decisions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Vetoes <ul><li>Presidents may influence legislation through vetoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Vetoes are typically more common in times of divided government, but the president does rely on his party to provide opposition to sustain vetoes. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Direct Authority <ul><li>Tools of direct authority </li></ul><ul><li>Proclamations </li></ul><ul><li>Executive orders </li></ul><ul><li>Signing statements </li></ul><ul><li>Recess appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Executive agreements </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power <ul><li>Presidents work with their advisers to negotiate treaties with foreign countries and to make policies related to war and national defense. </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution grants the power to declare war to Congress, but presidents exercise war power. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power <ul><li>Throughout history, Congress has passed resolutions to support the president’s use of the armed forces for war actions. </li></ul><ul><li>The War Powers Resolution (1974) was passed by Congress to limit the president’s war making powers. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment <ul><li>Presidents have exercised executive privilege to keep information confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>In U.S. v. Nixon (1974), the president’s right to exercise executive privilege was recognized by the Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment <ul><li>Presidents may be forced out of office through the impeachment process. </li></ul><ul><li>The House draws up the articles of impeachment and the Senate conducts the trial. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>The presidential oath of office </li></ul><ul><li>The presidential oath is different from other oaths. </li></ul><ul><li>The words of the oath have been important in impeachment battles. </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Judiciary <ul><li>Presidents attempt to influence the judiciary through their appointments to the federal courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents also appoint the solicitor general, who is responsible for government litigation in the Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Political Presidency <ul><li>When and how do presidents deliberate with the general public? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe such deliberation is influential on presidential behavior? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Political Presidency: Links to Parties and Interest Groups <ul><li>Presidents want to influence public opinion and may try to do so through party activists and interest groups. </li></ul><ul><li>There are limitations placed on the president’s use of government resources for political activities such as election campaigns. </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Political Presidency: Communication and the White House <ul><li>Contemporary presidents have emphasized communication with the public and to do that, they have employed press secretaries and speechwriters to assist them. </li></ul><ul><li>How does speechwriting foster deliberation? </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Political Presidency: Presidents and Public Opinion <ul><li>Many factors influence the public’s opinion of the president, but the economy and national security have greater impact. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the rally effect and how does that affect the president’s public opinion numbers? </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Political Presidency: Presidents, Sacrifice, and Citizenship <ul><li>During difficult times, the president often asks Americans to sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for sacrifice may have an impact on a president’s public opinion ratings. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Presidential Greatness <ul><li>Two factors in assessing presidential greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Time and chance </li></ul><ul><li>Courage and conviction </li></ul>
  43. 43. Presidential Greatness Source: From Intercollegiate Review (Spring 1998). Copyright © 1988 by Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Inc. Reprinted with permission.
  44. 44. The Presidency and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>How do presidents contribute to deliberative democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate with advisers and aides </li></ul><ul><li>Work to influence Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in national debate to influence public opinion </li></ul>
  45. 45. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Influencing public deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine you are the president’s speechwriter and he asks you to write a speech on a subject that deserves more national attention. What would you write about? Who is your audience? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Summary <ul><li>President protects nation, carries out laws </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents have been legislative leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Presidency is more than just one person </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents need to mobilize public support </li></ul>
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