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Chapter14

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    Chapter14 Chapter14 Presentation Transcript

    • American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Fourteen The Presidency
    • Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
      • Summarize the key developments in the history of the American presidency and describe their importance
      • Describe the organization of the executive branch and how it influences presidential deliberation
    • Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
      • Explain how the interaction of the presidency with the other branches affects the exercise of executive power and the functioning of the national government
      • Identify the ways in which presidents independently exercise authority
    • Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
      • Explain how presidents, Congress, and the courts have interacted, and sometimes clashed, in the area of foreign policy and war powers
      • Describe Congress’s power to hold presidents accountable for serious constitutional violations through impeachment and removal
    • Chapter Fourteen: Learning Objectives
      • Explain how presidents contribute to public deliberation on national issues
      • Discuss how Americans judge presidential performance and what makes for presidential greatness
    • Introduction
      • Presidents must deliberate with other governmental actors as well as the public in order to accomplish their goals.
      • Presidents have unique advantages as well as unique problems in deliberation.
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Creating the Presidency
      • Features of the presidency
      • Single person has executive power
      • President has a variety of powers
      • Legislature does not select president
      • Presidential term is four years
    • International Perspectives
      • Presidents and prime ministers
      • Prime ministers share power with members of parliament that serve in the cabinet.
      • American presidents rise to power through elections, not congressional service.
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Citizenship and the Presidency
      • Article II, Section I sets forth the citizenship requirements for the presidency which require the presidency to be either “a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.”
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Washington and the Early Presidents
      • How did the following early presidents contribute to the office?
      • George Washington
      • John Adams
      • Thomas Jefferson
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Jackson and the Democratization
      • Jackson was the first president to
      • Speak directly to citizens, bypassing Congress
      • Interpret reelection as popular endorsement
      • Call himself the direct representative of citizens
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Lincoln and the Civil War
      • Lincoln faced many struggles during the Civil War and one of his more controversial actions was the suspension of habeas corpus.
      • Was the suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln constitutional? Why or why not?
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency
      • Theodore Roosevelt
      • Believed president was “a steward of the people”
      • Called the presidency a “bully pulpit”
      • Use of rhetoric to develop policy
      Bettmann/CORBIS
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency
      • Woodrow Wilson
      • Scholar of American government (had a Ph.D.)
      • Made presidency center of policymaking
      • Shaped theory of modern presidency
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: Rise of the Modern Presidency
      • Franklin D. Roosevelt
      • Added political skill and charisma to presidency
      • Elected to presidency four times
      • Dominant on the national political scene
      Bettmann/CORBIS
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
      • Since FDR, most presidents have embraced the role of legislative leader.
      • Contemporary presidents use rhetoric to influence public opinion.
      Pete Souza/Mai /Landov
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
      • Rethinking presidential power
      • The Vietnam War and Watergate made many Americans rethink presidential power.
      • Nixon’s successors had more low-key governing styles.
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
      • Ronald Reagan
      • Reagan spoke against big government.
      • Reagan relied on rhetoric so much that he earned the nickname “The Great Communicator.”
    • Myths and Misinformation
      • Reagan and the size of government
      • Reagan’s quote concerning the size of government has been misconstrued.
      • Reagan had a more flexible approach to government than some would admit.
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
      • Reagan’s successors
      • Have had a significant impact on foreign and national security policy
      • Not as dominant in areas of domestic policy
      • Controversy over president’s powers renewed after 9/11
    • Historical Development of the Presidency: The Contemporary Presidency
      • Barack Obama
      • Refashioned national security policy
      • Passed a large stimulus plan through Congress
      • Led federal “bailout” of banking and auto industry
      • Pushing for major national health care reform
    • Organization of the Executive Branch: The Vice Presidency
      • Nine vice presidents have become president.
      • Until recently, the vice president did not have many powers as the only constitutional duty of the office is serving as president of the Senate.
    • Organization of the Executive Branch: Executive Office of the President
      • Created in 1939, the Executive Office of the President is the formal staff organization of the White House.
      • Presidents have delegated authority to these staffers in different ways.
    • Executive Office of the Presidency: The Cabinet
      • The Cabinet is the president’s formal advisers.
      • There are 15 cabinet-level departments.
      • Presidents rely on their cabinet secretaries in many ways.
    • Organization of the Executive Branch: The Special Case of National Security
      • The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947 to deliberate about national security and foreign policy.
      • Presidents typically prefer to make decisions related to national security based on deliberation with the NSC.
    • Organization of the Executive Branch: White House Deliberation
      • Two obstacles in deliberation
      • Groupthink
      • Prestige of presidency may intimidate people to defer to his wishes
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches
      • What effect does the interaction of the presidency with the other branches have on the exercise of executive power and the functioning of the national government?
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Two-Way Street of Persuasion
      • Presidents use a mix of deliberation and bargaining to influence Congress.
      • Congresspersons also want to influence the president’s policy decisions.
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: Vetoes
      • Presidents may influence legislation through vetoes.
      • Vetoes are typically more common in times of divided government, but the president does rely on his party to provide opposition to sustain vetoes.
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: Direct Authority
      • Tools of direct authority
      • Proclamations
      • Executive orders
      • Signing statements
      • Recess appointments
      • Executive agreements
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power
      • Presidents work with their advisers to negotiate treaties with foreign countries and to make policies related to war and national defense.
      • The Constitution grants the power to declare war to Congress, but presidents exercise war power.
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: Foreign Policy and the War Power
      • Throughout history, Congress has passed resolutions to support the president’s use of the armed forces for war actions.
      • The War Powers Resolution (1974) was passed by Congress to limit the president’s war making powers.
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment
      • Presidents have exercised executive privilege to keep information confidential.
      • In U.S. v. Nixon (1974), the president’s right to exercise executive privilege was recognized by the Supreme Court.
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: Investigation, Privilege, and Impeachment
      • Presidents may be forced out of office through the impeachment process.
      • The House draws up the articles of impeachment and the Senate conducts the trial.
    • Pledges and Promises
      • The presidential oath of office
      • The presidential oath is different from other oaths.
      • The words of the oath have been important in impeachment battles.
    • The Presidency and the Other Branches: The Judiciary
      • Presidents attempt to influence the judiciary through their appointments to the federal courts.
      • Presidents also appoint the solicitor general, who is responsible for government litigation in the Supreme Court.
    • The Political Presidency
      • When and how do presidents deliberate with the general public?
      • Do you believe such deliberation is influential on presidential behavior? Why or why not?
    • The Political Presidency: Links to Parties and Interest Groups
      • Presidents want to influence public opinion and may try to do so through party activists and interest groups.
      • There are limitations placed on the president’s use of government resources for political activities such as election campaigns.
    • The Political Presidency: Communication and the White House
      • Contemporary presidents have emphasized communication with the public and to do that, they have employed press secretaries and speechwriters to assist them.
      • How does speechwriting foster deliberation?
    • The Political Presidency: Presidents and Public Opinion
      • Many factors influence the public’s opinion of the president, but the economy and national security have greater impact.
      • What is the rally effect and how does that affect the president’s public opinion numbers?
    • The Political Presidency: Presidents, Sacrifice, and Citizenship
      • During difficult times, the president often asks Americans to sacrifice.
      • Asking for sacrifice may have an impact on a president’s public opinion ratings.
    • Presidential Greatness
      • Two factors in assessing presidential greatness
      • Time and chance
      • Courage and conviction
    • Presidential Greatness Source: From Intercollegiate Review (Spring 1998). Copyright © 1988 by Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Inc. Reprinted with permission.
    • The Presidency and Deliberative Democracy
      • How do presidents contribute to deliberative democracy?
      • Deliberate with advisers and aides
      • Work to influence Congress
      • Participate in national debate to influence public opinion
    • Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
      • Influencing public deliberation
      • Imagine you are the president’s speechwriter and he asks you to write a speech on a subject that deserves more national attention. What would you write about? Who is your audience?
    • Summary
      • President protects nation, carries out laws
      • Presidents have been legislative leaders
      • Presidency is more than just one person
      • Presidents need to mobilize public support