5 INVENTIONS THAT CHANGED THE WAY WE“MOVE”Railroad – LocomotiveSteamboatCanal SystemTurnpikeAutomobile
TECHNOLOGYThe Industrial Revolution was built on rapid advances intechnologyWhich of these three inventions do you feel most changed the waythat raw materials, goods, and people moved?
THE RAILROAD• Thanks to the Bessemer Processpeople were able to make railroadtracks out of steel• The Railroad/Locomotive is the mostimportant invention that changed theway raw materials, goods, and peoplemoved• Allowed communication and tradebetween places previously deemed toofar• Made travel possible. People wereable to travel on “day vacations” andsee places they never would seen priorto the locomotive• Thanks to James Watt, the Locomotivewas powered by STEAM
HERE IS HOW IT HAPPENED:• George Stephenson created thefirst steam locomotive built forrailways in 1813 called theLocomotion in Liverpool• Stephenson then created the firstpublic railway in 1825• The railway connected cities ofStockton and Darlington (England)
How do you think the railway system has influenced livesduring the industrial revolution? How do you think the Railway System has influences our lives today? Is there much difference in influences between the two time periods? What if we didn’t have Railways. How would this change the way we travel or transpo
THE STEAMBOAT• John Fitch was unable to convince thegovernment that he had tested the firststeamboat, even though it was a successfultest.• John Fitch didn’t create just one but threedifferent versions of the steamboat• John Fitch fought hard for the patent and endedup committing suicide shortly after his quest.• Shortly after Fitch’s death, Robert Fulton usedFitch’s ideas and made his own rendition• Robert Fulton was awarded the steamboatpatent and named the official inventor.• Rivers were America’s natural highways, butthey could only be navigated by moving withthe currents• The Steamboat was created to maneuver therivers using steam-power instead of windHow do you feelabout the U.S. issuingthis stamp after whatyou know?
THE CANAL SYSTEM• America has a natural waterway, Britaindid not. Canals had to be handmadeWhy?• Industrialization required large amountsof product to be moved from onelocation to the next• Dirt roads could not handle such weightand vehicles to transport did not exist• Canals made it possible to move heavyobjects (like coal) and fragile objects(pottery) large distances
CANAL SYSTEM• Canals made investorsLOTS of money.• In the 1790’s so-called“canal-mania” took placewhen people invested theirmoney in canal projects• By 1840, there were nearly4,500 miles of canals inBritain.
TURNPIKE AND ROADS• Telford believed in buildingroads that would last andneeded little repair.• His roads cost a lot of moneyand they took a long time tobuild – but they lasted.• John McAdam’s roads were cheaper asthey were not as detailed as Telford’s.• McAdam’s were hard wearing and hebelieved that the weight of the traffic usinghis roads would press down the road andmake it stronger.• As his roads were cheaper, they were morein demand by the turnpike trusts. To thisday, McAdams’s input into improving ourroad system, is remembered with his namebeing given” to tarmac.Two men are credited with improving the roads of Britain:Thomas Telford and John McAdam
TURNPIKESBefore the Industrial Revolution:• By law, every parish had to look after the “roads” that ran through their area.• Few Villagers travelled, therefore they were participated in this task becauseit was not beneficialBUT, the growth of the Industrial Revolution required good transport systems, soParliament passed the Turnpike Act.• The Act allowed county magistrates to charge people for using roads• Private companies began to invest in the Turnpikes and the maintenance ofthe roads. In exchange, the profits from the tolls were split with the investorsand the other half was used to maintain the roads.This is how our turnpike and toll roads are operated today
THE AUTOMOBILE• The first automobile was not created during theIndustrial Revolution• However, the first mass produced automobilewas and that was Henry Ford• Henry Ford is an American Legacy• Henry Ford wanted to create a car that ordinarypeople could afford, and in October 1908, he didit.• The Model T sold for $850. In nineteen years ofmanufacture, Ford lowered the price to $260 andsold 15 million cars in the U.S. alone.How did he make the Model T so inexpensive to purchase?
MODERN DAY ASSEMBLY LINE• Ford invented the modern assembly line.• He doubled his workers wages and cut theworkday from nine to eight hours.• Ford did this to ensure quality work andallow a three-shift workday.• As a result, the company was able to makeModel Ts twenty-four hours a day!• This is where we get the idea of “shift work”• This process allowed for cheaper cars. Nowmost everyone could purchase a car. Beforethis only wealthy people could afford cars.• This changed American society forever,changing where and how we lived.
ASSEMBLY LINE• Workers on an assembly line add parts to a product thatmoves along the belt from one work station to the next• A different person performs each task along the assembly line• This division of labor made production faster and cheaper,lowering the price of goods Significance
INTERACTIVE NOTEBOOKWhat three points did you learn about mobility during the IndustrialRevolution?What two inventions thus far do you feel has made the most impact on yourdaily life?What one question do you still have about the Industrial Revolution?