As a StudentWhile his school taught the ideas of Aristotle, Newtonpreferred to read the ideas of Galileo and Kepler. As a student he was undistinguished, but his private studiesduring this time produced: - a theory that would later become infintesimal calculus- a theory on optics- his law of gravitation "You have to develop a talent for using your talent." -Lou Holtz
1687 - The PrincipiaIn 1687, Newton published the Philosophae NaturalisPricipia Mathematica (AKA: The Pricipia) which means"Mathematical Priciples of Natural Philosophy" In it Newton proposes an idea that is revolutionary. - That the movement of objects in the universe is governedby 3 Natural Laws
Law 1: Objects at rest or in motionObjects at rest tend to remain atrest unless acted upon by an outsideforce. Objects in motion tend to remain inmotion unless acted upon by anoutside force.
Law 2: Force = Mass x AccelerationF = ma A 20 kg iron bar lifted off the ground at a rate of 12meters per second. How much force was required to dothis? 20kg x 12m/s = 240 Newtons of Force A 200,000 pound rocket at 150 feet per second? 200,000 x 150fps - 3,000,000 Newtons of Force
Law 3: For every action......there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What all this means:Newton popularized the idea that the earth and universewas governed by "natural laws." This means that the universe and earth were basicallymachines built by a creator to always operate a certain way. This means we can study, understand (and even predict) theworld so long as we can figure out what these natural lawsare.
Effect on science:The idea of natural laws and natural order takes overscience. New branches of science (like chemistry, biologyand physics) emerge to answer all sorts of new questionsthat this line of thinking creates. New tools (like the microscope) are invented to examine andunderstand scientific principles. Science is basically divorced from supernaturalexplanations.
Effect on other subjectsECONOMICS:Adam Smith puts forth an idea that economics are governedby invisible "market forces" and puts forth the idea thatgovernment shouldnt interfere with these forces (laissez-faire economics). POLITICS:John Locke puts forth an idea that people are born with"natural rights" that the government is responsible fordefending. Among these natural rights are "Life, health,liberty or possessions."
Effect on other subjects RELIGION: This Natural Law philosophy gave rise to areligious philosophy known as Deism. Deism is the belief that a Creator exists, but does notinvolve Himself in the day-to-day running of the universe,which is His perfect creation. Observation and reason leadsto knowledge of this Creator, not organized religion.
Notable things influenced byScientific Revolution beliefs: The Declaration of Independence:"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all en arecreated equal and are endowed by their Creator withcertain unalienable rights. That among these are life,liberty and the pursuit of happiness." The Constitution of the United States:"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment ofreligion, nor prohibiting the free exercise thereof."