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Reducing the Potential Impact
           of Maritime Threats




  ASIS International 3rd Asia-Pacific Security Conference...
Purpose
  Update on maritime threats in the Asia Pacific
region

 Selected Lessons from attacks/attempts and
methodologies...
Presentation Highlights
  SEA Maritime Orientation
  Maritime Threats in the SEA Region
    Threat Groups / Piracy Update
...
Threat Groups
Transnational Terrorist Threats & Insurgents
• Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)
• Other Ter...
S/SE Asia Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (9) (Dec 08)


PAKISTAN                 PHILIPPINES                 B...
Select SEA Organizations NOT included as FTOs *
                                                              Primarily op...
Piracy Update
Globally: *Piracy rate was down for 1st Half of
year, but Jul – Sept figures increased total to
above 2007; ...
Overall Counts of Actual and Attempted Piracy Attacks as per Countries:
    January – December: 2003‐2007 and Third Quarte...
Actual and Attempted Piracy Attacks as per Countries
                 January – December: 2003‐2007              Indonesia...
IMB Piracy Map 2008
 Asia-Pacific Region
                                10
                       As of 3 Dec 08
Type of Vessels Attacked in Asia-Pacific Region
                                       January to September 2008

        ...
BONGA FPSO ATTACK
•   19 June 2008
•   75nm offshore Nigeria
•   Attacked by MEND elements
•   Support vessel hijacked; Ca...
Oil and Gas Fields in
  Southeast Asia




Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-470F                                         1...
Regional Trends & Projections
Maritime transport will remain critical assets
and maritime routes will become increasingly
...
Maritime Security
  Methodologies
What Will It Take to Protect
Operations, People, Assets?




                           ...
Identify the Assets & Risks
                     i.e. “Do your Homework”
• Identify Critical Maritime Infrastructure &
  A...
ISPS Code
•   Appoint Company Security Officer (CSO) { and PFSO for ports}
•   Designate SSO; Resourced & Trained
•   Ship...
Protection vs Threats / Risks
• ISPS Code: Security Plans
       •   Access Controls (Ports & Ships)
       •   Adequate &...
Response

• Notifications to Flag States & Intl Org when req
• Enterprise-wide Risk Management Procedures
• Hostile Enviro...
Applying Technological Solutions
   Is Technology the Answer?
    Procedure or Technology problem?
    Cost vs. Benefit An...
Maritime Security Equipment/Systems
                   {Integrate Offshore and Onshore}

    CLOSE-IN SYSTEMS
• Integrated...
Cooperative, Mutually Supporting
                 Efforts
•   Public (Govt) Vs. Private Sector Roles & Resp
    – Funding ...
Reducing the Potential Impact
    of Maritime Threats
     ASIS International 3rd Asia-Pacific Security Conference:
      ...
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Reducing maritime threats

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Transcript of "Reducing maritime threats"

  1. 1. Reducing the Potential Impact of Maritime Threats ASIS International 3rd Asia-Pacific Security Conference: Advancing Security in the Asia Pacific Region 5 February 2009 Presentation by :  BGen. Joseph V. Medina, USMC (Ret), CSO Director, Asia Pacific & Maritime Security 1 Business Profiles, Incorporated 
  2. 2. Purpose Update on maritime threats in the Asia Pacific region Selected Lessons from attacks/attempts and methodologies used by maritime threat groups Understand impact of ISPS Code implementation Review other security methodologies to reduce risk exposure 2
  3. 3. Presentation Highlights SEA Maritime Orientation Maritime Threats in the SEA Region Threat Groups / Piracy Update Regional trends and projections Maritime Security Methodologies in this environment: “What will it take to protect people, operations, and assets?” ISPS Code Implementation Applying Technological Solutions 3
  4. 4. Threat Groups Transnational Terrorist Threats & Insurgents • Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) • Other Terrorist Organizations • Insurgent Organizations not designated as Terrorist Organized Crime Groups • Piracy • Smugglers Other Threats/Risks • Internal • Environmental • Community Issues • Other Crime 4
  5. 5. S/SE Asia Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (9) (Dec 08) PAKISTAN PHILIPPINES BANGLADESH Harakat ul-Mujahidin Abu Sayyaf Group Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami Jaish-e-Mohammed Communist Party of the (JEM) Philippines/New SRI LANKA People's Army Lashkar-e Tayyiba (CPP/NPA) Liberation Tigers of (LT) (Army of the Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Righteous) INDONESIA Lashkar i Jhangvi Jemaah Islamiya (JI)
  6. 6. Select SEA Organizations NOT included as FTOs * Primarily operates in: Rajah Solaiman Movement (RSM) Philippines MILF <and> MNLF Philippines Alintilaqa {or Al Intilaqa} Philippines Indigenous People’s Federal Army (IPFA) Philippines Rebolusyonaryong Hukbong Bayan (RHB) Philippines Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO) Thailand Pattani Islamic Mujahedin Movement Thailand Barisan Revolusi Nasional Melayu Pattani BRN Thailand Gereka Mujahideen Islam Pattani (GMP) Thailand Sri Nakharo Thailand/Malaysia Bersatu Malaysia/Thailand Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM) Malaysia Gerakan Ache Merdeka (GAM) {Free Aceh Mvmnt} Indonesia Indonesia Mujaheden Council Indonesia Indonesia Islamic Liberation Front (IILF) Indonesia Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia (MMI) Indonesia Organized Crime Groups (Al Khobar, Yakuza, Hung Mun, Jas Phor, Black Shark, etc.) 6 Militant Environmental Activists/Eco-terrorists (ELF, etc) *Not all inclusive
  7. 7. Piracy Update Globally: *Piracy rate was down for 1st Half of year, but Jul – Sept figures increased total to above 2007; 12% more than 2006 (same period) Piracy in SEA is down in past 9 months (20%) 20% of all attacks worldwide were in SEA region Majority of Attacks & Attempts in 2008 were WHILE STEAMING! VIOLENCE in attacks is alarming & INCREASING! 7
  8. 8. Overall Counts of Actual and Attempted Piracy Attacks as per Countries: January – December: 2003‐2007 and Third Quarter of 2008 Sri Lanka 7/1 2003 India 73 / 10 158 / 9 2004 Bangladesh Vietnam 37 / 8 2005 South China Sea 20 / 0 2006 China/HK/Macau 9/0 2007 10 / 0 Thailand 2008 Singapore Straits 25 / 2 Source: IMB Piracy Report 2007-2008 Philippines 28 / 6 Myanmar 1/1 Malaysia 31 / 7 Malacca Straits 96 / 2 387 / 23 Indonesia 8 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
  9. 9. Actual and Attempted Piracy Attacks as per Countries January – December: 2003‐2007 Indonesia 140 120 Malacca Straits 100 80 Malaysia 60 50 Philippines 40 20 Singapore Straits Thailand/Gulf of 15 Thailand South China Sea 10 Vietnam 5 Bangladesh 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 India 9 Source: IMB 2007 Annual Report
  10. 10. IMB Piracy Map 2008 Asia-Pacific Region 10 As of 3 Dec 08
  11. 11. Type of Vessels Attacked in Asia-Pacific Region January to September 2008 Yacht 1 Type of Vessels Attacks + SEA Attempts Tug 1 Far East Fishing Vessel 2+0 Tanker 2 India-Sub Continent 1 each: Yacht, 5+0 Tug, Passenger, Product Tanker 3 Barge, Lift Barge General Cargo 2+1 Passenger Ship 1 Livestock Carrier 0+1 LPG Tanker 2 Research Vessel 0+1 Lift Barge 1 Bulk Carrier 5+1 33 % Container 7+1 General Cargo 2 Chemical Tanker 6+1 Fishing Vessel 2 38 % Product Tanker 3+0 Container 7 Tanker 2+2 6 LPG Tanker 2+0 Chemical Tanker TOTAL: 34 + 8 Bulk Carrier 5 Big Carrier/Cont: 12 + 2 Barge 1 71 % Tankers: 13 + 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 References: IMB 2nd Quarter Piracy Report (January to June 2008) and IMB Weekly Reports from (July to September)
  12. 12. BONGA FPSO ATTACK • 19 June 2008 • 75nm offshore Nigeria • Attacked by MEND elements • Support vessel hijacked; Capt abducted (later returned) • Production Stopped • Reports that Bonga had – No Active Radar, only CCTV – Patrol Boats pulled off for Navy Exercise – Went into “Lockdown”, preventing access to spaces by MEND • MEND reported that its target was computerized control room, but “detonation engineers” unable to gain access • Warned that this would not be last deep water attack 12
  13. 13. Oil and Gas Fields in Southeast Asia Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-470F 13 “Map showing geology, oil and gas fields and Geologic provinces of the Asia Pacific Region, Plate 2, Southeast Asia, 1999
  14. 14. Regional Trends & Projections Maritime transport will remain critical assets and maritime routes will become increasingly congested With increases price of crude, fuel (tankers) become more attractive target Gain vs. Risk As exploratory activity increases in the coastal or neritic zones, oil production vessels, platforms & systems (FPSO) become increasing lucrative targets Port, bunkering and logistic hubs are targets for maritime threats (criminals as well as terrorists/insurgents) 14
  15. 15. Maritime Security Methodologies What Will It Take to Protect Operations, People, Assets? 15
  16. 16. Identify the Assets & Risks i.e. “Do your Homework” • Identify Critical Maritime Infrastructure & Assets • Due Diligence • ISPS Code: Ship & Port Assessments – Risk & Vulnerability Assessments – Local Area Threat & Risk Assessment • Threat & Risk Reviews for transiting ships • Social Mapping & Investigations • Business Process Risk Review & Analysis 16
  17. 17. ISPS Code • Appoint Company Security Officer (CSO) { and PFSO for ports} • Designate SSO; Resourced & Trained • Ship Security Plan (SSP) & Intl Ship Sec Cert (ISSC) – Ship Security Assessment (SSA) – Produce & Implement Ship Security Plan (SSP); maintain onboard – Submit & Approval of SSP from Flag State (or RSO) – Onboard verification by Flag State – ISSC from Flag State (maintain on board) • Continuous Synopsis Record (Flag State has info & CSR on board) • Ship has required info (Contact for Flag and Port State Admin; Parties resp to appoint crew, charter party, and employment of ship) • Carriage Requirements – AIS; IMO Number displayed Externally & Internally; Develop Ship Security Alert Systems Requirements ISPS Code applies to tankers, production vessels, port facilities and may apply to FPSOs, offshore platforms/facilities (country & task specific) 17
  18. 18. Protection vs Threats / Risks • ISPS Code: Security Plans • Access Controls (Ports & Ships) • Adequate & Trained Security Force • Procedures for Ship & Port Interface • Remote Location/Site Security • Required Equipment • Supply Chain Security: – Tankers, FPSOs, Port Bunkerage, etc. – Container Security & Uncontainerized cargo – Business Process Risk Review & Analysis • Protective Intelligence • Develop/Implement/Monitor Community Outreach Programs 18
  19. 19. Response • Notifications to Flag States & Intl Org when req • Enterprise-wide Risk Management Procedures • Hostile Environment & Cultural Awareness • Emergency Preparedness & Response – Interface between private sector & flag states • Crisis Management & Resiliency 19
  20. 20. Applying Technological Solutions Is Technology the Answer? Procedure or Technology problem? Cost vs. Benefit Analysis Manpower cost vs. High Tech cost What are the “Hidden Costs”? Technology appropriate to the task? Consider the “environment” Training available? Can the system be sustained? Integrated System with Trained Staff Mutually supporting systems are best 20
  21. 21. Maritime Security Equipment/Systems {Integrate Offshore and Onshore} CLOSE-IN SYSTEMS • Integrated Control System • Marine Lights & Lighting • CCTV & Special Cameras • Day/ Night Video System (DNVS) • Automatic Panoramic Intruder Detection System • Night Vision Goggles • Long-Range Binoculars • Marine Hoses & Sprayers EXTENDED SURV SYSTEMS • Radio & Comm Equip • Radars • etc. etc. etc. • Sonar Systems • Diver Detection Sonar (DDS) system • Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USVs) • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) • QRF Equipment (Speed Boats, etc) 21
  22. 22. Cooperative, Mutually Supporting Efforts • Public (Govt) Vs. Private Sector Roles & Resp – Funding vs. Operational Roles – Adherence to Organizations Code of Ethic; Voluntary Principles • Integration of Public & Private Sectors – “Joint Interagency Task Force” • Cooperation / Coalition with other Private Sector enterprises – More cost efficient – More effective as a single voice – Joint Planning can be mutually supporting; provide protective intelligence 22
  23. 23. Reducing the Potential Impact of Maritime Threats ASIS International 3rd Asia-Pacific Security Conference: Advancing Security in the Asia Pacific Region 5 February 2009 Thank you Presentation by :  BGen. Joseph V. Medina, USMC (Ret) Director, Asia Pacific & Maritime Security josephmedina@businessprofiles.com.ph medina.josephv@gmail.com www.businessprofiles.com.ph 23

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