Libraries and Museums in the Flat World:
             Are They Becoming Virtual Destinations?



                         ...
Outline
 • “The World is Flat”
 • Libraries in the flat world
 • Library “as a place”
 • Inside out library
 • Libraries a...
“The World Is Flat”, by Tom Friedman

                                                               • Impact of networks
...
World Flatteners
 •          MS Windows (1989)
            “a universal graphical user interface . . . to look at the
    ...
Flattening the World

   “…what the flattening of the world
   means is that we are now connecting
   all the knowledge ce...
Yes, but . . .

   • Yes, we are connecting all the
     knowledge centers on the planet
     together, perhaps
   • But t...
“World is Flat” at Sofia Univ. Library




                                                                               ...
“World is Flat” at Rousse Univ. Library




                                                                              ...
“World is Flat” at Central Library of BAS




                                                                            ...
OCLC Open WorldCat




                                                                                                   ...
The World is Flat




                                                                                                    ...
Not in Bulgaria?




                                                                                                     ...
Library Catalogs Offer No Help
• “We don’t have it but
        – We can get it from such and such libraries
        – We c...
Library as a “Place” Metaphor
   • “Library is the heart of the university”
   • Hard to identify where exactly the librar...
Libraries as Virtual Destinations

   • First, library catalogs became virtual
     destinations
   • Now, libraries thems...
“World is Flat” at Univ. of California




                      Printed copies
                                          ...
“World is Flat” at AUBG Library


                               AUBG Library is NOT a virtual destination




           ...
Google Scholar




                                                                                                       ...
Bulgarian chitalishta
(cultural community centers)




                                                                   ...
Google Scholar is a virtual
   destination




                                                                           ...
Library Catalogs
   • Library catalogs represent only a fraction
     of the information universe
   • They list bibliogra...
Amazoogle
   • The World is Flat in Amazon.com
           – Detailed info on book, TOC, reviews,
             customer dis...
Inside Out Library                                                                                 lab books

Flow and fla...
Library catalog: “A mediocre product at
a high price” (Lloyd Sokvitne)



  • “Our users expect simplicity and immediate r...
Unstoppable Fall of Library as a “Place”

   • Number of users physically visiting
     libraries decreasing
   • Yet the ...
Challenges for Libraries
   • Open Access
   • Digitization projects
   • Google Scholar
           – More than 100 librar...
Museums in the Flat World
   • Challenges facing museums
           – storage areas, fragile objects, geographically
     ...
Virtual Museum of Canada




                                                                                             ...
Online Archive of California




                                                                                         ...
Digital Archive Network for Anthropology
   and World Heritage




                                                       ...
The Digital Michelangelo Project




                                                                                     ...
The Digital Michelangelo Project




                                                                                     ...
Challenges for Museums
• Unique museum objects including 3D ones
        – E.g., pictures, sculptures, installations
• Dig...
The Old Mostar Bridge (Stari Most)




                                                                                   ...
Preservation of Cultural Heritage in the Flat World


   • As a society we are “becoming
     increasingly dependent on di...
European Commission Recommendation

   1) Digitization of content
           – by setting up large scale digitization faci...
“Europe's Cultural and Scientific Heritage
   at a Click of a Mouse”
• “i2010: Digitial Libraries Initiative”
• “Digitize ...
Graceful Exit or Becoming a Truly
     Virtual Destination
   •     Increase digitized resources
   •     Increase born-di...
Conclusions I
   • Move resources and services to the
     network and restructure
   • Strive to play an important role i...
Conclusions II
• Libraries and museums
  should strive to be truly
  virtual destinations in the
  web information space
•...
“What we find changes who we become”




                                                                                 ...
Full-text of the paper available

http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar/tonta-sofia-paper-2006-final.pdf




     ...
Libraries and Museums in the Flat World:
             Are They Becoming Virtual Destinations?



                         ...
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Libraries and Museums in the Flat World: Are They Becoming Virtual Destinations?

  1. 1. Libraries and Museums in the Flat World: Are They Becoming Virtual Destinations? Yaşar Tonta Department of Information Management Hacettepe University tonta@hacettepe.edu.tr yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/tonta.html -1 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  2. 2. Outline • “The World is Flat” • Libraries in the flat world • Library “as a place” • Inside out library • Libraries as virtual destinations • Museums in the flat world • Challenges for museums • EC Recommendation on the digitization and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation (24 August 2006) • Conclusions -2 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  3. 3. “The World Is Flat”, by Tom Friedman • Impact of networks • Death of distance • Global competition – G 1.0: 1492-1800: Countries globalizing – G 2.0: 1800-2000: Companies globalizing – G 3.0: 2000 ---: Individuals globalizing -3 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  4. 4. World Flatteners • MS Windows (1989) “a universal graphical user interface . . . to look at the world through” • Netscape (1995) a web browser making the world flatter no matter where the page is located • Workflow Software and standards: “Have your application talk to my application” ... • The steroids Digital, mobile, personal and virtual access to information -4 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  5. 5. Flattening the World “…what the flattening of the world means is that we are now connecting all the knowledge centers on the planet together into a single global network, which –if politics and terrorism do not get in the way- could usher in an amazing era of prosperity and innovation.” (p.8) -5 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  6. 6. Yes, but . . . • Yes, we are connecting all the knowledge centers on the planet together, perhaps • But the world is not flat for most libraries and museums • Full contents of knowledge centers have yet to be open access -6 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  7. 7. “World is Flat” at Sofia Univ. Library -7 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  8. 8. “World is Flat” at Rousse Univ. Library -8 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  9. 9. “World is Flat” at Central Library of BAS -9 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  10. 10. OCLC Open WorldCat - 10 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  11. 11. The World is Flat - 11 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  12. 12. Not in Bulgaria? - 12 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  13. 13. Library Catalogs Offer No Help • “We don’t have it but – We can get it from such and such libraries – We can order it online for you from Amazon – You can get more information about this book from Amazon, Google, Yahoo! and so on – You can get reviews of this book from the following addresses – We can provide reviews of this book online from the following journals which we subscribe to – We own the following titles of the same author – . . .” - 13 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  14. 14. Library as a “Place” Metaphor • “Library is the heart of the university” • Hard to identify where exactly the library is on campus nowadays because it is not just the building but the contents and services • Contents and services are inreasingly becoming available outside the library building – E.g., e-journals, e-books, and open access government publications – E.g., reference, electronic document delivery, user training (Kohl, 2006). - 14 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  15. 15. Libraries as Virtual Destinations • First, library catalogs became virtual destinations • Now, libraries themselves are becoming virtual destinations • What exactly do we mean by libraries as virtual destinations? - 15 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  16. 16. “World is Flat” at Univ. of California Printed copies Electronic copies - 16 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  17. 17. “World is Flat” at AUBG Library AUBG Library is NOT a virtual destination - 17 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  18. 18. Google Scholar - 18 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  19. 19. Bulgarian chitalishta (cultural community centers) - 19 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  20. 20. Google Scholar is a virtual destination - 20 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  21. 21. Library Catalogs • Library catalogs represent only a fraction of the information universe • They list bibliographic descriptions of (mainly) books of their own only • Journal articles are not represented in the catalogs at all! • They should function similar to “Amazoogle” (L. Dempsey) - 21 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  22. 22. Amazoogle • The World is Flat in Amazon.com – Detailed info on book, TOC, reviews, customer discussions, concordance, Inside the Book, search features, e-copy of the book, info on authors’ other books, etc. • The World is Flat in Google – reviews of books, Wikipedia articles, free wideo of an interview with the author, price comparisons, etc. - 22 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  23. 23. Inside Out Library lab books Flow and flattening: the library in the user environment, PDAs campus portal Not the user in the library environment. learning management systems exhibitions course material text book personal collections reading lists library user environments resource environment Virtual reference Institutional repository Aggregations Flattening and flow: Digital collections Licensed Flexible assemblyE-reserve of services from multiple sources. Catalog collections Cataloging - 23 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria. ILL Source: Dempsey, LIBER Conference, 2005
  24. 24. Library catalog: “A mediocre product at a high price” (Lloyd Sokvitne) • “Our users expect simplicity and immediate reward and Amazon, Google, and iTunes are the standards against which we [libraries] are judged. Our current systems pale beside them” (University of California, 2005, p. 7). Beyond the OPAC: Future Directions for Web-Based Catalogues Canberra: AustralianCommitteeon Cataloging, 18 September 2006.(http://www.nla.gov.au/lis/stndrds/grps/acoc/papers2006.html) - 24 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  25. 25. Unstoppable Fall of Library as a “Place” • Number of users physically visiting libraries decreasing • Yet the use of online reources increasing • Most users tend to bypass libraries and go for “one stop shopping” • Users still stop by because there are still some sources that are not on the web that can be obtained only through libraries • But this will soon change . . . - 25 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  26. 26. Challenges for Libraries • Open Access • Digitization projects • Google Scholar – More than 100 libraries open their library catalogs and/or collections to Google Scholar • Failure to move resources and services to the network means losing existing users forever! • Users are likely to supplant the library with something else that is available on the web - 26 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  27. 27. Museums in the Flat World • Challenges facing museums – storage areas, fragile objects, geographically disperse museum buildings, travel costs, natural hazards, etc. • “Museums as virtual destinations” • “Inside out museums” • “Virtual museums” • Examples . . . - 27 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  28. 28. Virtual Museum of Canada - 28 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  29. 29. Online Archive of California - 29 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  30. 30. Digital Archive Network for Anthropology and World Heritage - 30 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  31. 31. The Digital Michelangelo Project - 31 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  32. 32. The Digital Michelangelo Project - 32 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  33. 33. Challenges for Museums • Unique museum objects including 3D ones – E.g., pictures, sculptures, installations • Digitization of 3D objects – Digitized 3D David of Michelangelo takes 500GB storage space with special software to view (Hemminger, Bolas, & Schiff, 2005). • One-off exhibitions • Archeological sites, buildings, crafts and customs preserved as part of cultural heritage • Preserving “born digital” cultural heritage objects – E.g., SimCity, virtual Web communities, intelligent objects - 33 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  34. 34. The Old Mostar Bridge (Stari Most) - 34 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  35. 35. Preservation of Cultural Heritage in the Flat World • As a society we are “becoming increasingly dependent on digital artifacts to represent our cultural and artistic heritage” • “Digital information lasts forever - or five years, whichever comes first''. (Rothenberg, 1995). - 35 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  36. 36. European Commission Recommendation 1) Digitization of content – by setting up large scale digitization facilities; 2) Online accessibility – by promoting the development of the European Digital Library as the multilingual access point to Europe’s cultural heritage; and 3) Digital preservation – by establishing national strategies and plans for the long-term preservation of and access to digital material. –http://europa.eu.int/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/doc/recommendation/recommendation/en.pdf. - 36 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  37. 37. “Europe's Cultural and Scientific Heritage at a Click of a Mouse” • “i2010: Digitial Libraries Initiative” • “Digitize once, distribute widely” • Future for the Past – DIGICULT, CALIMERA, COINE, ERPANET, NEDLIB • Future for the Present • Preserving the Internet (B. Kahle) - 37 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  38. 38. Graceful Exit or Becoming a Truly Virtual Destination • Increase digitized resources • Increase born-digital resources • Enrich the catalog with services and data • Federate discovery and delivery of books, journals, and journal articles • Link the user to full text whenever possible • For items that cannot be delivered instantly, offer a range of unmediated, quick delivery options • Push metadata and links out to course Web pages and portals • Take advantage of e-commerce functions to serve non-members of the library community Source: K. Calhoun, The Changing Nature of the Catalog and its Integration with Other Discovery Tools. 2006, p. 19 - 38 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  39. 39. Conclusions I • Move resources and services to the network and restructure • Strive to play an important role in users’ increasingly networked work, learning, and living environments • Tackle the long-term preservation of digital information needs (the “sine qua non” of the survival of libraries and museums in the flat world) - 39 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  40. 40. Conclusions II • Libraries and museums should strive to be truly virtual destinations in the web information space • They should aim to provide online access to all types of information sources • Otherwise, they are in danger of being bypassed / ignored in the “flat world” • “What we find changes who we become” - 40 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  41. 41. “What we find changes who we become” Cartoon by Doug Sheppard and Katrin L. Salyers - 41 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  42. 42. Full-text of the paper available http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar/tonta-sofia-paper-2006-final.pdf - 42 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  43. 43. Libraries and Museums in the Flat World: Are They Becoming Virtual Destinations? Yaşar Tonta Department of Information Management Hacettepe University tonta@hacettepe.edu.tr yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/tonta.html - 43 Sofia 2006: Globalization, Digitization, Access, and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, 8-10 November 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria.

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