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Content Analysis

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Content analysis lecture

Content analysis lecture

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    • 1. CONTENT ANALYSIS SMST 101 The Moving Image Lecture 8 (part two)
    • 2. CONTENT ANALYSIS??? • Research tool • Determines presence of certain words or concepts within texts or sets of texts. • Quantitative data
    • 3. WHY???
    • 4. • Researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of such words and concepts, then make inferences about the messages within the texts, the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of which these are a part.
    • 5. CONTENT ANALYSIS IS A RESEARCH TECHNIQUE/METHOD • Based on measuring/counting/reporting on the occurrence of selected item/phenomena in a specific or representative sample • CAN employ both qualitative analysis - but tends towards quantitative • Provides numbers and data suitable for computer manipulation
    • 6. • Toconduct a content analysis on any such text, the text is coded, or broken down, into manageable categories on a variety of levels--word, word sense, phrase, sentence, or theme--and then examined using one of content analysis' basic methods: conceptual analysis or relational analysis.
    • 7. Conceptual CONTENT ANALYSIS Relational
    • 8. CONCEPTUAL • Countingindividual occurrences of concepts based on the number of words or images
    • 9. RELATIONAL • Examining the relationships among concepts in a text...
    • 10. HOW DO YOU GO ABOUT ANALYSING CONTENT? Range and Counting Formulate size of and Interpreting a problem sample Coding
    • 11. Formulate a problem •A hypothesis • Something you wish prove • Something you wish to find out
    • 12. People represented as drink drivers in LTSA advertisements What question would you be asking?
    • 13. Range and size of sample • What material are you going to analyse? • Time-frame/genre/number of texts • Practicality of researching sample size + & -
    • 14. What would you sample?
    • 15. AGE SEX Counting 70+ M 50-70 F and 30-50 Coding 20-30 -20 • What are you looking for? What are you going to count? • Identify the elements you are looking for ie. particular words or images the text... how will you identify each element when it • Coding occurs, what categories or groupings will you use?
    • 16. Interpreting • What conclusions can be drawn from the information?
    • 17. • Who might commission this sort of research? • How might the commissioning body of your research influence what you look for? • How might material approaching the topic from a different angle skew your results? • What is the value in this kind of research?
    • 18. POSITIVE ELEMENTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS • Inexpensive and Unobtrusive • Candeal with large amounts of material (historical and contemporary) • Can deal with material • Clearparamaters and specifications (you know what you are looking for) • Can allow inferences to be made • Basis for comparisons ie. across time, across different media
    • 19. NEGATIVE ELEMENTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS • Time-consuming • Assumes all things can be measured • Seldom accounts for motivation, emotional dimensions, contradictions or ambiguity • Is beginning of research endeavours - not the end • Requires tests of reliability eg. cross-coding • Can be very tedious!
    • 20. claim that [content analysis] provides • ‘... the completely value-free insights to the study of content is highly questionable, • Content analysis is an extremely directive method: it give answers to the questions you pose... the method is not well suited to studying ‘deep’ questions about textual and discursive forms • Deacon, Pickering, Golding and Murdock (1999)
    • 21. DISCOURSE V CONTENT ‘Discourse analysis involves the close • interpretation of (mainly) language; content analysis involves the counting and measuring of items, including words and images.’