SOS Chemistry Tables
Flame Tests for Metal Cations
Cation Flame Colour
Magnesium ion Blinding White
Barium ion Apple Green...
Silver Nitrate Test for Halide Anions
*You first add a few drops of dilute Nitric acid (HNO3) to clear impurities and then...
Test for gases
Hydrogen: You hold a lighted splint in the mouth of the test tube and if hydrogen gas is
present it will ex...
Solubility
Soluble Insoluble
All nitrates None
Most sulfates Lead sulfate, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate
Most chlorid...
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Sos chemistry tables

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Sos chemistry tables

  1. 1. SOS Chemistry Tables Flame Tests for Metal Cations Cation Flame Colour Magnesium ion Blinding White Barium ion Apple Green Copper ion Green Blue Calcium ion Brick Red Sodium ion Yellow Orange Potassium ion Lilac Sodium Hydroxide Test for Metal Cations MetalIon Precipitate Aluminium Al3+ White * Calcium Ca2+ White * Magnesium Mg2+ White * Copper Cu2+ Blue Iron Fe2+ Green Iron Fe3+ Brown (rust) *If you get a white precipitate, add more sodium hydroxide solution and the aluminium precipitate will dissolve. If the white precipitate does not dissolve then the metal ion is calcium or magnesium. These can be distinguished using a flame test (magnesium ions have no flame colour).
  2. 2. Silver Nitrate Test for Halide Anions *You first add a few drops of dilute Nitric acid (HNO3) to clear impurities and then a few drops of Silver Nitrate solution (AgNO3) to create a precipitate to identify the ion. Halide Anion Colour of Precipitate Bromide Cream Chlorine White Iodide Yellow Test for aqueous Sulfate ions (SO4 - [aq]) To identify Sulfate ions we first add drops of hydrochloric acid to the sample and then add a few drops of Barium Chloride. If Sulfate ions are present in the solution then a white precipitate of insoluble Barium Sulfate will form. - Ba2 + (aq)+SO4 2- (aq) → BaSO4 (s) Test for Carbonate ions (CO3 2- ) When hydrochloric acid or nitric acid is added to any carbonate containing compound, either solid or in solution, Carbon Dioxide is given off, which if bubbled through limewater it turns limewater milky. - CO3 2- (aq)+2H+ (aq) → CO2(g) +H2O(l) Test for Ammonium ions (NH4 + ) To test for ammonium ions, you first add to the sample few drops of the reagent sodium hydroxide solution, then you warm the sample, and if Ammonium ions are present, a distinctive pungent smell is given off while damp red litmus paper turns blue. - NH4 + (aq) + OH- → NH3 + H2O Hydroxide ions (from the sodium hydroxide added)
  3. 3. Test for gases Hydrogen: You hold a lighted splint in the mouth of the test tube and if hydrogen gas is present it will explode with a ‘squeaky’ pop. Oxygen: You hold a glowing splint in the mouth of the test tube and if oxygen gas is present the splint will relight. Carbon Dioxide:When bubbled through limewater, limewater turns milky. Chlorine: It is very toxic. It turns damp blue litmus paper red and later white as it is bleached. Test for starch Add Iodine reagent to a solution or directly on a potato or other materials such as bread, crackers, or flour. A blue-black color results if starch is present. Halogens Halogen State at room temperature (°C) Characteristics M.P. Reactivity Fluorine Gas Pale Yellow Increases as you move down the Group Decreases as you move down the Group Chlorine Gas Yellow-Green Bromine Liquid Liquid: Red-Brown Iodine Solid Solid: Grey; Gas: (Sublimation) Violet Astatine Radioactive
  4. 4. Solubility Soluble Insoluble All nitrates None Most sulfates Lead sulfate, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate Most chlorides, bromides and iodides Silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide, lead chloride, lead bromide, lead iodide Sodium-, Potassium-, Ammonium- Carbonates Most other carbonates Sodium-, Potassium-, Ammonium- Hydroxide Most other hydroxides

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